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Theodore G. Spyropoulos and R. A. Tomlinson

[now Thívai]

Greek city in Boiotia that flourished in the Bronze Age and Classical times. It was traditionally founded by Kadmos the Phoenician in 1313 bc; its dominance in the loose federation later known as the Boiotian League culminated in the destruction of Spartan hegemony at the Battle of Leuktra (371 bc). The city was destroyed by Alexander the Great in 336 bc, and though later rebuilt its fortunes revived only in the Middle Ages. The modern town was built on the heart of the ancient city, the oval plateau known as the Kadmeia. Here excavations (1906–21) by Keramopoulos and others have uncovered the Bronze Age palace, but most of the visible remains are medieval.

Theodore G. Spyropoulos

A settlement of the Neolithic period was founded in the Pyri suburb on the plain north-west of the Kadmeia. During the Early Helladic (eh) period (c. 3600/...

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D. Graham J. Shipley

(fl Samos, mid-6th century bc).

Greek architects and ?artists. They are occasionally referred to as father and son, though Herodotus (the only near-contemporary authority) gave their fathers’ names as Philes and Telekles respectively (Histories III.lx.4, III.xli.1). He described Rhoikos as the ‘first architect’ of the ‘Great Temple of Hera’ at the Sanctuary of Hera (Heraion) on Samos (III.lx.4). This probably indicates the third Temple of Hera or ‘First Dipteros’, now excavated (see Samos, §1). It was probably built c. 560 bc and destroyed by fire c. 545 bc, though these dates may be too early. Pausanias (Guide to Greece X.xxxviii.6) mentioned a bronze statue attributed to Rhoikos alone, but elsewhere he is only mentioned alongside Theodoros. The latter need not be younger than Rhoikos; Herodotus (I.li.2–3) believed that he had made a silver bowl for Croesus, King of Lydia (reg c. 560–546 bc). Like Rhoikos, he too worked on a temple in the Heraion (Pliny: ...

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Virginia C. Goodlett

(fl c. 430–c. 400 bc).

Greek sculptor. His most famous work was a chryselephantine (gold and ivory) cult statue of Zeus Olympios at his home town of Megara, left unfinished at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (431 bc; Pausanias: Guide to Greece I.xl.4). Pausanias’ contention that Pheidias helped Theokosmos on this statue probably arose from the similarity of technique between it and Pheidias’ Athena Parthenos and Zeus, although his description of the statue provides important clues concerning the technique of sculpting in gold and ivory (Mattusch, p. 179). Megarian coins depicting Theokosmos’ Zeus are too imprecise to allow us to characterize its style (Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner, pl. A3). Another work attributed to Theokosmos was the bronze statue of Lysander’s helmsman Hermon that formed part of a large dedication at Delphi erected by the Spartans after the battle of Aigospotamoi (405 bc; Pausanias: X.ix.7), although its attribution may be based largely on the fact that Hermon was a native of Megara too. Although portions of the base of the dedication have been recovered, the section that supported the ...

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Thera  

J. Lesley Fitton, Christos G. Doumas and R. A. Tomlinson

[Thira; Santorini]

Volcanic Greek island at the southern extremity of the Aegean Cyclades. In the Late Bronze Age (c. 1525 bc; but see also Cycladic, §I, 4) a violent eruption of the paroxysmal or explosive type changed the shape of the island, which was originally roughly circular, with the volcano rising to a central cone. The ejection of huge quantities of gas, pumice and ash created a void beneath the cone, which then collapsed, leaving a vast central space known as a caldera. This filled up with sea-water and, surrounded by steep-sided cliffs with a white mantle of ash, it now provides access for ships visiting the island. The outer ring left after the collapse of the centre eventually fragmented, forming the modern crescent-shaped island of Thera, the smaller Therasia and the tiny islet of Aspronisi. Excavations on Thera were begun by the French School in the mid-19th century; the current excavations at Akrotiri began in ...

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Thermon  

Susan Langdon

Ancient Greek sanctuary of Apollo located in the mountains around Lake Trichonis in Aitolia, north-west Greece, which flourished in Archaic and Classical times. It was the focus of Aitolian worship of Apollo and later the meeting-place of the Aitolian League. Its remains date from the Late Bronze Age (c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) to the sacking of the site by Philip V of Macedon in 218 and 206 bc and include three successive temples of Apollo, if the mysterious edifice known as Megaron B (variously dated between c. 1400 and c. 800 bc) was indeed a temple. Initially, Megaron B was an irregular rectangular building (l. 21.5 m) with slightly curved sides and two internal cross-walls (see Greece, ancient, §II, 1, (i), (a)); it may have been based on an earlier hairpin-shaped structure near by (Megaron A). It was later surrounded by a rudimentary colonnade of wooden supports on stone bases, making it, perhaps, one of the earliest peripteral Greek temples. On the other hand, the colonnade may have belonged to a different building, entirely of wood, erected after the destruction of Megaron B. These early structures were replaced ...

