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[ Christian ]

(b Rønne, March 31, 1843; d Frederiksberg, June 22, 1917).

Danish painter . He studied in Copenhagen at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in 1864–8 under Wilhelm Marstrand, Jørgen Roed, Niels Simonsen (1807–1885) and Frederik Vermehren. He worked as a teacher and as Head of the Kunstnernes Studieskoler (Free Arts Schools) in Copenhagen from 1885 to 1908. His works can be divided roughly into history and genre paintings. From the outset he was attracted to the great figures of 17th-century Danish history, especially Princess Eleanor Christine, whose autobiography Jammers-Minde [Memory of woe], first published in 1869 (Eng. trans. as The Memoirs of Leonora Christina, London, 1872), provided Zahrtmann with subject-matter for 18 large paintings (1870–1916). The Princess fell from grace because of her husband’s alleged high treason and was imprisoned for 22 years. In Eleanor Christine is Undressed and Searched by the Servants of Queen Sofie Amalie (3 versions: 1884–6, Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst; ...


(b Istanbul, Aug 5, 1906; d Ankara, 1974).

Turkish painter and printmaker . He studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul and worked as a teacher in Konya for a short period before graduating in 1930. The visit to Konya was his first to Anatolia, and it gave him the opportunity to observe the peasant and nomadic life. As a result Anatolian themes entered his work, although he used the techniques of Western painting. He was also inspired by East Asian art and by the Turkish miniature painting tradition. Upon graduation he went to Paris to continue his studies but stayed only a few weeks and returned to Turkey to teach in Sivas, where he rekindled his interest in Anatolian life. His works were exhibited in Istanbul by the D Group (founded 1933), which he later joined. In 1939 he participated in the tours to the provinces organized for artists by the Turkish government, returning from the town of Kayseri with a series of paintings. His individual style for depicting local scenes, which used well-defined forms in bright colours, became popular in Turkey, and the narrative element of his paintings related them to themes in Turkish folklore. Zaim’s aim was to develop a contemporary pictorial language to express life in Anatolia. He also produced etchings in the 1930s and linoleum prints in the early 1960s. His daughter ...


Tom Williams

(b Elizabeth, NJ, May 24, 1935).

American painter. He received a BA from the Newark School of Fine and Industrial Art in 1958, and he subsequently moved to New York to work as a commercial artist. He turned to painting in response to his exposure to Abstract Expressionism , and he later developed a style based on Colour field painting of the 1950s. He became widely known, however, as an exponent of Pattern and Decoration art after he began introducing floral motifs into his paintings in 1974. He was also central in organizing a group of artists with a shared interest in decorative painting as an alternative to the austerity of minimalism and the intellectualism of conceptual art that included Valerie Jaudon, Joyce Kozloff, Robert Kushner , Kim MacConnel (b 1946) and Miriam Schapiro .

Like many of the other Pattern and Decoration painters of the 1970s, Zakanitch arrived at his approach after concluding that reductionism of modernist art had exhausted itself, and in response he began applying floral patterns to the compositional grids of his abstract paintings. He developed this approach partly through his encounter with critics and other artists, particularly during his time teaching at the University of California, San Diego, in ...


Margarita González Arredondo

(b Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Jan 12, 1908; d Morelia, Jan 19, 2003).

Mexican painter, printmaker and teacher. He studied in Mexico City at the Academia de San Carlos (1924–9) and at the Escuela de Grabado y Talla Directa. In 1930 he founded the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura in Taxco. He was also a member of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios and an early member in 1937 of the Taller de Gráfica Popular, taking part in their group exhibitions and publications until 1950. From 1951 he was director of the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura in Morelia, Michoacán. In addition to his career as a teacher he was active politically. He practised primarily as a printmaker with a clear and precise draughtsmanship; he published, for example, a portfolio of eight lithographs, Estampas de Yucatán (1945), after travelling through the area for several months. He was also involved with the muralist movement in Mexico, and in 1930...


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


Silvia Lucchesi

(b Venice, June 2, 1841; d Paris, Dec 30, 1917).

Italian painter . His father Pietro and grandfather Luigi tried to interest him in the plastic arts, but from a very early age he showed a stronger inclination for painting. Zandomeneghi soon rebelled against their teachings, and by 1856 he was attending the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under the painters Michelangelo Grigoletti (1801–70) and Pompeo Molmenti (1819–94). As a Venetian he was born an Austrian subject, and, to escape conscription, he fled his city in 1859 and went to Pavia, where he enrolled at the university. In the following year he followed Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousand; afterwards, having been convicted of desertion and therefore unable to return to Venice, he went to Florence, where he remained from 1862 to 1866. This period was essential for his artistic development. In Tuscany he frequented the Florentine painters known as the Macchiaioli, with some of whom he took part in the Third Italian War of Independence (...


