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Laura Escobari, Pedro Querejazu, Christopher Hartop, Liliana Herrera and Ruth Corcuera

South American country. It shares borders with Brazil to the north and east, with Paraguay and Argentina to the south, and with Chile and Peru to the west (see fig.). The Spanish arrived in Bolivia in 1534. During colonization, as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, the territory of Bolivia was called Charcas or Upper Peru. The name derives from the Charcas Indians who lived to the north of Potosí, where the Spanish established the main political and administrative body of the region, the Audencia de Charcas. The region remained under the control of Lima until 1776, when it became the most northerly region of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. The Republic of Bolivia (founded 6 August 1825) was named after the Venezuelan revolutionary Simón Bolívar. It is divided into nine departments, which are further divided into provinces and cantons. Each department has a canton, usually the largest city. Sucre is the legal capital, and La Paz is the administrative capital....


Jerald P. Stowell





Paul Tvrtković, Predrag Finci and Marian Wenzel

and Herzegovina

Country in the Balkan Peninsula, south-eastern Europe, formerly a republic in Yugoslavia. It borders Serbia, Croatia and Montenegro and covers 51,564 sq. km (see fig.). Bosnia occupies the northern portion of the republic, Herzegovina the southern; they were united in the early Middle Ages. The capital is Sarajevo. The population was c. 4.5 million in 1991, comprising Muslims, Serbs (mainly Orthodox Christian) and Croats (mainly Roman Catholic) as well as numerous minorities. Considerable areas are covered by forest and woodland, with only c. 8% of the region being less than 150 m above sea-level. Climatically the country is divided into a southern, Mediterranean zone and a northern, continental one.

Occupied from Palaeolithic times, the area was sporadically penetrated from ad 375 by the South Slavs and, according to Constantine VII (reg ad 912–59), was settled by the Croats in ad 626. It was ruled by the indigenous Bans (suzerains of the Hungarian/Croatian kings) from the 12th century. Bosnia became an independent kingdom in the 14th century but was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in ...


S. R. P. Williams

[formerly Bechuanaland Protectorate]

Country in southern Africa bordered by Namibia to the west, Zimbabwe to the east and South Africa to the east and south. The capital is Gaborone. Part of the Kalahari Desert occupies two-thirds of the country. The Tswana peoples, who entered the area in the late 18th century and subjugated the indigenous San (Bushmen), make up 95% of the population. During the 19th century foreign influences included invasions by Zulus and Boers and contact with British Christian missionaries. The majority of the population (estimated at 1,300,000 in 1991) continues a pastoral way of life. The principal languages are Setswana and English. This entry covers the art produced in Botswana since colonial times. For art of the region in earlier periods, see Africa §VII 8.; see also San.

Botswana’s richest cultural heritage is San rock art, last produced in the first half of the 19th century at Tsodilo Hills (...


Roberto Pontual, Cécile Fromont, Cláudia Costa Cabral, Cláudia Costa Cabral, Maria Cecilia Loschiavo dos Santos, Christopher Hartop, Glauco Adorno, Claudia Mattos Avolese and Liliana Herrera

South American country. It is in the center of the eastern side of the continent, bounded by all other South American countries except Chile and Ecuador. Geographic regions of Brazil include the equatorial north, containing the Amazon basin, extensive and scantily populated; the northeast, with a semi-arid interior reaching to the coast and a relatively dense but poor population; the southeast, populous and highly developed, with the main cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; the southern plateaux, occupied mainly by landowners of European origin; and the central plateaux, the western part of which contains the swampy depression of the Mato Grosso irrigated by the basin of the River Paraguay. The vegetation is essentially tropical, with rainforests in the north, pine forests in the south, caatinga (brushwood) in the arid northeast interior, and savanna grasslands in the center and south. Although its area of c. 8,512,000 sq. km takes up almost half the continent (...


