38,421-38,440 of 38,772 results


Yuan-period white porcelain figure of a bodhisattva, Jingdezhen ware, 13th century (Paris, Musée Guimet); photo credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY


Bent L. Pedersen

[Tuan Yü-tsai; zi Ruoying; hao Maotang, Yanbei Jushi]

(b Jintan, Jiangsu Province, 1735; d Suzhou, 1815).

Chinese Etymologist and Phonetician. He took the imperial civil-service examinations in 1760 to gain his juren degree but twice (1761 and 1769) failed the final examinations. He was appointed a magistrate in Guizhou c. 1769 and from 1772 to 1778 held several such offices in Sichuan Province. In 1778 he retired from official service, pleading ill health. From 1763 onwards he was a devoted disciple of the scholar and philosopher Dai Zhen (1723–77), whom he met in Beijing. He later compiled a chronological biography of Dai Zhen and in 1793 re-edited his literary works.

In 1775 Duan published a book on ancient phonology, the Liushu yinyun biao (‘Classified phonology of old Chinese characters’), based on two of his own short studies. His interest in problems of phonetics led him to analyse the form and meaning of difficult characters in the ancient text Shang shu (‘History of the Shang’), a section of the ...


Constantino Reyes-Valerio and Liliana Herrera

Term used to designate the architecture characteristic of the Yucatán peninsula in south-east Mexico, particularly the religious architecture of the 16th century. A number of factors militated against Spanish settlement in Yucatán in the early 16th century, notably the intense heat, difficulties in irrigating the area, the lack of precious metals, and the sparseness of the Indian population, which was mostly Maya. Consequently, the peninsula’s social and economic development was very different from that of the more densely populated central plateau, and this was reflected in its architecture, which was of a simpler and more austere character.

Despite the obstacles to settlement, Franciscan missionaries arrived in the Yucatán peninsula in the 1530s and 1540s and began to construct simple buildings to house the monks. In order to accommodate the large congregations of Indians, however, and to protect them from the sun, they built ramadas, or large shelters, in the monastery compounds. These were supported by tree trunks, with roofs made from branches, and they had no side walls, thereby allowing the free passage of air. Services were conducted from a small, open-fronted stone chapel or chancel, which was built facing the ...



Country in the Balkan peninsula, south-eastern Europe, formerly comprising six republics: Bosnia , Croatia , Macedonia ( see Macedonia ), Montenegro , Serbia and Slovenia . The country was founded in 1918, after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire, as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and was renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia (‘land of the South Slavs’) in ...


Aya Louisa McDonald

[Kain Itsujin; Ransen]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], Feb 5, 1828; d Edo, July 6, 1894).

Japanese painter. He was a pioneer of Western-style still-life, portrait and landscape painting. Largely self-taught, Takahashi experimented with the styles and materials of Western-style oil painting in the 1860s and 1870s, long before the study of Western-style painting (Yōga; see Japan §VI 5., (iv)) became popular in Japan. A long-time advocate of the establishment of a national museum of art, he published Japan’s first art journal, Gayū Sekichin, in 1880.

Takahashi was introduced to Western studies in the late 1830s, when he served as attendant to Hotta Masae (d 1854), leader of the Sano domain. As a child he showed a precocious aptitude for drawing and was apprenticed to a Kanō-school painter. In his autobiography he wrote that he became fascinated with Western realism around 1850, when a friend lent him some European prints. In 1862 he joined the painting department of the Tokugawa government Office for the Study of Western Documents (Bansho Shirabesho) in Edo, where instruction in ...



Richard Edwards

[ Yü-chien ; Ruofen ; Jo-fen ; xing Cao ; zi Zhongshi ; hao Furong Shanzhu ]

(b Jinhua, Wuzhou, Zhejiang Province; fl c. 1250).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and priest . He was active in Lin’an (now Hangzhou), Zhejiang Province. At the age of nine he entered Baofeng yuan (Precious Peak monastery), where he took the name Ruofen and trained in Tiantai Buddhism. After his ordination he was appointed scribe (shuji) at Tianzhu si (India temple) in the Bei shan (Northern Mountain) temple complex near Lin’an. Ruofen Yujian has been confused with another monk–painter, Ying Yujian, from Jingci si (Pure Compassion temple), a Chan Buddhist establishment in the Nan shan (Southern Mountain) temple complex, also situated near Lin’an. Both men are listed in Tuhui baojian (‘Precious mirror for examining painting’; preface 1365) by Xia Wenyan, whose account of Ruofen draws substantially on a description of 1351 by the painter Wu Taisu. The identification of Ruofen rather than Ying Yujian with the painter Yujian is due to the existence of this more complete account and its consistency with the kind of paintings attributed to Yujian....


