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Maria Pötzl-Malíková

(b Hall in Tirol, June 6, 1738; d Vienna, Aug 5, 1801).

Austrian sculptor . He studied initially under the wood-carver Christoph Worndle (1713–63) in Hall in Tirol, then at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, of which he became a member in 1772 on presenting his lead relief depicting Pygmalion and Galatea (Vienna, Belvedere; wooden copy, New York, priv. col.); this work was influenced by the style of Georg Raphael Donner, although classical features are also evident. In the 1770s he made a figure of Artemisia (c. 1779), based on a design by Wilhelm Beyer (1725–1803), for the ‘Roman Ruin’ in the gardens of the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, and a Triton fountain and two wells decorated with lion masks for the garden of Prince Wenzel Anton Kaunitz-Rietberg, in Laxenburg near Vienna, all of which are now known only through engravings or literary sources. In 1781 Zächerle attempted unsuccessfully to work on the new monumental high altar in the church of St Michael in Vienna. Of his later works, only those executed from ...


Ronald Alley

(b Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, July 12, 1892; d May 30, 1980).

French painter, sculptor and stained-glass artist of Russian descent. He studied literature at Moscow University while also taking painting courses at private academies; his painting teachers included Il’ya Mashkov, one of the founders of the Jack of Diamonds group. After leaving the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic in 1920, he lived for two years in Florence and then for a year in Berlin, where he designed sets and costumes for the Ballets Russes. He settled in Paris in 1923 and in the 1920s and 1930s painted in a figurative style influenced by Renaissance masters such as Leonardo and Michelangelo; his themes included biblical subjects, prophets, vagabonds, gypsies and landscapes.

During the German Occupation Zack, as a Jew, took refuge at Villefranche-sur-Mer and in a village in the Isère, returning to Paris in 1945. His work then began to develop towards abstraction, becoming completely non-figurative in 1947, and he became one of the leading exponents of ...


Christa Lichtenstern

[ Zadkin, Osip ]

(b Vitebsk, July 14, 1890; d Paris, Nov 25, 1967).

French sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker of Belorussian birth. He spent his childhood in Smolensk in a circle of cultured and assimilated Jews. His father was a convert to the Orthodox Church, and his mother came from an immigrant family of Scottish shipwrights. While staying with his mother’s relatives in Sunderland, northern England, in 1905, he attended the local art school and taught himself to carve furniture ornaments. At the age of 16 he continued his artistic training in London, taking evening classes in life drawing and making his living as an ornamental woodcarver. During this time he became friendly with the painter David Bomberg. He continued his studies at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London, and later, in 1908, at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, where he concentrated on techniques in wood.

Early works such as Volga Boatmen (1908; destr.) were oriented towards a socially critical realism. During a brief return to Russia in summer ...


(b Mažieķi [now Mažeikiai, Lithuania], Oct 28, 1888; d Inčukalns, Feb 19, 1942).

Latvian sculptor . His studies began at the Kazan’ Art College (1909–13) under the Russian sculptor Vasily Bogatyryov (1871–1941), where he created decorative sculptures for Vladimir Pokrovsky’s new Neo-classical State Bank and Land Bank buildings. He went to Moscow in 1914 where he worked briefly in the studio of Stepan Er’zya and then moved to Petrograd (now St Petersburg) where he became the first Latvian to enrol as a sculpture student at the Academy of Arts, subsequently Svomas (1917–20), under Gugo Zaleman (1859–1919) and Aleksandr Matveyev. His contribution to the realization of Lenin’s Plan of Monumental Propaganda included the monument to Garibaldi (bronze, 1919; Riga, Latv. Mus. A.). Zāle lived in Berlin in 1921–3, where he underwent a modernist phase, creating a series of Cubist and Futurist works in plaster that were marked by dynamic and abstract planar forms, as in Head (...


(b nr Sigulda, Nov 30, 1876; d Riga, Sept 6, 1972).

Latvian sculptor . He studied first at the Baron Stieglitz Institute of Technical Drawing, St Petersburg (1893–9), where he was enrolled in the decorative painting and etching department, as well as learning modelling under Matvey Chizhov (1838–1916). During this time he was active in the group of Latvian art students, Gnome, the (Rūķis). In 1900–01 he studied sculpture in Rodin’s studio in Paris under Emile-Antoine Bourdelle and Paul Dubois. On his return to St Petersburg, Zaļkalns produced small sculptures for Fabergé (1901–3) and also acted as art critic (using the pseudonym Kriš Mednieks) for the newspaper Pēterburgas Avīzēs. He was head of sculpture and composition at Yekaterinburg Art College (1903–7), where his students included Ivan Shadr; he then spent two years in Florence (1907–9), acquainting himself with the Italian masters’ techniques for bronze casting and marble carving. This experience, together with his study of the art of ancient Egypt, led him to abandon his impressionistic approach, as in his female bust ...