(b Borispol, Ukraine, 1891; d Tel Aviv, 1985).

Israeli painter . He graduated from the Academy of Arts in Kiev in 1914, where he had been influenced by the watercolours of Mikhail Vrubel. In 1923 he emigrated to Palestine, where he lived first in Jerusalem and then from 1927 in Tel Aviv. From 1927 to 1929 he worked and studied in Paris. He worked almost entirely in watercolours from 1923 until the early 1940s, producing still-lifes and landscapes. The watercolour Safed (1923; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.), with its mosaic-like patches of colour, is characteristic of the works of the 1920s, which were mainly of landscapes around Jerusalem, Haifa Bay and Safed. In the 1930s he painted views from his Tel Aviv studio or flowers on a window-sill, as in View from the Window over Tel Aviv (1935; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.)

In 1948 Zaritsky was one of the co-founders of the New Horizons group and soon came to be its leader. His painting developed into what was called ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Istanbul, 1901; d Amman, Sept 5, 1991).

Turkish painter . The daughter of Shakir Pasha, a Turkish general, diplomat and historian, she was brought up in a distinguished family of statesmen and intellectuals. She went to the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, in 1920, where she studied under Namık Ismail (1890–1935), and then to Paris in 1927, where she studied at the Académie Ranson under Roger Bissière. On returning to Istanbul, she joined an association of young Turkish painters known as the D Group, which was founded in 1933. In 1934 she married the Hashemite prince Zeid El-Hussein, a diplomat, and accompanied him on postings to Berlin, London and Paris. She had private exhibitions in Istanbul in 1944 and 1945, and then in 1946 at Izmir and the Musée Cernuschi, Paris. After World War II, when she moved back to western Europe, she had further exhibitions in London, Paris, Brussels, New York and elsewhere. She participated in the ...


(b Tehran, 1937).

Iranian painter and printmaker . He studied at the College of Fine Arts and the College of Decorative Arts in Tehran and began to exhibit his work early in his career, at the Biennales in Paris (1959–63), Tehran (1960–66), São Paulo (1963) and Venice (1964), receiving a number of awards. He first began to be influenced by Iranian Shi‛ite folk art in 1959, presenting it in his work in a distinctive way, with neither parody nor satire. He went to live in Paris in 1961 but continued to take a close interest in the development of art in Iran. At the third Tehran Biennale in 1962, held in the Abyaz Palace in the Gulistan compound, he exhibited canvases that consisted of geometric patterns of squares, triangles and circles, using colours characteristic of religious folk art, and covered with calligraphy to create a distinctive texture. It was on this occasion that the Iranian art critic ...


(b Chicontepec, Veracruz, Jan 1, 1947).

Mexican draughtsman, printmaker, painter, and illustrator. Zenil is known for his reworking of recognizable Pop Mexicanist imagery—or known icons of Mexicanismo (mexicanidad; Mexican identity and culture)—such as the Mexican flag, sacred heart, Virgin of Guadalupe, calaveras (skulls), and lotería (Mexican bingo) symbols among others—while collapsing boundaries of the sacred and the profane and challenging the heteronormative. Zenil has been dubbed a member of the stylistic movement neomexicanidad (Neo-Mexicanism), alongside such Mexican artists as Javier de la Garza (b 1954), Julio Galán, and Rocío Maldonado. Zenil has acknowledged Enrique Guzmán (1952–86) as the initiator of Neo-Mexicanism in his work Oh Santa Bandera (a Enrique Guzmán) (1996; Mexico City, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo), which is a reworking Guzmán’s ¡Oh! Santa bandera! (1977) that reiterates Guzmán’s early ironic reinterpretation of Mexican iconography as cultural critique.

A pioneer of Mexican Post-modernism in using strategies of appropriation, fragmentation, parody, and text, Zenil rejected the dominant style of ...


Roman Prahl

(b Prague, May 25, 1849; d Prague, Nov 15, 1916).

Bohemian painter . From 1863 to 1877 he studied at the Prague Academy of Visual Arts and the Vienna Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Eduard Engerth (1818–97), Josef Mathias von Trenkwald (1824–97) and Jan Swerts (1820–79). He assisted Trenkwald and Swerts on large-scale decorative schemes (Trenkwald’s wall paintings in the Votivskirche, Vienna, and Swerts’s Hôtel de Ville, Courtrai, Belgium), which launched his successful career as a mural painter. His most important commission was the decoration of the National Theatre in Prague (1880–83), on which he worked partly with Mikoláš Aleš. Ženíšek’s principal works were both the first curtain of the theatre and the main hall’s ceiling decoration.

