38,741-38,760 of 38,772 results

Article

Tom Williams

(b Chicago, IL, 1941).

American painter. He received a BFA (1964) and an MFA (1966) from the Art Institute of Chicago, and he subsequently moved to New York. In 1979, his work was included in the important New Image Painting exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, and it has subsequently been compared with that of other artists of this generation, including Jennifer Bartlett, Neil Jenney and Robert Moskowitz (b 1935). He is particularly known for using cotton balls dipped in acrylic paint to make mosaic-style images that reflected on, among other things, the history of cotton and Byzantine mosaics.

During the early 1970s, Zucker began making images by applying cotton balls in gridded arrangements to the surfaces of his canvases. The resulting compositions presented idiosyncratic elaborations of modernist painting’s medium specificity under the guise of the image’s return. Zucker achieved this effect by substituting cotton balls for the stretched cotton canvas that was so often described as the essence of painting by modernist critics. His work has often featured whimsical subjects such as pirate ships, wizards and blimps, but he has typically subjected them to a process of formal transformation that downplayed their conventional meanings. In a series of compositions from the early 1990s, for example, he stretched sash cord across wooden panels to create eccentric grids that suggested the contours of cactuses in radically abstract form. Subsequently, he made a series of “box paintings” in which he poured liquid paint into the recessed spaces of partitioned wooden panels and allowed it to dry. The resulting compositions evoked the flat, modernist geometry of works by Picasso in the late 1920s or ...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Merseburg, Saxony, Feb 20, 1733; d Warsaw, Aug 11, 1807).

German architect and landscape gardener, active in Poland . He worked in Dresden from 1747 and was appointed Clerk of Works (Kondukteur) in the Saxon Office of Works. He probably travelled to Italy in 1755 and lived in Poland from 1756, where in 1772 he was appointed Court Architect to Frederick-Augustus III, Elector and later King of Saxony (reg 1763–1827). In 1772, for Duke Casimir Poniatowski, he laid out the park at Solec. This was the first of a series of landscape gardens influenced by English models, with picturesque buildings, grottoes and artificial ruins, which he created for the Polish aristocracy. They included Mokotów (1775) for Elżbieta Lubomirska and the important park at Arkadia (from 1780) for Princess Helena Radziwiłł (1749–1821), with such features as an aqueduct, a ‘House of the High Priest’ and a temple to Diana (1783). Zug’s most important work was the Lutheran church (...

Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Eibar, Guipúzcoa, July 26, 1870; d Madrid, Oct 31, 1945).

Spanish Basque painter . He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly coloured images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1911/13; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906; both Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.

Zuloaga began to enjoy considerable international success in ...

Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Vienna, March 15, 1883; d Vienna, Feb 26, 1963).

Austrian designer and painter . He studied design at the Allgemeine Zeichenschule (1901–2) and at the Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (1902–3) in Vienna and was briefly a guest attendant at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. Thereafter he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule until 1906 and in 1908 he joined the Vienna Secession. He was able to take an extended journey through western Europe in 1912 through receiving a travel scholarship from John II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1840–1929). He was in military service from 1915 to 1919 and was also a prisoner of war in Italy. He was a teacher at the Schleiss ceramic workshops in Gmunden between 1920 and 1922. From 1922 onwards he lived alternately in Vienna and Upper Austria and took many trips abroad. In 1949 he began teaching at the Kunstschule in Linz.

Zülow’s art was influenced by the ideals of the Vienna Secession and the Wiener Werkstätte. He was active in many areas of the applied arts and made picture books, calendar pages, graphic cycles and also wall paintings and tapestries (e.g. cartoon for the tapestry ...

Article

Zulu  

Sandra Klopper

Originally a minor northern Nguni group living along the middle reaches of the White Umfolozi River in South Africa. Use of the name Zulu was extended after Shaka Senzangakhona Zulu (c. 1787–1828) conquered other northern Nguni polities, thereby establishing a formidable militarist state in south-east Africa, stretching from the Pongola River in the north of present-day Natal to the Thukela River in the south; from the mid-1840s it shared its southern boundary with the Colony of Natal. To the north Shaka established tributary relations with Tsonga chiefdoms on the eastern seaboard and, to a lesser extent, with the Swazi kingdom further inland. The kingdom was destroyed by British forces in 1879.

Although they became relatively culturally distinct from one another in the late 18th century and early 19th, the Tsonga of southern Mozambique, the Ngwane (later the Swazi ruling lineage) and the northern Nguni chiefdoms of Zululand-Natal shared many ritual practices. While the Zulu have always produced a variety of utilitarian artefacts and elaborate dress for ritual and other occasions, there have been significant changes in the style, function and symbolic value they attribute to their craft objects and clothing. Indeed some artefacts, once highly valued, are no longer produced. Many factors account for these developments, in particular shifting patterns in the control and distribution of imported materials, especially during the 19th century, the expropriation by European settlers of large areas of fertile land, and the consequent disruptive effects of migrant labour on traditional Zulu life. Zulu arts have been quite widely illustrated (see bibliography) and many museums with African collections have examples of Zulu arts....

