38,441-38,460 of 38,772 results


Marian Burleigh-Motley

( Fyodorovich )

(b Moscow, Oct 24, 1875; d Moscow, April 11, 1958).

Russian painter and writer . Yuon attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1894 to 1898, studying under Konstantin Korovin and others. From 1899 to 1900 he was in the workshop of Valentin Serov. In 1899 he also travelled extensively abroad. In 1900, together with Ivan Dudin (1867–1924), he opened an art school in Moscow, where many of the future avant-garde studied, including Lyubov’ Popova, Varvara Stepanova and Nadezhda Udal’tsova. Yuon painted the Russian landscape and views of old Russian churches and monasteries as had Apollinary Vasnetsov before him. Trinity Monastery: Winter (1910; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), with its light-filled atmosphere, is typical of his work. The landscape March Sun (1915; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) betrays the influence of the Impressionist style of his teacher Korovin in its portrayal of sunlight casting blue shadows on the snow, an effect that is repeated in End of Winter: Midday...



(b 1694; d 1764).

Japanese poet and calligrapher . She was the adopted daughter of the famous Kaji , who ran the Matsuya tea house in Kyoto and was also a waka (31-syllable classical verse) poet. Yuri’s original family name may have been Kimura. Her initial training in waka and calligraphy came from her mother. Yuri was said to be exceptionally intelligent, and the courtier–poet Reizei Tamemura took a special interest in her and became her mentor. Both her poetry and her relaxed and fluid style of calligraphy reveal her strong personality. Nature was her preferred subject. In 1727, 159 of her poems were published in the Sayuri ba (‘Leaves from a small lily’). The scholar and poet Rai San’yō wrote her biography, exhorting other women to follow her example. She was the mother of the painter Ike Gyokuran ( see Ike family §(2) ).

Japanese Women Artists, 1600–1900 (exh. cat. by P. Fister, Lawrence, U. KS, Spencer Mus. A., 1988), pp. 69, 73–4, 80...


Joan H. O’Mara

(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1533; d 1615).

Japanese painter. He was the fifth son of a samurai retainer of the Asai clan, the rulers of Ōmi Province on the shores of Lake Biwa. In his youth he entered Tōfukuji, an important Zen temple in Kyoto, serving first as a page and later as a lay priest, reportedly with some reluctance. His service at Tōfukuji did, however, spare him the fate that befell the rest of his family in 1573, when the Asai clan was destroyed by Oda Nobunaga.

As a painter, Yūshō is said to have received early encouragement at Tōfukuji and training under a master of the Kanō family school, the leading school of painting at the time. He may have studied with Kanō Motonobu or perhaps with Kanō Eitoku, but he did not stay in the Kanō studio. During his formative years he was also exposed to the works of the Chinese painter Liang Kai...


Francis Summers

(b Philadelphia, May 16, 1962).

American painter. She studied at Tyler School of Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, where she was awarded her BFA in 1984, and completed her MFA in 1996 at Yale University School of Art, New Haven, CT. Her paintings address the female body and notions of internalized misogyny, both in the artist and the viewer. Her Bad Baby I (1991; see A. America, lxxxi, June 1993, p. 103) shows a depersonalised and sexualised child figure, painted in hot lollipop colours. Making a link between the visual pleasures of modernist aesthetics and the scopophilic instincts of pornography, Yuskavage’s paintings present figures undergoing a form of violation (cultural as well as sexual and visual) in front of an implicated viewer. She often uses misogonystic forms well-worn through their cultural usage to show the objectification within the familiar, as in Blond, Brunette and Redhead (1995; see R. Brooks article). Using exaggerated naked figures with gigantic breasts and buttocks, they offer no resistance to visual mastery by the viewer, but actively encourage it. This over-visibility is taken to a monstrous height in ...