Sadako Ohki




Mariana Katzarova, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Tania Velmans, Juliana Nedeva-Wegener, Maria Vassileva, Tatyana Yankova and Dotchka Kisijova

Country in the Balkan peninsula, in south-eastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania, Turkey, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia. Its capital is Sofia. Its capital is Sofia. The territory of Bulgaria covers c. 111,720 sq. km and extends from the shores of the Black Sea in the east to the River Struma in the west. Its northern frontier is formed by the River Danube and the southern frontier by the southern slopes of the Rodopi Mountains (see fig.). Other geographic regions include a plain stretching east–west to the south of the Danube, succeeded further south by the Stara Planina (‘the Old Mountain’); the latter is separated from the Rodopi Mountains to the south by another fertile plain. This is watered by the River Maritsa and its tributary the River Tundzha, which empty into the Aegean. Bulgaria lies at the core of what was a much larger area inhabited by the ...


Christopher D. Roy

[République Démocratique Populaire de Burkina Faso; formerly Upper Volta, Haute-Volta]

Country of c. 274,200 sq. km in West Africa, bordered by Mali to the west and north, Niger to the east and Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo and Benin to the south. The capital is Ouagadougou. Conquered by the French in 1896, it remained under their control until 1960, when it became independent. Until 1984 it was called Haute-Volta or Upper Volta. Its population (c. 8,509,000; UN estimate, 1988) is made up of c. 30 distinct ethnic groups. Although the official language is French, large numbers of people use Moore, the language of the Mossi people (the most numerous group in the country); Jula, the language of traders from the north-west; or Fulfulde, the language of the Fulani herders, as common languages. The peoples of Burkina Faso can be divided into two major language groups: the peoples in the centre and east, including the Bwa, Gurunsi and Mossi, speak ...


Pierre Haffner

[République de Burundi]

Small, densely populated and mountainous country in eastern Africa, formerly part of Ruanda-Urundi. Burundi is bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and Zaïre to the west; Lake Tanganyika defines its south-eastern border. The capital is Bujumbura (formerly Usumbura); its national languages are Kirundi and French, while Swahili is also spoken. A poor infrastructure and a long history of civil turbulence have made Burundi one of Africa’s poorest nations. The population (5,302,000; UN estimate, 1989) is made up of Hutu (85%), Tutsi (14%) and Twa (1%). The peoples of Burundi have lived together according to a model of social organization established by the Tutsi monarchy at the end of the 18th century, which lasted until its abolition in 1966. The resulting strong cultural unity and geographical protection enabled Burundi to resist not only the raids of Arab slave traders but also German occupation (following the Treaty of Kiganda in ...


Philip Stott, G. E. Marrison, Judith Patt, Wibke Lobo, Guy Nafilyan, J. Dumarçay, Madeleine Giteau, Michel Jacq-Hergoualc’h, Patricia Naenna, Michael Hitchcock, Miranda Bruce-Mitford, Robin Ruizendaal, Dawn F. Rooney, Robert S. Wicks, Hak Srea Kuoch and Sian E. Jay


Country in South-east Asia, bordering Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, with a seacoast on the Gulf of Thailand (see fig.). Cambodia was the heartland of the Khmer empire of Angkor, which flourished between the 9th and the 15th centuries ad.

Philip Stott

The geography of Cambodia is dominated by the Mekong River and its tributaries. Three-quarters of the country consists of a rich alluvial plain, the largest in South-east Asia. The lowlands are hemmed in by high mountains, once densely forested, which border Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. In the centre of the plain lies the Tonle Sap (Great Lake), which in the dry season is 208 km long and has an average depth of only 2.2 m, but during the wet season of the south-west monsoon (May to early October) can quadruple in size. When this occurs, the flow of the Tonle Sap River, which joins the Mekong at Phnom Penh, is reversed and much of the Mekong floodwater is diverted into the lake. The ensuing flood provides water for rice production and an abundant harvest of fish. Situated to the north of the lake are the remains of the successive capital cities of the empire of Angkor, for which floodwater-retreat agriculture was the economic base. ...


Gloria J. Umlauft-Thielicke

[Cameroun, République du]

Country in west-central Africa, stretching from the Gulf of Guinea in the south-west to Lake Chad in the north. To the west, Cameroon borders on Nigeria, to the east on Chad and the Central African Republic and to the south on the Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The capital is Yaoundé. French and English are both official languages.

