City in Uttar Pradesh, India, 135 km south-east of Delhi. A Rajput stronghold, Koil fell to Muslim invaders in
City in Uttar Pradesh, India, 135 km south-east of Delhi. A Rajput stronghold, Koil fell to Muslim invaders in
City of religious, strategic and administrative importance in Uttar Pradesh, India. Located at the confluence of the sacred rivers Ganga, Yamuna and mystical Saraswati, Allahabad has drawn Hindu pilgrims for centuries. The earliest monument is a stone pillar, inscribed with edicts of Ashoka (reg
c. 269–c. 232
Mughal residences and gardens straggled along the Yamuna from the fort to the city. Prince Salim, the future emperor ...
[formerly Alma-Ata; Verny]
Former capital of Kazakhstan. Situated at the foot of the northern Zailiyskoye Alatau mountain range, the modern settlement was established in 1854 as a Russian fortification, initially called Zailiyskoye but soon renamed Verny, on the site of medieval Almata. Archaeological finds in the locality bear witness to the assimilation of various cultures in this region from the middle of the 1st millennium
Italian city in the province of Salerno, Campania. One of the principal mercantile cities of the medieval period, it was ruled by an oligarchy of merchants who were active throughout the entire Mediterranean. The city, which was founded in late antiquity, still has traces of its Roman past. Documentary sources record that the city was founded by Roman patricians after a shipwreck (Chronicon Salernitanum, 10th century). Amalfi has been documented as a bishopric since 596, and it was elevated to an archbishopric in 978. The oligarchy that controlled the city first rose to power in the 9th century and was in control until the arrival of the Normans, when Amalfi was sacked twice by the Pisans (1135 and 1137). In 1208 Amalfi received the body of the apostle St Andrew, which was brought from Constantinople due to the efforts of the papal nuncio there, Cardinal Pietro Capuano....
City in upper Burma on the Irrawaddy River, 11 km south of Mandalay. It was the capital of the Burmese kings of the Konbaung dynasty from 1782, the year of its foundation, to 1823 and again from 1837 to 1860. It was built on a strictly square plan, surrounded by a wall and a moat. Each side of the wall measured 1.6 km and had three gates leading into the main streets that divided the city into equal square blocks, with a great wooden palace at its centre. The palace was dismantled in 1857, and its materials reused to build the new royal capital, Mandalay.
The major monuments of Amarapura are located outside this central square. They include the Naga-yon Temple with its superstructure in the form of a gigantic guardian serpent; the large Kyauk-taw-gyi Temple built in 1847 on the model of the Ananda at Pagan, and famous for its mural paintings depicting scenes of daily life; the tall Pahto-daw-gyi Stupa (...
Ancient Egyptian art style that takes its name from Amarna, (Tell) el-, the site of the capital city during the reigns of Akhenaten (reg
c. 1353–c. 1336
Turkish town in northern Anatolia. Situated in a ravine on both banks of the Yeşilırmak (Iris) River, it served as capital of the kingdom of Pontus during Hellenistic times, and the rock-cut tombs of the Pontic kings are set below the citadel. An important Roman metropolis and a Byzantine bishopric and army base, it fell to the Saljuq family dynasty of Anatolia in 1075. Notable buildings from the medieval period include the Burmalı Minare (‘spiral minaret’) Mosque (1237–46; derelict); the Gök Madrasa (1266–7) and adjacent tomb (1278), built by the governor Sayf al-Din Turumtay; a hospital (1309); and several other tombs. In the early 14th century the city passed to the Uighur chief Eretna. In 1386 it was conquered by the Ottomans, for whom it served until the end of the 17th century as a princely residence and provincial centre, known for its educational institutions. Buildings from the early Ottoman period include the Sufi convent (Turk. ...
City in north-west Rajasthan, India, founded by Mina tribesmen in the early 10th century
Further additions were made to the palace in the 17th and 18th centuries. Two sets of courtyards and structures, showing rich cross-fertilization between the Mughal and Rajput styles, were added along the northern axis by ...
Town in the Netherlands, situated c. 20 km north-east of Utrecht on the edge of the valley of the River Gelder, where several watercourses join to form the River Eem. Its early history was dominated by that of Utrecht. Amersfoort is known primarily for the survival of its medieval centre, which includes the original street plan, many churches and houses, and parts of the outer ring of fortifications with two watergates.
The early history of Amersfoort is poorly documented, but excavations have provided information about the first canals and parcels of land. The town name first occurs in 1028, when it was a small agricultural settlement on a ford over the Eem. Its growth was closely related to the reclamation of the Gelder valley, and it is mentioned again in the 12th century, when the town had become the seat of an episcopal governor, who may have organized the new development. Early in the 13th century there was an episcopal court with a chapel, which was later enlarged to become the St Joriskerk, the principal church of the town. In ...
