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Bernard Aikema

(b Este, nr Padua, Dec 6, 1631; d Venice, April 12, 1722).

Italian painter . His first teacher was Giacomo Pedrali (d 1660), whose influence, however, is not discernible in Zanchi’s work. At an early age he travelled to Venice to study under Matteo Ponzone (1580/90–1664). The latter’s style, which was influenced by Tintoretto, played a limited role in his development; the influence of Francesco Ruschi ( fl 1643–56), originally from Rome and also active in Venice, Vicenza and Treviso, was more important during the artist’s formative years. The plasticity of the figures and the hard, almost metallic fall of the folds in the drapery that characterize his first known works, a series of etched frontispieces for opera librettos (earliest 1655: La Statira by G. F. Busenello), are certainly indebted to Ruschi. The few paintings by Zanchi that can be dated to the 1650s, such as the Entry into Jerusalem (Padua, Casa di Pena; ex-S Marta, Venice), also display similarities to Ruschi but at the same time betray a great interest in the early work of Luca Giordano and in Giovanni Battista Langetti, who had come from Genoa and worked in Venice. In the following years Zanchi adopted their stylistic traits, characterized by a strongly accentuated realism, dramatic chiaroscuro effects and a preference for violent subjects. He soon became a prominent representative of the ...


Giovanna Perini

( Cavazzoni )

(b Paris, Oct 4, 1674; d Bologna, Sept 28, 1765).

Italian writer, painter and poet . He trained as a painter with Lorenzo Pasinelli and was active mainly in Bologna. Although his painting, as exemplified by such works as Joseph Retrieving the Silver Cup from Benjamin’s Sack (Bologna, Credito Romagnolo), was undistinguished, being a weak blend of classicist clichés and the graceful Rococo palette derived from Pasinelli, Zanotti was a friend of many outstanding men of letters and wrote widely on subjects connected with art. In 1710 he contributed a defence of Guido Reni’s works in the controversy between Domenico Bouhours and Giovan Gioseffo Orsi concerning the concepts of ‘delicateness’ and ‘weakness’ in painting. By that date he had already published a number of works, including a biography (1703) of Pasinelli, a defence (1705) of Carlo Cesare Malvasia’s Felsina pittrice (1678), which championed the late Baroque Bolognese tradition, and a revised edition (1706) of ...


Torbjörn Fulton

( fl Sweden, 1663–6).

German stuccoist, also active in Sweden . His earliest known works were stuccos in the palace (early 1660s; destr. 1944) of C. G. Wrangel in Stralsund, where he co-operated with Giovanni Anhtoni . They arrived together in Sweden in 1663 and executed work in Wrangel’s Stockholm palace on Riddarholmen. Later, up to 1664, in Skokloster Castle, they created three ceilings in the master suite, either working together or separately. The Skokloster ceiling (1663–4) in the King’s Hall, which links the two halves of the master suite, is a vast surface clearly divided by sturdy, richly profiled frames into a central octagonal compartment and four round corner panels. In the central compartment, the figure of a young man dressed in Roman soldier’s costume, apparently pouring liquid from a drinking horn into the nose or eye of a winged dragon, has been interpreted as that of Apollo, Jason or (most likely) Daniel. In the four corner panels are depicted figures representing Europe, Asia, Africa and America. Between the panels are decorative figures and flowers and heavy scroll ornaments. The heavy, almost toppling sculptural quality of the ceiling is set off by bright colours, at least partially preserved in their original state....



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


A. Gerhardt

(b Regensburg, 1581; d Dresden, Dec 28, 1620).