Cameroon’s geography comprises the full range of climatic and scenic variations found in Africa: virgin forest in the south, grasslands in the west, scrubby savannah with the Massif de l’Adamaoua in the north, and savannah with the Mandara Mountains in the far north. The population of Cameroon (11,540,000; UN estimate, 1989) is made up of a number of peoples who traditionally followed their own religions, each speaking their own language. Through the Arabs, the north came under Islamic influence at a very early stage, while the south was later converted to Christianity by European missionaries. From ...


Leslie Maitland, Jacqueline Hucker, Ann Davis, François-Marc Gagnon, Diana Nemiroff, Martha Langford, Christine Boyanoski, Olga M. Williams, John A. Fleming, Elizabeth Collard, Gloria Hickey, Ross Fox, Jocelyne Mathieu, Sandra Paikowsky, J. Lynne Teather, Jim Burant and Mary F. Williamson

Country in North America, bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Pacific and to the east by the Atlantic; the only land borders it shares are with the USA, on the south and between the Yukon and Alaska in the north-west (see fig.). Canada is comprised of ten provinces and two territories, and although it occupies almost 10,000,000 sq. km, the vast majority of the population (c. 25,000,000) live within 160 km of the Canada–US border. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a member of the Commonwealth. The Prime Minister is political head of state, while the reigning member of the British royal family serves as titular head of state, represented by the Governor-General.

This article is a survey of Canadian art since the beginning of European colonization in the early 17th century. For its earlier history and information on the continuing traditions of its native peoples ...



Ancient country in south-west Asia Minor (now Turkey), south of the Maeander (Menderes) River and west of modern Fethiye (excepting the coastal cities of Ionia). The Carians claimed to be an indigenous people of mainland Asia Minor, though in Greek tradition they were originally islanders. Until the 4th century bc they lived mainly in mountain villages organized into local federations and grouped around sanctuaries such as that of Carian Zeus at Mylasa (Milas). The Carian language is imperfectly understood, owing to a paucity of surviving inscriptions. The script is alphabetic, and some forms are the same as Greek letters, but surviving fragments are virtually unintelligible, and it is not even certain that the language is Indo-European.

Minoan, Mycenaean and Greek colonization of the region touched only the coasts, leaving the interior Carian until the arrival of the Romans. At Muskebi, near Halikarnassos (Bodrum), there is evidence of Mycenaean settlement, possibly refugees from the upheavals of the Greek mainland at the end of the Bronze Age; Minoan imports found at ...



Daniel J. Crowley

[République Centrafricaine; formerly Ubangi Shari]

Country in central Africa, bordered by Chad and Sudan to the north, by Zaïre and the Congo to the south and by Cameroon to the west. The total area of the country is 622,894 sq. km and the total population 2,841,000 (UN estimate, 1989). The capital is Bangui. As the French colony of Ubangi Shari, the Central African Republic was part of French Equatorial Africa from 1903 to 1958. It gained full independence in 1960. From 1976 to 1979 the country was a self-declared ‘Empire’ under President Jean-Bedel Bokassa. The country is almost totally featureless semi-desert. The population are mainly descended from 19th-century immigrants who were escaping the turmoil caused by European and Arab slavers in the surrounding countries.

The Central African Republic’s best-known artist was the self-taught painter Clément-Marie Biazin (1924–81). Biazin left home at the age of 22, returning to Bangui only after 20 years of travelling throughout Central, West and East Africa. In the 15 years in which he was active as a painter Biazin completed between 500 and 600 works. Jean Kennedy describes his paintings as ‘spirited mandala-like panels framed by decorative linear patterns that give them the look of embroidery’ (Kennedy, p. 153). Biazin was the subject of a documentary by the French film maker ...


[République du Chad]

Country in north-central Africa, bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, Cameroon and Central African Republic to the south and Niger and Nigeria to the west. Chad became independent in 1960. The capital is N’Djamena (formerly Fort Lamy). Chad has a sparse population of 5,538,000 (UN estimate, 1989) in its area of c. 1,284,000 sq. km. French and Arabic are the official languages, but more than 100 other languages and dialects are spoken by the diverse population. Islam is dominant in the north and east and in most major towns, while in the south there are also some Christian communities as well as those following traditional African religions. The climate ranges from full desert in the north to savannah in the south. The majority of the population pursues nomadic herding or subsistence agriculture. The area of Chad was occupied by a number of peoples and civilizations before coming under French control in ...