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W. G. Cavanagh

[beehive]

Ancient form of underground built tomb, found largely in mainland Greece but also on the Greek islands and in western Asia Minor from c. 1600 bc to c. 600 bc. Pausanias (Guide to Greece IX. xxxvi.5, xxxvii.2 and II.xvi.6) referred to it as a treasury (thesauros). A tholos typically consists of a circular chamber with a corbelled vault entered through a doorway (stomion) that was sealed with a wall or door after burial and approached by a passageway (dromos). The term has also been applied to other structures of oval or rectangular plan: buildings at Khirokitia in Cyprus, now known to have had flat roofs, and structures of the Halaf culture in Mesopotamia, which may have had mud-brick domes; both these groups date from about the 7th millennium bc. These applications of the term ‘tholos’ are a modern usage; the ancient Greeks themselves applied it to a much later type of building (...

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C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl early 4th century bc).

Greek sculptor from Paros. The son of Arignotos, he made the gold and ivory (chryselephantine) cult statue of Asklepios for the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros (see Epidauros §2). The god was shown seated on a throne, holding a staff in one hand, with the other hand resting above a snake. A dog lay beside the throne, which was decorated with reliefs depicting stories of Argive heroes: Bellerophon and the Chimera and Perseus with the Head of Medusa. The Asklepios apparently resembled Pheidias’ colossal chryselephantine Zeus at Olympia, because Athenagoras (Intercession Concerning the Christians, 14, p. 61) incorrectly attributes the Asklepios to Pheidias. This is further suggested by its representation on coinage from Epidauros. None of Thrasymedes’ work survives, although his workshop at Epidauros has been found. A building inscription says that he received 9800 drachmas for elaborate woodwork to the ceilings and doors and other parts of the temple. This sum seems to equal approximately one tenth of the total building cost....

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C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl late 5th century or early 4th century bc).

Greek painter. He originated from Kythnos or Sikyon and was a contemporary and rival of Zeuxis and Parrhasios, defeating the latter in a competition on Samos (Pliny, XXXV.64, 71, 73–4). Parrhasios had painted the hero Ajax, who, in an episode recounted in the Aethiopis and Little Iliad, was defeated by Odysseus in the competition for the arms of Achilles. When the artist heard that the judges had voted in favour of Timanthes, Parrhasios said that Ajax has suffered a second indignity. It is not known what subject Timanthes painted for the competition, but Parrhasios’ comment suggests it was not Ajax. None of Timanthes’ works now survives. Cicero (Brutus, xviii.70) listed him among the painters who used a four-colour palette. Although he may occasionally have limited his palette to yellow, white, red and black, he no doubt used a wider range at other times. Timanthes was reputed to possess great skill but even greater imagination, as his most famous picture, the ...

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Mark D. Fullerton

(fl 2nd century bc–early 1st).

Name of at least two Greek sculptors, members of a family of Athenian sculptors including Polykles, Timokles and Dionysios. Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xix.91) listed a Timarchides among sculptors in bronze, but his best-known work seems to have been a marble lyre-playing Apollo in the Temple of Apollo near the Porticus Metelli (later Octaviae) in Rome (Pliny: XXXVI.iv.35). This has been identified with a classicizing Apollo type known from several Roman copies. If it was the cult statue, the original may date to 179 bc, when the temple was rebuilt. Pliny perhaps implied that Timarchides also sculpted the cult image in the Temple of Juno Regina (ded. 179 bc) in the same porticus. He may also have been that Timarchides who worked with (?his brother) Timokles on the cult statue of Asklepios at Elateia (Pausanias: Guide to Greece X.xxxiv.6). They may be the ‘sons of Polykles’ mentioned twice by Pausanias (VI.xii.9; X.xxxiv.8), although neither name occurs with this patronymic. If so, their works suggest a connection with the Neo-Attic school of sculpture, and one may be datable to ...

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Mark D. Fullerton

(fl mid-2nd century bc).