(b Florence or Rome; d Vilnius, Lithuania, 1541).

Italian architect and sculptor, active in Poland and Lithuania . Until 1529 he served as an assistant to the architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Berrecci in his work on the Sigismund Chapel, Kraków Cathedral. In about 1531 he founded an architectural–sculptural partnership with Giovan Battista Cini (d 1565) and Filippo da Fiesole (d 1540), also former collaborators of Berrecci. Their main achievement was the cathedral in Płock (1532–41): a basilica with a nave in three bays, aisles, transept with apse and a dome (raised in height, 1901–3), it was the only imitation north of the Alps of Renaissance basilicas of the type built in Rome by Florentine architects in the last quarter of the 15th century, e.g. S Agostino (1479–83) and S Maria del Popolo (1472–80). In July 1534 Zanobi and his associates entered into a contract to rebuild the cathedral in Vilnius (begun ...


Marjorie Trusted

( fl Ávila, 1499 d Ávila, 1524).

Spanish sculptor and architect . He may have trained in Italy, whence he introduced Italian Renaissance forms to New Castile, particularly in Ávila. In 1499 he established himself at Ávila as a carver in alabaster. He was also active as an architect, and in 1508 he was involved with the reconstruction of the cloisters in Ávila Cathedral. He carved the wall tomb (c. 1515) of Archbishop Alonso Carrillo de Albornoz in the chapel of S Ildefonso, Toledo Cathedral, a work with a strong Italianate influence perhaps partly due to the presence of Domenico Fancelli in Ávila. The monument is in the form of a triumphal arch, but all surfaces are carved with a profusion of decorative motifs reminiscent of the Lombard school. In 1518 de la Zarza completed the monument to Bishop Alonso de Madrigal, known as El Tostado, in the trasaltar mayor (the area behind the altar) of Ávila Cathedral. The seated figure of the bishop writing at a lectern is dramatically posed, and the work displays virtuoso carving of the drapery. In ...


Ingeborg Schemper-Sparholz

(b Untervalpatann, Tyrol, July 5, 1746; d Vienna, March 3, 1822).

Austrian sculptor and teacher . He trained initially under the sculptor Balthasar Horer, a relation on his mother’s side, and under Josef Deutschmann in Passau. Subsequent academic tuition in Vienna, from Jakob Schletterer (1699–1774) and Wilhelm Bayer, however, was a decisive influence on him. Zauner’s first official commission in Vienna, received through his patron, Wenzel Anton, Prince Kaunitz-Rietburg, was for a sandstone fountain with the figures of The Danube and The Enns for the Ehrenhof at Schönbrunn (1775; in situ): here Zauner’s work was still strongly reminiscent of the Baroque classicism of Georg Raffael Donner. Even so, it contrasted with its counterpart at Schönbrunn by the older sculptor Johann Baptist Hagenauer, by virtue of its clearly arranged figure-composition, which Zauner directed towards one principal viewpoint. Zauner’s fuller adoption of a strict classicism occurred in Rome, where he stayed from 1776 to 1781, along with the painter, Heinrich Füger, as an Imperial–Royal pensioner. In Rome, Zauner was a member of the private academy of the Swiss sculptor ...


A. Gerhardt

(b Regensburg, 1581; d Dresden, Dec 28, 1620).

German ivory-carver . His father, Pankraz Zeller, worked as a turner at the Saxon court in Dresden from 1583. In 1610 Jakob Zeller was appointed court turner and teacher of the art of turning to Christian II, Elector of Saxony, and to John-George I in 1613. Among his numerous ivory pieces for the royal art collection—in 1618 he cited 22 works that he had produced since 1613—were ceremonial goblets, for example an ornate goblet (1610; Stockholm, Kun. Slottet) with Andromeda as the stem and crowned by a group of Perseus on horseback fighting the monster. The use of such sculptural ornamentation as mascarons is typical of his work. He also made numerous counterfeit spheres. One example (1611; Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) is a large globe with four round openings, through which can be seen a smaller, similar broken globe bearing a medallion with the portraits of Christian II, his wife and their respective coats of arms. On the top of the globe there is a figurine of a boy with a skull; at the foot there is a figure of a Roman warrior....


A. S. Ciechanowiecki

(b Jasienica, Nov 1, 1931).