French city and capital of Picardy in Somme, northern France. It was founded on the River Somme on the site of the Roman city of Samarobriva. Reduced to a fortified castellum after the invasions of the 3rd-century
[Arab. ‛Amman; anc. Rabbath Ammon, later Philadelphia]
Capital of the kingdom of Jordan and site of a city that flourished between the 2nd millennium
The ancient city consisted of the citadel, or acropolis, built in three terraces rising from west to east on a steep-sided, L-shaped hill, and the lower town in the valley of the Wadi ‛Amman to the south. The earliest material found on the citadel dates to the 3rd millennium
Sikh holy city in Punjab, northern India. Lying on a flat stretch of agricultural land between the rivers Beas and Ravi, close to the Pakistan border, Amritsar (Skt amrit sarowar, ‘pool of nectar’) is the location of the Harmandir, the holiest of Sikh shrines at the heart of the Darbar Sahib temple complex, also referred to as the Golden Temple (see also Indian subcontinent §II 8., (ii) and §III, 7(ii)(a), fig.). It was the third Sikh guru, Amar Das (1552–74), who was first drawn to the area by the peace and tranquillity of its forested terrain and the pool where the Harmandir was later built. His successor, Guru Ram Das (1574–81), bought the pool and the surrounding land. Some historians believe that the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) offered the land as a gift, but that Ram Das declined in keeping with the Sikh tradition of self-reliance (...
Capital city of the Netherlands. It has the largest population for a Dutch town but not the largest area (20,150 ha). The city is located in the province of North Holland on either side of the estuary of the River IJ. The oldest and largest part of the city lies south of the IJ, either side of the River Amstel. An industrial town and port, university and pilgrimage town, Amsterdam is also the country’s most important financial and artistic centre, with important museums, galleries, theatres, art dealers, and art sales. There are also major educational institutions for professional training in music, the visual arts, applied arts, photography, film, architecture, and the theatre.
Although the city was traditionally thought to have been founded in 1275, research has revealed that it must have existed much earlier. At the end of the 12th century, the River Amstel was probably dammed, and thus closed off from the IJ, where the present square called the Dam is (hence the city’s original name, Amestelledamme). The most important period in Amsterdam’s history is the 17th century, also called the ‘Golden Age’, when the city became the most important ...
Town in Lazio, Italy, situated on a tufaceous outcrop overlooking the Sacco valley and the road from Rome to Naples. It was the sacred city of the Ernici, who founded it in the 8th century
Anagni was first mentioned as the seat of a bishopric in the 5th century
Italian city on the Adriatic coast. It stands on a promontory that comprises the easternmost spur of Mt Conero, in a natural amphitheatre that forms the only major harbour between Venice and Bari. The principal city of the Marches, it has a population of c. 110,000. According to legend, Ancona was founded as a Greek colony by Dionysus of Syracuse c. 390
Town in Elis, Greece, 55 km south-west of Patras. As Andreville it was the unfortified capital of the Frankish principality of the Morea from the 13th to the 15th century. Andravida, the strongly fortified port of Clarence (modern Killini), and Chlemoutsi Castle formed a triangle at the north-western tip of the Peloponnese designed to control the hinterland and the sea lanes. The only physical evidence of the Franks at Andravida are the remains of the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Hagia Sophia, in which Prince Geoffrey Villehardouin I and his barons met to determine policy and justice.
The cathedral is the only surviving example of a rib-vaulted Gothic church in Greece. The extant remains consist of three square-ended eastern chapels and the foundations of a nave of at least ten bays. There was no transept. The building was of sandstone, with re-used ancient granite columns in the nave. The first building campaign started during the reign of Prince Geoffrey Villehardouin I (...
French city, prefecture of the Maine-et-Loire département, situated on the River Maine. By the late 20th century it was a city of c. 141,000 inhabitants, with growing suburbs and a number of industries, including slate-quarrying, which began there in the 9th century.
Located along the boundaries of the Armorican Massif and the Paris basin, Angers took shape on a rocky promontory east of the river dominating the small valley of the Maine. It was only after the Gallic Wars (58–51
City in Charente, western France. The name is derived from the Celtic Iculisma. The town was founded on a long limestone spur rising c. 75 m above the valleys of the rivers Charente and Enguienne. The Romans settled here, but the layout and function of the early Imperial city remain uncertain. At the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century
In the early Middle Ages the city, seat of a bishopric and centre of a small comté, was sheltered within its ramparts in a fairly constricted space on the top of the spur (‘le plateau’). The cathedral complex, comprising the cathedral (...
[Gr. and Lat. Ancyra; Mod. Gr. Angora]
Capital city of the Turkish Republic since 1923. Ankara lies near the northern edge of the central Anatolian steppe at the confluence of three small rivers, spreading down the slopes of a mountain on which stands the ancient citadel. It has been a centre of trade and administration since antiquity.