J. J. Martín González

Hieronymite monastery, near Plasencia, province of Cáceres, Spain. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ( see Habsburg, House of family §I, (5) ), retired to Yuste after his abdication in Brussels in 1556, and he lived there from February 1557 until his death on 21 September 1558. The building was begun in 1415 and was built under the patronage of the Condes de Oropesa (Alvarez de Toledo); part of the existing monastery dates from this time. Following the Emperor’s choice of Yuste, he sent plans for a new wing and detailed instructions for his personal requirements, and the enlargement was carried out in 1554–5 by Fray Antonio de Villacastín (1512–1603). It has been said that its style is derived from the house where Charles V was born in Ghent. The palace of Yuste was constructed of brick and masonry in a series of monolithic blocks along simple lines and without decoration. It is built on two floors with similarly disposed rooms, one floor for winter and the other for summer. Each floor contains a central corridor with access to the four rooms. Because of the Emperor’s poor health a ramp connected the ground floor to the first floor. On the first floor the ramp leads to a spacious terrace overlooking the magnificent landscape and valley of La Vera, from which there is access to the choir of the church, which the Emperor used. On the right of the entrance on each floor are an antechamber and chamber communicating with two other small rooms, belvederes resembling those in the towers of the Alhambra in Granada....



[Mir Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Ḥusaynī Muṣavvir]

(fl Isfahan, 1636–66).

Persian painter. A prolific artist during the reigns of the Safavid shahs Safi (reg 1629–42) and ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66), Muhammad Yusuf worked in a variety of styles. His earliest works, including the eight illustrations in a copy (1636; London, BL, Add. MS. 7922) of Baqi’s Dīvān (collected poetry) and single-page drawings and paintings (e.g. Youth Holding a Cane; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A., 14.637), exhibit fine draughtsmanship and a bright palette. In the 1640s he adopted a bolder calligraphic style for tinted drawings, such as the ones illustrating a copy of Hafiz’s Dīvān (1640; Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1010) and several single-page compositions (e.g. Paris, Bib. N., MS. arabe 6074, fols 3r, 4v and 5r). This change from the artistic ideals of the early 17th century to a new linear style may have resulted from exposure to the work of his contemporary ...


Oxana Cleminson

Russian family of collectors , of Tatar royal descent. In 1556 the Yusupov family ancestors, the sons of Yusuf (who had been killed by his own brother), were sent to the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible, and their descendants were baptized in the last years of Tsar Alexis (Aleksey Mikhaylovich; reg 1645–76). From the end of the 17th century the male members adopted the title Prince (Knyaz’) Yusupov. The most important member of the family was (1) Prince Nikolay (Borisovich) Yusupov the elder, the instigator of the collection. His son, Prince Boris (Nikolayevich) Yusupov (b 1794; d 1849), bought, rebuilt and decorated the house on the Moyka River in St Petersburg (now the Yusupov Palace, Moyka Embankment 94), to which he transferred much of his father’s collection from Moscow and from the country estate at Arkhangel’skoye. In 1839 he published the catalogue of his gallery in French. His son, Prince ...


Yutaka Sone: Amusement Romana, wood, paint and fiberglass, 4.20×16.50×10.25 m, 2002–4 (Toyota City, Toyota Municipal Museum of Art); photo courtesy of the David Zwirner Gallery and the artist


Yutaka Sone:Artificial Lawn Performance from Space Luxury Art, colour photograph, 406×559 mm, 1994; photo courtesy of the David Zwirner Gallery and the artist


Yutaka Sone: Her 19th Foot, installation, 1993–5 (Malmo, Rooseum); photo by Jan Engsmar, courtesy of the David Zwirner Gallery and the artist


J. H. Taylor

Small, undecorated tomb of an Egyptian noble and his wife. It was discovered in the Valley of Kings (KV 46) at Thebes in 1905. The tomb had suffered superficial plundering but most of the contents were recovered intact (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., and New York, Met.). The collection is important for the light it throws on the funerary equipment of the nobility at the height of the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc) and the styles of furniture and decorative art current at that time.

Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenophis III (reg c. 1390–c. 1353 bc). Yuya, perhaps of Asiatic extraction, came from Akhmim in Upper Egypt, where he held important religious offices. He was also God’s Father (i.e. father-in-law of the pharaoh), Master of the Horse and King’s Lieutenant of Chariotry. His wife Tuya was in charge of the female personnel of the temples of Amun and Min....