German ivory-carver . His father, Pankraz Zeller, worked as a turner at the Saxon court in Dresden from 1583. In 1610 Jakob Zeller was appointed court turner and teacher of the art of turning to Christian II, Elector of Saxony, and to John-George I in 1613. Among his numerous ivory pieces for the royal art collection—in 1618 he cited 22 works that he had produced since 1613—were ceremonial goblets, for example an ornate goblet (1610; Stockholm, Kun. Slottet) with Andromeda as the stem and crowned by a group of Perseus on horseback fighting the monster. The use of such sculptural ornamentation as mascarons is typical of his work. He also made numerous counterfeit spheres. One example (1611; Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) is a large globe with four round openings, through which can be seen a smaller, similar broken globe bearing a medallion with the portraits of Christian II, his wife and their respective coats of arms. On the top of the globe there is a figurine of a boy with a skull; at the foot there is a figure of a Roman warrior....


J. Krčálová

Bohemian family of patrons . Jan Žerotín (d 25 Feb 1583), chief justice of Moravia, visited France in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A member of the Czech Brethren, he established on his estate at Kralice the sect’s printing works, issuing some 70 publications, including a translation of the Bible. In the 1570s he transformed the castles at Náměšť nad Oslavou and Rosice in Renaissance style. Náměšť Castle, which was probably the work of Leonardo Garovo (d 1574), was completed as an enclosed four-wing block c. 1580, as was Rosice Castle c. 1600. His son (1) Karel Žerotín and his nephew (2) Ladislav Žerotín continued the renovation of the family’s castles and the tradition of humanist scholarship and patronage.

A. Prokop: Die Markgrafschaft Mähren in kunstgeschichtlicher Beziehung, 3 (Vienna, 1904), pp. 668, 685, 744, 748, 763, 808–17, 830, 847–50, 945 Z. Tobolka: Žerotínská knihovna...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Ch’eng Cheng-k’uei; zi Duanbo; hao Juling, Qingxi Daoren]

(b Xiaogan, Hubei Province, 1604; d Hubei Province, 1676).

Chinese painter and scholar-official. Cheng took the civil-service examinations to become a juren at the age of 21 and a jinshi seven years later. In 1631 he accepted an official position at the Ming court (1368–1644) in Beijing. While there he met Dong Qichang, the distinguished theorist and scholar, who is said to have tutored him in calligraphy and painting. A few years later, when Cheng resigned his post and tried to return to Hubei, he was seized by rebels but subsequently released. In 1642 he was called back to the capital to serve as Keeper of the Imperial Seals. Two years later he left Beijing to take a post in Nanjing but was again captured by rebel troops and briefly joined them. He eventually escaped and accompanied other Ming officials to Nanjing in support of the Prince of Fu. When Manchu forces took Nanjing in 1645, Cheng surrendered and joined the new government under the Qing dynasty (...


Kim Hongnam

[Chou Liang-kung]

(b Nanjing, 1612; d 1672). Chinese patron, collector and writer. Zhou’s devotion to the art of his own time rather than to that of the past was unique in traditional China. His huge collection of contemporary paintings was unrivalled in his day, and his extensive influence within the art world led artists to seek his endorsement. His book Duhua lu (‘Record of researches into painting’; c. 1673), also known as Du hua lou hua ren zhuan (‘Biographies of painters from researches into painting’), a collection of biographical notes on 77 painters, became and has remained the authoritative source on 17th-century Chinese painters. Also well known is Zhou’s 18-leaf collective album with facing inscriptions (Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.), which groups together the works of various contemporary artists.

Zhou was a man of classical culture and taste. In his aesthetic outlook he maintained a view typical of the Chinese literati (Chin. ...


Andrew Stoga

[Ziarnko, Jan; Le Grain, Jean]

(b Lwów [L’viv], later 16th century; d ?Paris, c. 1628).

Polish engraver and painter, active in France . He learnt his craft in Kraków. In 1596–7 he appears in Lwów archives as a member of the city’s Brotherhood of Catholic Painters. By 1598 he was already abroad; he reached Paris by way of Italy and settled there, though it has been suggested that late in life he returned to Lwów. In Paris, Ziarnki established himself as a painter-engraver closely associated with the courts of Henry IV and Louis XIII. His earliest engraving, dated 1605, represents Pope Leo XI. Ziarnki also illustrated books, frequently dedicated to the king or queen, and designed courtly festivals. He cooperated with such notable French engravers as Jean Leclerc (c. 1595–c. 1625), Léonard Gaultier, Claude Vignon and Robert Nanteuil. Ziarnki’s oeuvre includes over 90 engravings, but his activities have been little studied.