Polish sculptor . He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw, becoming an assistant (1958), a professor (1970) and Dean of the faculty of sculpture (1979–81). He took part in numerous exhibitions in Poland and elsewhere and received many Polish prizes and awards. His works range from portraits, tomb sculptures and near-abstract smaller compositions to grandiose state commissions, for example the monument to the Silesian Insurgents (1967; Katowice), to the Warsaw War Dead (1973; Warsaw) and to the Polish Achievement (1979; Szczecin). Zemła never adopted official Socialist Realism, and these, his main monuments, have a strong Romantic and personal Baroque flavour, with a tendency towards abstraction. In 1980 Zemła’s work shifted from patriotic state art to the religious, with the commission for the monumental bronze sculptural décor for the new Church of the Virgin and St Maximilian Kolbe at Mistrzejowice, Nowa Huta, Kraków, which consists of three over life-size figures for the sanctuary, two life-size figures for the side altars and the Stations of the Cross in high relief. The bronze figure of ...


Diane Harris

( fl mid-1st century ad ).

Greek bronze sculptor, active in Rome and Gaul . His name (‘foreign gift’) suggests that he may have been born in Massalia (Marseille), Asia Minor, Egypt or Syria, and according to Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xviii.46) he was the foremost sculptor of colossal statues of the 1st century ad. From ad 54 to 64 Zenodoros worked in Arvernis, Gaul, making a bronze statue of Mercury, for which he was paid 40 million sesterces. Nero commissioned him to make a colossal imperial portrait c. 36 m high, which was placed in his palace, the Domus Aurea in Rome (Pliny: XXXIV.xviii.45–6; Suetonius: Nero xxxi). During the reign of Vespasian ( ad 69–79) it was converted into a statue of the Sun god, Sol (Aelius Spartianicus: Hadrian XIX.xii; Herodian: I.xv.9; Pliny: XXXIV.xviii.45). A replica of the Mercury was known in Corinth in antiquity (Pausanias: Guide to Greece II.iii.4) and several extant copies may reflect the original appearance of the statue. The colossal statue of ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chao Chih-ch’ien ; zi Huishu ; hao Beian ]

(b Kuaiji, Zhejiang Province, Aug 8, 1829; d Nancheng, Jiangxi Province, Nov 18, 1884).

Chinese calligrapher, seal-carver, painter and scholar . After his example, it became common for artists to attempt to be competent in painting, calligraphy and seal-carving rather than to specialize in a single discipline. Zhao was one of the greatest artists of the late Qing period (1644–1911), although much of his work displays a disquiet and unbalanced awkwardness that conflicted with Chinese aesthetic values of the time.

As a painter, Zhao specialized in plant life. His early work is characterized by soft, detailed brushwork and brilliant, translucent colours. Plants of Zhejiang (1861; Tokyo N. Mus., see Tokyo kukuritsu, p. 162), a set of four hanging scrolls, is one of his early masterpieces: each scroll shows an unusual choice of plants and flowers and an immense range of colours and techniques. In one of the scrolls, the clublike arms of a prickly pear cactus are drawn in wet colour, with thistles added in ink while the paint was still wet; next to this is a complicated web of arched oleander leaves. Against this manipulation of wet colour, with its subtly vibrating edges, the pink and white oleander flowers are opaque. The fact that each composition is cut by the border of the scroll and that many elements within the paintings are interwoven gives a sense that the plants are reaching beyond their confines and enhances the vitality of the work. In contrast, the colours in Zhao’s later paintings are muted; there is an increased use of ink, and the brushwork is more exaggerated. ...


Barbara Kahle

German family of ivory-turners . The family originated in Nuremberg, where various members were occupied with artistic turnery, particularly in ivory, from the late 16th to the 18th century. Indeed, it was principally the work of the Zick family that made Nuremberg one of the three main centres (along with Regensburg and Dresden) of ivory-turning for the manufacture of objets d’art. The family workshop achieved extraordinary skill in overcoming the greatest technical difficulties. Although little is known of the careers of individual family members, such contemporary sources as Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1730) and Johann Michael Teuber (1740) provide important points of reference. The artistic dynasty is thought to begin with Peter Zick I (1571–1629), who was at some period turnery master to Emperor Rudolf II at his court in Prague. Peter Zick I was famous for his ivory drinking vessels (e.g. in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), and an ivory nef (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.) may also be attributable to him; it bears an imperial coat of arms, perhaps a reference to his stay at the court in Prague. His son ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...


(b May 28, 1952).

British performance artist, sculptor, photographer and writer. She studied Russian and Arabic at Leeds University (1970–72), and completed her foundation studies at Croydon College of Art (1972–3). She then studied fine art at Goldsmith’s College, London (1973–6), where the progressive approach to contemporary art led her to design her own course of study, which focused on all aspects of performance art. Influences upon her work include Yves Klein and Bruce McLean. Her ability to deflate the pretentious and absurd in daily life was demonstrated in unrehearsed, highly skilled displays of intuitive stagecraft. These are extended monologues that engage the audience with a mesmerising mixture of mimicry, metaphors, verbal and visual clichés and that explore the conventions of suburban existence and the domestic role of women (e.g. Rubbergloverama-Drama; 1980, London, ICA). Although known primarily as a performance artist, she also made sculptural works and ‘costume constructions’ initially created in connection with a performance, but which later existed as autonomous objects. Ziranek also took photographs, wrote (e.g. ...