Greek sculptor. He was presumably a member of the family of Athenian sculptors that included Polykles, Timarchides family and Dionysios. His activity is known from only two literary references. Pliny the elder (Natural History XXXIV.xix.52) named him with Polykles in his list of sculptors of the 156th Olympiad (156–153 bc) who revived artistic activity, which had been in decline since the 121st Olympiad (295–292 bc); Pausanias (Guide to Greece X.xxxiv.6) identified a statue of Asklepios (untraced) at Elateia as the work of Timokles and Timarchides, probably the ‘sons of Polykles’ who produced a portrait of Agesarchos at Olympia and the statue of Athena at Elateia (both untraced; Pausanias: VI.xii.9, X.xxxiv.8). The latter work is clearly strongly reminiscent of the so-called Neo-Attic sculptures of the later 2nd century bc, since the figures on its shield were apparently copied from the shield of the Athena Parthenos...

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C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl ?1st century bc).

Greek painter. He came from Byzantium, and Pliny (XXXV.136) stated that he was a contemporary of Julius Caesar (reg 49–44 bc). Many scholars follow Pliny, but some suggest a date in the Classical Greek period (480–323 bc). The most celebrated picture by Timomachos was a Medea painted in encaustic. Its fame rested in the characterization, which combined jealous wrath and sorrowful pity. Medea’s children were depicted playing, unaware that she stood near them holding a sword, intending to murder them. The picture was the last painted by Timomachos before his death. The artist also painted Ajax in his Madness. Cicero (II.iv.60.135) knew that the Ajax and the Medea were owned by the people of Kyzikos (Lat. Cyzicus). Pliny (XXXV.i.136; cf. XXXV.26) said that Julius Caesar paid 80 talents for them and hung them in the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome. A painting by Timomachos of ...

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Janet Burnett Grossman

(fl c. 380–c. 350 bc).

Greek sculptor. He was from Athens and was, according to Pliny (Natural History XXXVI.iv.30), a contemporary and rival of the sculptors Skopas, Bryaxis and Leochares. Literary sources and inscriptions record Timotheos as a sculptor on two of the major building projects of the 4th century bc, the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros (see Epidauros §2) and the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos (see Halikarnassos §2). Remains of the inscriptions recording payments for the erection and decoration of the Temple of Asklepios (second quarter of the 4th century bc) have survived. Timotheos was paid 900 drachmai for typoi in the second year of construction (Inscr. Gr./2, iv, 102), a term that has been interpreted in various ways. To some it means models, which would make Timotheos the master designer; to others it means any carved or modelled figure, especially relief sculpture (see also Greece, ancient §IV 1., (iv), (d)...

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Tiryns  

Louise Schofield

Site in the Peloponnesus in southern Greece, 10 km south-south-east of Argos and 4 km north of Navplion. Tiryns flourished as a Mycenaean fortress-palace c. 1390–c. 1200 bc, occupying the summit of a rocky knoll that rises out of the coastal plain. The earliest architectural remains date to Early Helladic ii (c. 2900/2600–c. 2400 bc), notably the Rundbau, a circular building (diam. 27.6 m) with stone foundations, mud-brick walls and a terracotta-tiled roof. Successive large buildings of the Middle Helladic period (c. 2050–c. 1600 bc) and some Early Mycenaean (c. 1600–c. 1390 bc) remains, including fresco fragments and column bases, also underlie the Mycenaean palace.

Tiryns was the first Mycenaean palace to be excavated. Initial investigations at the site were undertaken by Friedrich Tiersch and A. Rangabé in 1831, and by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876. Schliemann, with Wilhelm Dörpfeld, returned to Tiryns and began systematic excavation there in ...

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Tleson  

H. A. G. Brijder

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Thorsten Opper

[Tyrannicides; Gr. Tyrannoktonoi]

Greek statue group originally executed in bronze by Antenor, which was frequently copied throughout the Greek and Roman world. Nothing from the original work survives.

In 514 bc the Athenians Harmodios and Aristogeiton assassinated the tyrant Hipparchos, son of Peisistratos, who had ruled over Athens together with his brother Hippias. Harmodios was killed on the spot; Aristogeiton briefly escaped but was put to death soon after. Hippias, the original target of the plot, remained unharmed and continued to rule for another four years. After he had finally been expelled in 510 bc and a democratic regime installed under the new leader Kleisthenes in 508/7 bc, the state commissioned a bronze monument of the ‘tyrant slayers’ by the sculptor Antenor. While the tyrant slayers’ action did not lead to an immediate change in government, and may have been inspired by personal rather than political motives, the state nevertheless created an iconic symbol for the new democracy that all Athenians could identify with. When the exiled Hippias returned with the invading Persian army under Xerxes in ...

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R. S. Merrillees

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Louise Schofield, C. D. Fortenberry, Stefan Hiller, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Lyvia Morgan, D. Evely, Reynold Higgins, Margaret A. V. Gill and Susan Sherratt

In