Ženíšek’s work draws on the idea of a national style, originated by Josef Mánes. A capable draughtsman with a smooth and elegant manner, he was active in many branches of art and became one of the principal official Czech painters of his time. His paintings of subjects from early Bohemian history won great acclaim, and he was also an outstanding portrait painter (the ...


Weihe Chen

[Chiang Chao-ho]

(b Luzhou, Sichuan Province, May 9, 1904; d Beijing, April 15, 1986).

Chinese painter. He is considered one of the most important representatives of figure painting in 20th-century China. His long artistic career can be divided into three phases. From 1920 to 1928 he worked to familiarise himself with various arts. He worked in Shanghai as a commercial artist, doing portraits to order, designing advertisements and dressing shop windows. In his spare time he taught himself sketching, oil painting, gouache and sculpture. He mastered the structure, anatomy and proportions of the body, gained a good command of portraiture and developed a faculty for analysing and faithfully representing objects.

The period from 1925 to 1936 was one of comprehensive practice and exploration. In 1927 he became acquainted with Xu Beihong and the following year he became a teacher in the art department at National Central University in Nanjing. From 1930 to 1932 he gave sketching lessons at the School of Fine Arts in Shanghai. His first recorded oil painting, ...


Mayching Kao

[Fang Chao-ling]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, Jan 17, 1914; d Hong Kong, February 20, 2006).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. Born into a prosperous and well-educated family, Fang developed an early interest in art. She studied at the University of Hong Kong and Oxford University before devoting herself to art from the 1950s onwards. The foundations of her art were traditional. A student of Qian Songyan (1899–1985), Zhao Shao’ang (b 1905) and Zhang Daqian, she grasped firmly the spirit and techniques of her native tradition, especially the expressive calligraphic line. In addition to studying Chinese literature and philosophy, she ‘walked 10,000 miles’ to visit scenic landscapes in China and elsewhere. She was also open to influences from modern developments in Western art. Her personal and individualistic style evolved from a synthesis of these factors, expressing her profound empathy for the joys and sorrows of life and her refreshing vision in bold compositions and powerful brushwork.

Wucius Wong: ‘Fang Zhao-ling’, Orientations, 13/11 (1982), pp. 44–55...


M. N. Sokolov

( Dmitrevich )

(b Volnovka, Krasnodar region, May 25, 1927).

Russian painter . He trained in Moscow at the Institute of Applied and Decorative Art (1944–6) and the Surikov Art Institute (1946–51) under Pavel Korin and others, while Vladimir Favorsky was particularly influential in shaping his talent. Zhilinsky was a member of the generation of the so-called Severe (or Austere) Style (Rus. Surovyy Stil’), a movement in Russian art in the 1960s that sought to endow images with a new integrity and strict verism, thereby overcoming the decrepit standards of Socialist Realism, and he has always been distinguished by the refined aestheticism of his paintings. Working in tempera on levkas (the gesso-like priming typical of Russian medieval painting), he drew stylistically on the heritage of the Italian Quattrocento and the German Renaissance. Touches of a sort of Art Nouveau revival are also manifested in his precise, rhythmical use of line and in the exquisite details of his works. One of the most talented Russian portrait painters, he often turned his portraits into extended metaphors of human life (e.g. ...


Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....


Anita Kühnel

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Dec 20, 1926).

German painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at the Hochschule für Bildende und Angewandte Kunst (1950–55) in Weissensee, Berlin, and at the Deutsche Akademie der Künste (1955–8) under Heinrich Ehmsen. As well as Ehmsen, the work of Picasso, Georges Rouault and Chaïm Soutine were important sources of inspiration early in his career. In the late 1950s he and other like-minded painters in Berlin embraced sensualism in painting. His important early pictures include Dead Fisherman (1957; artist’s col.), Boy with a Hen (1959; Schwerin, Staatl. Mus.) and Agricultural Apprentice (1961; Berlin, Alte N.G.)

From c. 1964 colour became more important for its own sake. Zickelbein’s knowledge of Jackson Pollock’s work was influential on the Darss landscapes (1963–4). His experience of the primeval forest-like character of the Darsser Wald opened up new artistic perspectives. In numerous gouaches the unbridled growth process of nature is turned into a feast of colours applied in broad brushstrokes and dabs. In his gouaches (his favourite medium), as well as vitality he developed a wealth of nuances in the scale of subdued broken colours, controlled with great sensitivity. In his lithographs of Darss landscapes form is conveyed entirely by bundles of lines and strokes. In the mid-1960s he began a long period of works related to architecture (sometimes in conjunction with ...