Catherine M. Grant

(b Sausalito, CA, Sept 6, 1965).

American sculptor and installation artist. She studied painting and sculpture at San Diego State University in San Diego, CA, graduating in 1988. She then went on to study for her MFA in sculpture at the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI, graduating in 1990. In 1992 she set up A–Z Administrative Services, a company which aimed to streamline domestic objects and rituals. For Prototypes for Container, Cover, Support (1993; see 1993 exh. cat., pp. 29–30), Zittel made the objects itemized in the title and gave them to a group of volunteers who then recorded their experiences of using them. Each object was designed to be as multi-functional as possible: the container, for example, could be used as a bowl, a holder and a vase. Zittel expanded on these ideas of functional living by making self-contained units for dining, study and recreation. In 1993 she began to customize the units according to the client for whom they were designed, such as the ...


Marina Lambraki-Plaka

(b Athens, 1903; d Psychiko, Greece, May 11, 2004).

Greek sculptor . He studied sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens, in Paris with the French sculptor Marcel Gimond (b 1894), and in Italy. His work first began to attract attention in 1937, when he designed the war memorial at Piraeus. His monumental work was still traditional in style in the mid-1950s, when he designed the monument to The Fallen (h. 3 m, 1956) in the Athens suburb of Nikaia. This is an austere composition, inspired by the ‘Rondanini’ Pietà of Michelangelo and Etruscan bronzes. His figurative sculpture bordered on abstraction in the imposing stone composition of the Zalonga monument (12.5×17.6 m, 1954–61) in Epiros, which rises up at the mouth of an abyss and is visible from miles around. It depicts the dance of the heroines of the Greek War of Independence. Zongolopoulos finally turned to a joyful, uplifting abstraction in 1958 and thereafter worked almost exclusively in metal. A frequently used technique was to weld together bronze sheets of various shapes and sizes and to organize them into compositions that played with light and shade and that had a rhythmic interplay between voids and fullnesses. This is vividly shown in the monumental, abstract composition (h. 18 m) that was erected in ...



Matthew Gale

(b Andorno Micca, nr Biella, Piedmont, Sept 21, 1944).

Italian sculptor, performance artist and conceptual artist . He studied painting and sculpture at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Turin (1963–70) and held his first one-man show at the Galleria Sperone, Turin, in 1967. Use of such non-artistic materials as the scaffolding and foam of Chair (1967; New York, Sonnabend Gal.) ensured his inclusion in Arte Povera (1968; Bologna, Gal. de Foscherari) and performance at Arte Povera—azioni povere (1968; Amalfi, Arsenale). Zorio’s characteristic pieces rejected sculptural weight and solidity by use of cantilevers or suspension and reactions over time or with the environment. Several incorporated light; Phosphorescent Fist (1971; Paris, Pompidou) was lit and plunged into darkness, alternatively absorbing and emitting and absorbing energy, being lit and then unlit.

In common with his friend Giovanni Anselmo, Zorio raised linguistic problems, as in Odio (‘Hatred’), axed into a wall at Documenta 5, Kassel (1972), but his concern with energy led to experiments with both chemical and physical instability. He initiated gradual chemical reactions in his materials, which continued beyond the period of making, and used Olympic javelins to provide cantilevers; when combined with fragile, glass vessels or with the emblematic form of the five-pointed star (e.g. ...


Pontus Grate

( Leonard )

(b Mora, Feb 18, 1860; d Mora, Aug 22, 1920).

Swedish painter, etcher and sculptor . He was brought up by his grandparents at Mora. As he displayed a precocious talent for drawing he was admitted to the preparatory class of the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna, Stockholm, at the age of 15. Dissatisfied with the outdated teaching and discipline of the Academy and encouraged by his early success as a painter of watercolour portraits and genre scenes (e.g. Old Woman from Mora, 1879; Mora, Zornmus.) Zorn left the Academy in 1881 to try to establish an international career. He later resided mainly in London but also travelled extensively in Italy, France, Spain, Algeria and the Balkans and visited Constantinople. However, he continued to spend most of his summers in Sweden.

In 1887–8 Zorn more or less abandoned watercolour and turned to oil painting, and he settled in Paris, where he remained until 1896. Here he began to gain international recognition thanks partly to his portraits and partly to his pictures of nudes (e.g. ...