Article

David Koloane

(b Ixopo, Jan 1, 1960).

South African mixed-media artist. He obtained his BA in Fine Arts from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. In 1995 he was invited to Reunion Island to create a work as part of a project to engage artists from around the Indian Ocean: Seven Artists, Seven Countries. He exhibited in Trade Routes: History and Geography, the Second Johannesburg Biennale, in 1997, and that same year was a member of the Amakhona Art Centre. Zulu is one of the few black artists who have departed from the trodden path of paint and brushes. In place of a brush he uses a blowtorch, and instead of paint, fire and smoke, which he controls on a blank canvas to delineate form and image; for him, beauty is in form, not content. His pieces depict struggle and make reference to history, religion, art and politics. He works in patterns and metaphors, with pyrotechnic effects. The ashes and charred surfaces are references to oppressive social conditions experienced by South African blacks, with fire symbolism, for example, suggesting the scorched earth policies employed by warring factions in different areas of the country. His fire remains under control, however, though society sometimes seems out of control. His environmental installations comprise scorched roots, grasses and bulbs that also suggest healing qualities inherent in nature and tradition....

Article

R. W. Lightbown

( Giulio )

(b Syracuse, 1656; d Paris, Dec 22, 1701).

Italian sculptor, active also in France . He was born of a noble family named Zummo (he changed the spelling to Zumbo in Paris) and educated for the church. Zumbo was a wax sculptor and anatomical modeller and, like many late 16th- and 17th-century amateurs who practised the art of wax modelling, was probably self-taught, although he may have learnt something of the technique in Sicily, where wax imagery was popular. Before 1691 he went to Naples and visited Rome and other cities in Italy. He was an enthusiastic collector of Old Master drawings and engravings. In Naples he may have invented a new method of colouring wax for sculpture ( see Wax §II 1., (i) ), which attracted sufficient notice for him to be summoned to Florence in 1691 by Cosimo de’ Medici III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who paid him a monthly pension. As a sample of his skill he may have brought with him a scene with wax figures, the ...

Article

Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Herzebrock, Westphalia, Nov 23, 1830; d Rimsting, nr Prien am Chiemsee, Sept 27, 1915).

German sculptor . He studied sculpture at the Polytechnische Schule in Munich, under Johann von Halbig (1814–82) whom he accompanied on a study tour to Milan in 1849. After setting up independently in 1852 and successfully fulfilling his first portrait commissions, he went to Rome (1857–8) to study Classical sculpture. He travelled to Italy again in 1867, this time accompanied by his pupil Adolf von Hildebrand. Zumbusch’s early works are tentative in approach. Flora (1859; ex-Städt. Gal., Hannover) reveals the pervasive influence of Ludwig von Schwanthaler and also borrows features from Bertel Thorvaldsen’s Venus (1813–16; Copenhagen, Thorvaldsens Mus.) while anticipating Zumbusch’s later, more distinctive style in its sweeping movement and energetic forms. On the other hand, his religious works from the same period such as the carved altar to SS Benno and Corbinian (1860; Munich, Frauenkirche) assimilated both Nazarene and Romantic styles. The diversity of style of the 19th century is thus mirrored in Zumbusch’s work. In the works commissioned in the 1860s and 1870s by the King of Bavaria, ...

Article

Franz Zelger

(b Lucerne, May 3, 1827; d Lucerne, Jan 15, 1909).

Swiss painter . He trained with Jakob Schwegler (1793–1866) and Joseph Zelger (1812–85), whom he accompanied on a study visit to the Engadine. Zelger encouraged him to go to Geneva in 1848. There he was a pupil first of François Diday and then of Alexandre Calame, who influenced his early work. However, while Calame painted dramatic mountain scenes, Zünd preferred the idyllic, tranquil region of the Alpine foothills. In 1851 he moved to Munich, where he met the Swiss painter Rudolf Koller, who remained a close friend. From 1852 he often stayed in Paris. He studied paintings by 17th-century Dutch and French artists in the Louvre and became acquainted with Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, Louis Français, Louis Cabat, Frank Buchser and Albert Anker.

In 1860 Zünd travelled to Dresden to copy Dutch landscapes in the Gemäldegalerie. In 1863 he settled in the outskirts of Lucerne and looked for subject-matter principally in the landscape around the city. However detailed his scrutiny, he never lost sight of magnitude and breadth, as in ...

Article

Ilse O’Dell-Franke

(b ?1498; d Nuremberg, Feb 25, 1572).