Frank Trapp

(b Escheviller, Jan 30, 1817; d Paris, Sept 11, 1893).

French painter . Having studied at the Collège Bourbon, he was employed by the Domaine Royal des Forêts et des Eaux at Dreux. He resigned in 1838 and went to Paris to become an artist. He studied under Paul Delaroche at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and had three religious compositions accepted for the Salon of 1841: St Paul in Prison, Christ’s Expulsion of the Money-changers (both untraced) and the Remorse of Judas (Le Havre, Mus. B.-A.). Yvon’s début attracted some critical attention, and his canvases were purchased for the State; but he was more interested in depicting the exotic worlds popularized by artists like Alexandre Decamps and Prosper Marilhat. In May 1846 he departed for Russia on a voyage of six months that was to have a profound influence on his subsequent career. Drawings made on the trip led to a painting of the Battle of Kulikova (1850; Moscow, Kremlin), depicting the Tatar defeat. It was eventually sold to Tsar ...


( fl c. 1514–17).

South Netherlandish sculptor . He was from Mechelen, but he is known only for work done for the town halls at Middelburg and neighbouring Veere in Holland, to which members of the Keldermans family from Mechelen also contributed. In 1514–18 Ywyns was paid for a series of 25 sandstone statues for the façade of the Stadhuis in Middelburg. The statues, which represent the counts and countesses of Holland, were placed in ten pairs beneath canopies set between the first-floor windows of the main façade, with a further figure on each of the five sides of the adjoining corner tower. Restoration work of 1838 was so extensive that little of the original style of the figures can be determined. Ywyns may possibly be identified with the sculptor IJssewijn, who was paid for an Annunciation (untraced) and a statue of ‘Heer Hendrick’ for the Stadhuis of Veere. The project was similar to the Middelburg scheme: seven sandstone statues, set between the first-floor windows, survive, representing the patron ...


Pilar Benito

(b Quesada, Jaén, Nov 6, 1907; d Quesada, Jaén, Feb 11, 1960).

Spanish painter . He came from a wealthy family of landowners and in 1924 began his artistic training at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid. He made his first trip to Paris in 1934, returning there on several occasions, but continued to take his native village, Quesada, as the basic subject of his work. After the Spanish Civil War (1936–9) he embarked on a period of intense artistic activity, holding his first one-man exhibition (Madrid, Gal. Biosca, 1942) and winning the support of Eugenio d’Ors. From 1943 he participated in exhibitions organized by d’Ors for the Academia Breve de Crítica de Arte, and after visiting Barcelona in 1945 he remained in close contact with Catalan cultural circles, exhibiting regularly in the region from 1947.

Zabaleta familiarized himself with contemporary tendencies in painting, notably Cubism and Surrealism, and established contact with their practitioners; he was a great admirer of Picasso, whom he knew. Taking Quesada, the Sierra de Cazorla and the people of the Andalusian countryside as the subject-matter of paintings such as ...


V. S. Turchin

( Yegorovich )

(b Tver’, July 29, 1820; d Moscow, Jan 13, 1909)

Russian historian and archaeologist . He studied under Timofey Granovsky (1813–55) at Moscow University and worked in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow from 1837 to 1859. In the 1850s and 1860s Zabelin was influenced by the theories of Vissarion Belinsky and Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–72) and later by Positivism, but in the last years of his life tended towards Idealism. He served on the St Petersburg Archaeological Commission from 1859 to 1876. He was Chairman of the Society of Russian History and Antiquity at Moscow University from 1879 to 1888. He was one of the organizers of the History Museum in Moscow and was its director from 1883 to 1908. In 1907 he became an honorary member of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Arts. He was a consultant during the restoration of the Cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir-Suzdal’ and the Cathedral of the Annunciation in Moscow. During the early years he was most concerned with the history of artistic metalwork, writing a number of works in the 1850s on the crafts of Kievan Rus’. He was also interested in Scythian history, icon painting, Old Russian architecture and archaeological theory. In his latter years he concentrated mainly on Russian social history. Zabelin sought to reconstruct the material basis of historical development by avoiding subjective assessments and using documents and monuments, which could include anything from churches to small crosses. He recognized that the distinctive feature of Old Russian art was the way in which it conveyed contemporary religious belief and interpreted forms derived from Byzantine art with greater freedom, and he was one of the first scholars to establish the relationship between wooden and stone building in Kievan Rus’. Zabelin’s works are rich in historical imagery and have inspired numerous Russian artists with an interest in Russian history and material culture....