Jorge Ortiz Avila, Armando de Ramon, Ramón Alfonso Méndez Brignardello, Milan Ivelić, Christopher Hartop, Cheryl Jiménez Frei, Isabel Baixas Figueras and Lissette Balmaceda

South American country. It is in the south-west of the continent, bordered to the north by Peru, to the north-east by Bolivia and to the east by Argentina. The country occupies a narrow strip of land running for 4200 km from north to south, with an area of 756,947 sq. km (see fig.). Further territory includes Easter Island, the Juan Fernandez Islands, various other Pacific islands and an area of the Pacific known as the Mar Chileno. The country is physically distinguished by the Andes Mountains and by coastal mountain ranges, a central valley and coastal plains. The climate is predominantly temperate, except in the extreme south, which is cold, and the extreme north, which has a hot desert climate. The population of 12 million is mostly mestizo (of mixed race), although in the late 20th century c. 5% were Native Americans, principally Mapuche from the southern region of Arauco; it is also mostly urban, based predominantly in and around ...


Jessica Rawson, Zhou Lijun, William R. Sargent, Henrik H. Sørensen, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, Jerome Silbergeld, Peter Hardie, Haiyao Zheng, Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Puay-Peng Ho, Bent L. Pedersen, Tan Tanaka, Petra Klose, Frances Wood, Robert L. Thorp, Ann Paludan, Peter Wiedehage, Carol Michaelson, Stephen B. Little, Stephen J. Goldberg, Friedrich Zettl, James Cahill, Caroline Gyss-Vermande, Roderick Whitfield, Michael Sullivan, Susan H. Bush, James Robinson, Maggie Bickford, Robert E. Harrist jr, Richard Vinograd, Ellen Uitzinger, Ann Barrott Wicks, Colin Mackenzie, Robert W. Bagley, Li Xueqin, Jenny F. So, Nigel Wood, Margaret Medley, S. J. Vainker, Mary Tregear, Regina Krahl, Yutaka Mino, Laurence Chi-Sing Tam, Rose Kerr, Guy Raindre, Nicholas Pearce, John Guy, C. J. A. Jörg, Barry Till, Paula Swart, Rosemary Scott, Rosemary Ransome Wallis, Sarah Handler, John E. Vollmer, Albert E. Dien, Sören Edgren, Yang Boda, Joe Cribb, Verity Wilson, Jane Portal, Zhong Hong, Donald B. Wagner, Ho Chuimei, Bent Nielsen, B. V. Gyllensvärd, J. A. Marsh, Cordell D. K. Yee, F. Richard Stephenson, Keith Pratt, Henryk Jurkowski, Jan Chapman, Uta Lauer, Sarah Waldram, Richard Rutt, Mayching Kao, Chu-Tsing Li, Michel Beurdeley, Jessica Harrison-Hall, Basil Gray and Wang Tao

[Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo]

Located in eastern Asia, the third largest country in the world in area (9,562,904 sq. km) and the most populous (approx. 1.35 billion people, almost one fifth of the world’s population).

China’s highly developed material culture stretches back as early as the 7th millennium bc, when Neolithic (c. 6500–1600 bc) potters created forms and decorative schemes that would recur throughout the long continuity of Chinese art. The succeeding Bronze Age art of the Shang (c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) and Zhou (c. 1050–256 bc) periods, mostly in the form of cast bronze vessels and carved jades, developed those early decorative schemes into ritual items and potent motifs and carried the craft of bronze-casting, in particular, to the highest levels of technical sophistication. Even in these early periods, calligraphy, in the form of inscriptions on bronze ritual vessels and on oracle bones, played an integral part in Chinese ritual and art. Calligraphers and painters came into their own with the introduction of brush and ink, using composition, line and brushwork to express the emotions of the human spirit, as well as to record narratives of history and religion. Along with the art of poetry, painting and calligraphy were to become the most highly valued of the arts of China....