German goldsmith, etcher and draughtsman . He was documented in Nuremberg in 1554, when he applied for citizenship, but was probably there earlier, as his main ornamental work, Novum opus craterographicum (a series of 31 etchings of vessels, attributed to him on stylistic grounds), was printed there in 1551. The ornamental details (such as castings from nature) in these prints suggest a goldsmith’s training. A smaller series of 22 etchings also contains models for brooches, daggers etc. The separate scrollwork title page bears the date 1553 and his full name.

In 1559 Zündt was recorded as an assistant of Wenzel Jamnitzer, who sent him to Prague to work on a table fountain, noting in a letter to Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol (1529–95) that Zündt was industrious but used foul language. Nothing is known of Zündt’s work for Ferdinand, nor of any other goldsmith’s work by him, though in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Xavier Moyssén

(b San José, Dec 27, 1912; d Aug 1998).

Mexican sculptor, printmaker, draughtsman and teacher of Costa Rican birth. He studied sculpture under his father, Manuel María Zúñiga, in San José, Costa Rica, and after his arrival in Mexico City in 1936 at the Escuela de Talla Directa under the direction of Guillermo Ruíz (1895–1964) and Oliverio Martínez. Martínez, together with the painter Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, helped motivate his monumental concept of form. Other lasting influences came from his encounter with Aztec sculpture and from the work of other sculptors, such as Auguste Rodin, Aristide Maillol and even Henry Moore, whose work, like his, was based primarily on the human body. Throughout his career Zúñiga was especially devoted to the female form, naked or clothed.

The monumental character of Zúñiga’s sculpture is evident not only in public commissioned works, such as the stone reliefs of the Allegory of the Earth and Communications (1953–4) at the Secretaría de Comunicaciones in Mexico City, but also in sculptures conceived for more private and intimate settings, for example ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz and Liliana Herrera

(b c. 1615; d Santiago de Guatemala [now Antigua], ?Jan 14, 1687).

Guatemalan sculptor. His work as a master sculptor (Maestro) began around 1640 in Santiago de Guatemala (now Antigua). In 1654 he made the famous Baroque processional statue of Jesús Nazareno for the church of La Merced (in situ), which was finely carved and brought him renown. The tinting and painting of the figure was by Joseph de la Cerda. A statue made for the church of Candelaria, known as Jesús Nazareno de Candelaria (now in the church of the Candelaria, Guatemala City) has also been attributed to him, but on insufficient grounds. In 1660, as the leading sculptor in Guatemala, Zúñiga received important commissions that included retables for the convents of La Concepción and of S Catalina. In 1666 he was responsible for the construction of the catafalque for the funerary honours for Philip IV (d 1665). In the contract he described himself as Maestro of sculpture and architecture. In ...

Article

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[ Chao Tso ; zi Wendu ]

(b ?Songjiang [in modern Shanghai Municipality], c. 1570; d ?Tangxi, West Lake region of Hangzhou, c. 1633).

Chinese painter and theorist . Zhao studied painting under the landscape painter and calligrapher Song Xu and became the founder of the Yunjian school, one of two groups active in the Songjian region, near Shanghai, during the early 17th century (the other, the Huating school, was led by Dong Qichang , the founder and theorist of the Orthodox school of painting). Zhao wrote a short text called Lun hua (‘Discussion of painting’), the first surviving text on landscape painting since the Xie shanshui jue (‘Secrets of describing landscape’), written by Huang Gongwang about three centuries earlier. The essay adheres to Huang’s concerns with dynamic force (shi), natural order (li) and the organization of mountain masses in long, continuous movements within the composition. Zhao Zuo’s text lacks the stern intellectual tone of Dong Qichang’s writing. It offers practical advice for the artist, such as how to sketch houses, trees and bridges in dry brushwork before developing the forms with wet ink, and includes advice on depicting figures, villages and temples, anecdotal elements not often found in Dong’s painting. Indeed, Yunjian school painting in general, and Zhao’s work in particular, is more representational, more relaxed and executed with softer brushstrokes and less dramatic tonal contrast than comparable Huating school works....

Article

Ralph Croizier

[ Wu Tso-jen ]

(b Jiangyin County, Jiangsu Province, Nov 3, 1908; d April 9, 1997).

Chinese painter and arts administrator . Brought up in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, a city known for its strong artistic tradition, he studied oil painting first at the Shanghai Academy of Fine Art (1927) and then under Xu Beihong at the Nanguo [Southern] Academy of Fine Art in Shanghai and the art department of the Central University in Nanjing. From 1930 to 1935 he was in Europe; he studied at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris and at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, also visiting Austria, Germany, England and Italy. During this time he practised both mural and easel painting, acquiring a solid foundation in the rather conservative academic style favoured by Xu Beihong. After his return to China he was invited to teach at the art department of the National Central University, and his oil landscapes were shown at the Second National Exhibition of Fine Arts in Nanjing (...