Thieme–Becker E. Rastawiecki: Słownik malarzów polskich tudzież obcych w Polsce osiadłych lub czasowo w niej przebywających...


Barbara Kahle

German family of ivory-turners . The family originated in Nuremberg, where various members were occupied with artistic turnery, particularly in ivory, from the late 16th to the 18th century. Indeed, it was principally the work of the Zick family that made Nuremberg one of the three main centres (along with Regensburg and Dresden) of ivory-turning for the manufacture of objets d’art. The family workshop achieved extraordinary skill in overcoming the greatest technical difficulties. Although little is known of the careers of individual family members, such contemporary sources as Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1730) and Johann Michael Teuber (1740) provide important points of reference. The artistic dynasty is thought to begin with Peter Zick I (1571–1629), who was at some period turnery master to Emperor Rudolf II at his court in Prague. Peter Zick I was famous for his ivory drinking vessels (e.g. in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), and an ivory nef (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.) may also be attributable to him; it bears an imperial coat of arms, perhaps a reference to his stay at the court in Prague. His son ...


(b ?1627; d Grimbergen, Aug 12, 1660).

Flemish monk and architect. According to the records of the Norbertine abbey at Grimbergen, as a young Norbertine monk he drew up the plans and supervised the initial building work of the abbey church, begun in 1660 under Abbot Charles Fernandez de Velasco. This was one of the most important Baroque churches of the time in Belgium. By 1662 the choir was completed; the nave and the tower were only finished at the beginning of the 18th century (consecrated 1725). As with the Norberti ne churches of Averbode (1664–72) and Ninove (1635–1723), Brabant, the architect sought to combine a central structure with a deep choir, thereby achieving a light, rich interior. To avoid construction problems the dome was executed in wood and stucco and worked into the roof of the church, as in Willem Hesius’s St Michielskerk, Leuven.

J. Delestré: ‘L’Architecte de l’église abbatiale de Grimberghe’, ...


Jane Shoaf Turner

(b Amsterdam, 1641; d Amsterdam, May 18, 1724

Dutch collector, dealer and artist . He was trained by Pieter Janssen as a glass-engraver and was active as a dealer in glass until 1687, when he became one of Amsterdam’s most important saleroom brokers and appraisers and began to deal in other forms of art. By 1690 he had become one of the leading dealers in paintings, drawings and prints, counting not only Dutch collectors but also foreigners among his clientele, for instance Prince Eugene of Savoy. Long before this, from c. 1660, however, he had himself begun to collect drawings, prints and books. He owned drawings by mostly Dutch artists, such as Gerrit Berckheyde, Cornelis Bega, Jan Both, Pieter van Laer, Jan Noordt and Jacob Backer, and no less than seven volumes of drawings by Rembrandt. He seems to have applied his mark, a cartouche printed in black with the initials I.P.Z. (see Lugt), to drawings that passed through his hands as well as into his own collection. He also generally inscribed the name of the artist on each sheet, though at times he was deliberately optimistic with his attributions, especially with drawings said to be by Italian artists. He often bought prints and drawings already assembled in albums, which he then broke up and reconstituted into new ‘series’ that included individual items that were more difficult to sell. His print collection was more wide-ranging, with examples by Dutch, Flemish, Italian, French and German artists. Again, however, ...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Heidelberg, 1556; d Tübingen, 1607).