(b Beaune, Feb 21, 1821; d Paris, Feb 11, 1911).

French painter. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon until he was expelled in 1838 for unruly behaviour. In 1839 he left for Marseille, where he was Clerk of Works on the construction of the Marseille canal. In November 1839 he was noticed by Ferdinand Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, who accepted two watercolours that Ziem presented to him and commissioned a further six. This first success decided Ziem’s vocation, and he started a drawing class that was attended by Louis Auguste Laurent Aiguier (1819–65) and Adolphe Monticelli. During this period he also encountered the Provençal artists Emile Loubon (1809–63), Prosper Grésy (1804–74) and Gustave Ricard.

In 1842 Ziem left for Nice, where he came into contact with members of the European aristocracy, with whom, thanks to his talent and his charm, he was soon on familiar terms. During the following years he travelled widely. Sophie, the Grand Duchess of Baden, invited him to Baden in ...


[ Philippe ]

(b The Hague, April 20, 1857; d Villefranche, Oct 3, 1930).

Dutch printmaker, painter and writer. He went to the drawing academy in The Hague, where he was taught by J. C. K. Klinkenberg (1852–1924) and Anton Mauve. He was a painter and draughtsman as well as an etcher, engraver and lithographer, and depicted landscapes, townscapes and still-lifes. He lived and worked mainly in The Hague, belonging to both the Amsterdam society Arti et Amicitiae and the Pulchri Studio there. As a graphic artist he achieved considerable fame, especially through his reproductive etchings of works by painters of the Hague school (J. Israëls, the Maris brothers and Weissenbruch) and 17th-century masters such as Vermeer.

In 1885 Zilcken was involved in setting up the Dutch Etching Club (Nederlandsche Etsclub). As an editor of Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift from 1896 to 1905, he became a well-known writer on art. With his etchings of exceptional quality and his publications about graphic art, he contributed towards the revival of Dutch etching. He also did much to publicize the Hague school, particularly in America, where he had many connections with collectors and museum officials. Zilcken had about ten pupils, among them his daughter ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Planegg, Bavaria, Nov 6, 1948).

German painter. He studied Philosophy and Comparative Religion at the Freie Universität in Berlin (1973–9). In May 1977 he was involved in the founding of the Galerie am Moritzplatz in West Berlin, where later that year he had his first solo exhibition, Flut. He was associated at this time with the 'Neue Wilden' painters, including Rainer Fetting, Helmut Middendorf and Salomé, whose works were shown to a wide public for the first time in the exhibition Heftige Malerei (Berlin, Haus Waldsee). He was awarded the Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff Stipend for 1979–81 and later completed residencies in Rome (1982–4) and Rapallo (1987–8). Through his richly coloured, gestural paintings Zimmer consistently explored aspects of nature and landscape. In series of paintings dealing with types of landscapes or elemental aspects of nature he often referred to journeys that he had made, as in the Wüstenbilder (‘desert paintings’) series (...


Sergey Kuznetsov

[ Zhmuydzinavichyus, Antanas ( Ionasovich )]

(b Seiriai, Seinai region, Oct 31, 1876; d Kaunas, Aug 9, 1966).

Lithuanian painter, administrator and writer. He qualified as a drawing teacher at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and taught at the Warsaw Commercial College (1899–1905) while continuing his studies. He also studied in Paris (from 1905), Munich (1908–9) and Hamburg (1912). During a short stay in Vilnius in 1906–7 he became close to Petras Rimša and Mikalojus Čiurlionis, founding the Lithuanian Art Society, which combined two trends in Lithuanian art: realist (Žmuidzinavičius, Petras Kalpokas, Rimša) and Symbolist (Čiurlionis). He was the initiator of the first Lithuanian Art Exhibition, held in Vilnius in 1907, at which he showed 35 paintings, among them Peasant Kitchen (1905; Kaunas, A. Žmuidzinavičius Mem. Mus.). During these years Žmuidzinavičius was influenced by the work of the Symbolists, as evident in Horseman (1910–12; Kaunas, A. Žmuidzinavičius Mem. Mus.). His essays on art were published in periodicals and newspapers in Vilnius, Kaunas and Warsaw in the first two decades of the 20th century. He maintained contact with Lithuanian emigrés in the USA, which he visited in ...