Article

Claudie Ressort and William B. Jordan

Spanish family of painters.

Claudie Ressort

(bapt Fuente de Cantos, Badajoz, Nov 7, 1598; d Madrid, Aug 27, 1664).

He was one of the greatest masters of the school of Seville and is renowned for his powerful and realistic interpretation of monastic life in 17th-century Spain.

Zurbarán was the son of a trader and at 15 left his native village, south of the Estremadura mountains, for Seville. Here he was apprenticed in the studio of Pedro Díaz de Villanueva, by whom no signed work is known, and became familiar with polychrome sculpture, which affected his style as a painter, in particular in his rendering of drapery. During the years in Seville he must also have been in contact with other gifted painters such as Juan de Roelas, Francisco de Herrera the elder, and above all Diego Velázquez and Alonso Cano, who were then young apprentices in the studio of ...

Article

Zurich  

Martin Albers, Sigmund Widmer and H. Bobbink-de Wilde

[Ger. Zürich ]

Swiss city and cantonal capital in the hills on the River Limmat where it flows out of Lake Zurich. It is the largest town in German-speaking Switzerland, with a population (1992) of 363,000.

Martin Albers

The area has been settled at least intermittently since the late 5th millennium bc. The river crossing was a natural intersection for trade routes, protected by the steep hill on the west bank of the Limmat. By 15 bc at the latest a Roman military camp was established as a stronghold near the frontier on top of the hill on the site of the present Lindenhof. Later there was a customs post for the Province of Gaul, and the Limmat was bridged. The small settlement of Turicum grew up around the bridge, centred on a small harbour, which, although filled in during the Middle Ages, survives as the Weinplatz.

In the 5th to 7th centuries ...

Article

Jeffrey Chipps Smith

German family of sculptors. They were among the most important and productive families of sculptors in southern Germany in the 17th century. Hans Zürn the elder (1555/60–after 1631) had six sons, all of whom became sculptors. No documented work of his has survived, but on the basis of his presumed contribution to the high altar in Überlingen Minster (see §1 below), an attractive Crucifix (Wangen, Kapelle am Isnyer Tor) and a bust of St Jacob (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) have been attributed to him. These wooden figures, with their slender, elongated bodies and gaunt, introspective faces, have a precious yet frail quality when compared with the work of his sons, with whom he frequently collaborated. The most prominent of these, all of whom started their careers in the Bodensee region, was (1) Jörg Zürn of Überlingen, whose masterpiece was the five-storey Mannerist high altar in Überlingen Minster. ...

Article

Jeremy Howard and Sergey Kuznetsov

( Nikolayevna )

(b Nov 30, 1864; d Aug 22, 1921).

Russian art school founder and painter . Her main significance lay in her creation of the most progressive art school in pre-1917 Russia, a forming ground of many of the leading representatives of the Russian avant-garde. Having studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1885–8), and at Il’ya Repin’s and Pavel Chistyakov’s studios in the St Petersburg Academy of Arts (1889–96), she enrolled (1897) at the private studios of Rodolphe Julian and of Filippo Colarossi in Paris. In 1899 she opened her own art school in Moscow, where the artists Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and Nikolay Ul’yanov taught. This she moved to St Petersburg in 1906, where, with the help of her close friend Konstantin Somov, it was established as the Zvantseva School of Drawing and Painting; it was also known as the Bakst and Dobuzhinsky School (1906–10) and as the Dobuzhinsky and Petrov-Vodkin School (...

Article

Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

Ruins of the Armenian patriarch’s palace and cathedral 3 km south-east of Ēdjmiadzin (anc. Vagharshapat), in Armenia. The building was dedicated to the Heavenly Hosts, the ‘vigilant powers’ (zvart’nunk’ner), who appeared in a dream to St Grigor the Illuminator (c. ad 239–c. 325/6). According to a Greek inscription and the Armenian histories of Sebeos (7th century) and Katholikos Hovhannes Draskhanakertc‘i (10th century), the cathedral was built c. 650–59 by the Katholikos Nerses III, known as ‘the Builder’ (reg 641–61), at the site where according to tradition St Grigor the Illuminator was met by the pagan Armenian king Trdat III (reg c. ad 280–c. 330). By the time of the cathedral’s destruction in the 10th century, it was also said to house the relics of St Grigor.

Although the cathedral was excavated in 1901–7, only its foundations, parts of the walls and vaulting, bases and sections of piers and columns, some eagle capitals and other fragments of relief sculpture were found. On the basis of these remains, the load-bearing capability of the massive pillars and comparisons with a later Armenian copy, St Grigor at ...