[ Zabīd ; Zebid]

City in Yemen about 20 km from the Red Sea. Located in a fertile area of the Tihama Plain where the pilgrimage route from the south of Yemen to Mecca crosses the Wadi Zabid, the city was founded in ad 820 by Muhammad ibn Ziyad, emissary of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma‛mun (reg 813–33) and progenitor of the semi-independent Ziyadid dynasty (reg 819–1018). The Ziyadids were responsible for erecting Zabid’s congregational mosque, which has a hypostyle plan, and for the first city wall, erected in 1001 by Husayn ibn Salama. The congregational mosque was remodelled under the patronage of the Ayyubid dynasty (reg 1174–1229), under whom the building was given its present form and a brick minaret. Zabid became the winter capital of the Rasulid dynasty (reg 1229–1454) and flourished as an important centre of Islamic learning, particularly for the Shafi‛i school of law, which was dominant along the Yemeni coast. The multi-domed al-Iskandariya Mosque (later incorporated in the citadel) appears to have been built under the ...


Olgierd Czerner

(b Warsaw, Dec 6, 1930).

Polish architect, writer and teacher . He studied (1949–54) at the departments of architecture of the universities of Kraków and Warsaw, receiving his doctorate in 1968 and qualifying as an assistant professor in 1979. At the same time he was an outstanding sportsman, winning four world and five Polish fencing championships. He is noted for the numerous large-span sports buildings and complexes that he designed. Architectural expression is concentrated in the roofs, which may be free-hanging from cables, as at the Olympic Training Centre (1962), Warsaw; arched, as at the swimming pool (1975), Zgorzelec; connected by counterbalanced cantilevers; or of intermittent arches linked transversely by free-hanging coverings, for example a design (1977) for a sports centre in Leszno. Another variant in his approach to the design of sports halls is a multi-faceted mass suspended on a trapezial frame, as in his design for an auditorium and sports hall (...


Louise Noelle

(b Bialystok, June 14, 1924).

Mexican architect of Polish birth. He studied at the Escuela de Arquitectura at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, graduating in 1949. In his early years he produced a large number of outstanding residential buildings and offices in Mexico City, making rigorous use of the International style and demonstrating an impeccable handling of contemporary design, techniques and materials. Also notable from this period was the Centro Cívico Cinco de Mayo (1962), Puebla, on which he collaborated with Guillermo Rossel. In 1968 Zabludovsky began working in collaboration with Teodoro González de León, although the two architects continued to work on some projects individually and retained their separate stylistic identities. Their collaborative work was remarkable for its quality and maturity, establishing functional and formal solutions that were later widely imitated. Clear examples of their characteristic proposals for constructions of massive, linear volume are the Delegación Cuauhtémoc (1972–3; with Jaime Ortiz Monasterio (...


A. V. Ikonnikov

( Vladimirovich )

(b Minsk, Nov 24, 1909; d 1999).

Belarusian architect . He studied (1933–9) at the Academy of Arts, Leningrad (now St Petersburg), and from 1940 worked in Minsk. From 1942 he worked on proposals for the restoration of war-damaged parts of the city. These included the reconstruction of Lenin Square (1947–60; now the Square of Independence) and participation in the design of the central part of Lenin Prospect (1949–55; now Skorima Prospect). He devised the general plan for the development of Polotsk (1946–9) and also built there the neo-classical Regional Soviet Building (1949–54) with a courtyard behind a double colonnade. In Minsk he also designed a series of prominent neo-classical buildings: the city’s first airport (1948–56), with Aleksandr Voinov (b 1902); the Pedagogical Institute (1951–2); and the Central Committee Building of the Belorussian Komsomol (1952–3). He also devised the layout of the circular Pobeda Square in Minsk, placing at its centre a monumental obelisk (...