Rose E. Lee, Yi Sŏng-mi and Kim Kumja Paik

Korean family of painters and scholars. (1) Yun Tu-sŏ is regarded as one of the Sam chae (‘three literati masters’) of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910), together with Chŏng Sŏn and Sim Sa-jŏng. His great-grandfather was the poet Yun Sŏn-do (1587–1671). His son (2) Yun Tŏk-hŭi and grandson Yun Yong (1708–c. 1754) followed him in painting, and his great-grandson was the sirhak thinker and painter (3) Chŏng Yag-yong.

(b Haenam, South Chŏlla Province, May 20, 1668; d Haenam, Dec 26, 1715).

His eclectic output bridged the transition between painting of the mid-Chosŏn and late Chosŏn periods. Learned in Confucian classics, military strategy, geography and astronomy, he passed the initial state examination (chinsa) in 1693 but returned to Haenam in 1713 without acquiring office. He was aligned with the out-of-power Southerners (Namin), advocates of sirhak (‘practical learning’) and sŏhak...




Henrik H. Sørensen

[cha Ippu, Hyewŏn, Ch’ihwa-ssi, Ilp’yŏnun]

(fl mid-18th century).

Korean painter. He was a professional painter employed by the Bureau of Painting in Seoul and is known above all for his genre-paintings. He belongs in the same category as his contemporary Kim Hong-do and the 19th-century artist Kisan, although his works rank higher than theirs. His themes are drawn primarily from the daily life of the Korean upper class, the yangban. Through their rich details his paintings contribute greatly to knowledge of the customs and activities of the well-to-do in the late Chosŏn period (1392–1910). His paintings usually show young scholars and noblemen in the company of kisaeng (professional female entertainers;) or simply depict the girls in various situations, a subject in which he apparently took great delight. Given that contemporary society was heavily bound by Confucian moral norms, his paintings are often daring and sensual. This is not only because he depicts amorous couples, but also because the ...


Burglind Jungmann

(fl 16th century).

Korean painter. Hardly anything is known of his life. What information is available states that he painted well. From this it can be assumed that Ham was a professional painter, as ordinary court painters at the Tohwasŏ (Bureau of Painting) occupied a very lowly position in society, their accomplishments only being mentioned in contemporary sources in cases of extreme merit. Riding a Donkey (album leaf, light colour on silk, 155×194 mm; Seoul, N. Mus.), traditionally attributed to Ham Yun-dŏk, depicts a scholar on a donkey. The animal’s legs are splayed under the heavy burden as it stoops almost to the ground. Branches and twigs hang down from a rock face leaning obliquely into the picture. In its composition the painting is reminiscent of works produced by the Chinese Ming-period (1368–1644) Zhe school, which was much emulated in 16th-century Korea and the style of which was subsequently assimilated into the Korean tradition of literati painting. The painting is comparable to ...


Howard Morphy

(b c. 1907; d Yirrkala, 1978).

Australian Aboriginal painter and sculptor . He was the leader of the Gumatj clan of north-east Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, during a critical period of the history of the Yolngu-speaking peoples, and one of the leaders of the Yolngu people in their fight for land rights when tenure of their land was threatened by mining interests in the 1960s and 1970s. Like Mawalan Marika, he was one of the first artists to produce bark paintings for sale to the missionary Wilbur Chaseling in 1935, and he later contributed to Stuart Scougall’s collection for the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. With Marika and Narritjin Maymurru he helped to develop the episodic-narrative style of paintings characteristic of Yolngu art from the 1960s to the 1980s (e.g. Space Tracking Station, 1967; Adelaide, A. G. S. Australia). He was a prolific painter until the end of his life, and established a productive relationship with the Melbourne art dealer ...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[ Hsiao Yün-ts’ung ; zi Chimu ; hao Wumen Daoren ]

(b Wuhu, Anhui Province, 1596; d 1673).

Chinese painter and poet . He was born some 150 km north of the region inhabited by artists of the Anhui school , with which he became associated, and was a contemporary of its leading member, Hongren. His family hoped he would pursue an official career, but Xiao failed the civil service examinations and instead became a semi-professional painter. He joined the loyalist Fu she (Restoration Society) in 1638 and in 1645 was forced to flee Wuhu in the face of invading Qing troops. On his return two years later he found his house ruined.

Perhaps partly from a need to make money, Xiao participated in two important printing projects, the Lisao tu (‘Illustrations to the poem Lisao’; c. 1645) and the Taiping shanshui tu (‘Topographical illustrations of the Taiping region’; 1648). Both projects brought together some of the best artists of 17th-century China and are exceptional examples of woodblock-carving and printing, an art that flourished in Anhui Province during the Ming period (...



Margaret Chung


Chinese Buddhist cave temple complex 16 km west of Datong, Shanxi Province. The complex, consisting of more than 40 caves and innumerable niches containing Buddhist images, was hollowed from the sandstone cliffs of the Wuzhou Mountains during the 5th century ad under the patronage of the Northern Wei dynasty (386–534; see Wei dynasty, §1 ). The influence of Indian and Central Asian models is discernible in the carvings found in the 20 or so larger, earlier caves, while the sculptures in the smaller, later caves and niches display a more mature Chinese style, which reached its highest expression in the sculptural style of the cave temple complex of Longmen , near Luoyang, Henan Province.

The Northern Wei dynasty, founded by the Tuoba or Toba people, who ruled northern China during the Northern and Southern Dynasties period ( ad 310–589), adopted Buddhism as its state religion. Work was begun at Yungang by the emperor ...


Yungang, Cave 12, sandstone, c. ad 460–475; photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY


Yungang, cave 20, colossal image of Shakyamuni Buddha with attendant, sandstone, h. 13.7 m, c. ad 460–475; photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY


(b Riga, July 15, 1900; d New York, Dec 24, 1983).

American painter and printmaker of Latvian birth. He enrolled in art school in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and then travelled through Russia. Early influences were Vasily Kandinsky and Kazimir Malevich. He left the country after the Revolution (1917). During the 1920s he lived variously in Europe and Latin America, establishing contact with such leading artists as Emil Nolde, Karl-Georg Heise (1890–1979), and Diego Rivera. Yunkers fought in the Spanish Civil War (1936–9) and moved to Stockholm from 1939 to 1947, where he edited and published the periodicals Creation, Ars, and Art Portfolio (1969 exh. cat., pp. 30–31). In 1947 ten years’ work was lost in a studio fire.

Yunkers immigrated to the USA in 1947, acquiring citizenship in 1953. At this time he embarked on ambitious projects of prints and paintings including Polyptych, a five-panel woodcut, 4 m long, and in 1957 a series of large-scale pastels culminating in ...


Ho Chuan-Hsing

[Chu Yün-ming; zi Xizhe; hao Jishan]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1460–61; d Suzhou, 1527).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, essayist and poet . Born into an illustrious Suzhou family, he was commended in the provincial examinations, the second stage of the civil service career ladder, at the age of 33 but failed in several attempts at the national examinations. In 1514 he took office as magistrate of Xingning County in Guangdong Province and in 1522 was promoted to assistant prefectural magistrate of Yingtian District (now Nanjing). He retired after less than a year and died at the age of 67. Zhu was an outstanding representative of certain literary circles in Suzhou, revered not only for his calligraphy, but also for his scholarship, essays and poetry. His individual and non-conformist beliefs made him severely critical of Song Neo-Confucianism, the orthodox teaching of his day, seeing it as both ill-founded and constricting. His love of liberty and adherence to the classics are reflected in his calligraphy, which is at once informed by a thorough acquaintance with the classical masters and executed with an expansive and uninhibited flair....


Ann Barrott Wicks

Term used to describe works by contemporary Chinese artists who use heavy colors to paint in a style made popular by Ting Shao Kuang in the early 1980s. The style emphasizes the linear quality of figures and plants by outlining each with thin but firm even lines of black, gold, or silver. The flattened shapes are then filled in with vibrant colors, using an ancient Chinese technique called zhongcai (“heavy colors”) that was revived in the 20th century by Huang Yongyu. Led by Ting Shao Kuang, painters in Yunnan Province in the late 1970s combined the zhongcai method with an elegant sense of line, motifs from ancient Buddhist cave paintings, and the flat, distorted figures of Western painters like Picasso and Matisse.

The origins of the Yunnan School can be traced to the camaraderie of a group of artists living in Kunming in the early 1970s who met almost nightly to buoy each other up with animated discussions on how to modernize Chinese art. After the death of Mao and the end of the Cultural Revolution in ...


Dawn Ho Delbanco

[Ting Yün-p’eng; zi Nanyu; hao Shenghua Jushi]

(b Xiuning, Anhui Province, 1547; d after 1625).

Chinese painter. The son of a physician with modest artistic aspirations, he inherited his father’s love for art but was left with no financial means and was obliged to paint for a living. Ding became known primarily for his Buddhist figure painting, though he also painted landscapes and designed woodblock book illustrations. Ding was the most conservative of the major late Ming-period (1368–1644) figure painters with whom he is often grouped, but although he did not develop a distinctive or inventive personal style, he was a versatile artist of eclectic tastes, displaying a wide range in subject-matter and style (see fig.).

In the late 1570s Ding left Xiuning for the influential artistic centre of Huating in Jiangsu Province (modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality). He lived occasionally in Buddhist monasteries as a lay practitioner and made religious pictures for various temples. His earliest surviving dated work, an album depicting ...