German painter and woodcut designer . His training appears Swiss, but he is first documented in 1579 in Wildberg, in the duchy of Württemberg, painting an organ front. Shortly afterwards he was mentioned as the painter of epitaph pictures in Herrenberg (Stiftskirche) and in the vicinity of Tübingen (Derendingen). By 1583 at the latest he was connected with the court at Stuttgart. In 1586 he married the widow of the painter Hans Schickhardt (1512–85) in Tübingen, thereby acquiring a workshop and the rights and privileges of a painter. In Stuttgart he worked first as an illuminator, imaginatively creating richly decorated title pages for manuscripts, using ornamentation reminiscent of the decoration on Swiss painted glass. He was probably also employed in illustrating family record books, an art form that was flourishing in university towns at the time. Although he was not a salaried official of the court at Stuttgart, he was engaged for various specific tasks, mainly of a decorative nature. Between ...


Sabine Heym

Italian–Swiss family of stuccoists, builders and architects active in Bavaria . The first important member of the family was Giovanni Battista Zuccalli (d 1678), a stuccoist recorded as working in Kempten (Allgäu) in 1661. His son-in-law Gaspare [Kaspar] Zuccalli (1629–78) and a cousin Domenico Christoforus Zuccalli ( fl 1651; d 1702) worked together (until c. 1666), designing and building churches and conventual buildings in Upper Bavaria and the Innviertel district. Gaspare, following his appointment (1668) as master mason to the Bavarian electoral court, brought (1) Enrico Zuccalli, son of Giovanni Battista, to Munich. Enrico, who had previously trained in Paris in the circle of Gianlorenzo Bernini, became the most important architect in the family and one of the most prominent architects in the circle of Italian-influenced builders from the Grisons. In later years he trained his young cousin Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli (...


R. W. Lightbown

( Giulio )

(b Syracuse, 1656; d Paris, Dec 22, 1701).

Italian sculptor, active also in France . He was born of a noble family named Zummo (he changed the spelling to Zumbo in Paris) and educated for the church. Zumbo was a wax sculptor and anatomical modeller and, like many late 16th- and 17th-century amateurs who practised the art of wax modelling, was probably self-taught, although he may have learnt something of the technique in Sicily, where wax imagery was popular. Before 1691 he went to Naples and visited Rome and other cities in Italy. He was an enthusiastic collector of Old Master drawings and engravings. In Naples he may have invented a new method of colouring wax for sculpture ( see Wax §II 1., (i) ), which attracted sufficient notice for him to be summoned to Florence in 1691 by Cosimo de’ Medici III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who paid him a monthly pension. As a sample of his skill he may have brought with him a scene with wax figures, the ...


Gordon Campbell


Jorge Luján-Muñoz and Liliana Herrera

(b c. 1615; d Santiago de Guatemala [now Antigua], ?Jan 14, 1687).

Guatemalan sculptor. His work as a master sculptor (Maestro) began around 1640 in Santiago de Guatemala (now Antigua). In 1654 he made the famous Baroque processional statue of Jesús Nazareno for the church of La Merced (in situ), which was finely carved and brought him renown. The tinting and painting of the figure was by Joseph de la Cerda. A statue made for the church of Candelaria, known as Jesús Nazareno de Candelaria (now in the church of the Candelaria, Guatemala City) has also been attributed to him, but on insufficient grounds. In 1660, as the leading sculptor in Guatemala, Zúñiga received important commissions that included retables for the convents of La Concepción and of S Catalina. In 1666 he was responsible for the construction of the catafalque for the funerary honours for Philip IV (d 1665). In the contract he described himself as Maestro of sculpture and architecture. In ...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[ Chao Tso ; zi Wendu ]

(b ?Songjiang [in modern Shanghai Municipality], c. 1570; d ?Tangxi, West Lake region of Hangzhou, c. 1633).

Chinese painter and theorist . Zhao studied painting under the landscape painter and calligrapher Song Xu and became the founder of the Yunjian school, one of two groups active in the Songjian region, near Shanghai, during the early 17th century (the other, the Huating school, was led by Dong Qichang , the founder and theorist of the Orthodox school of painting). Zhao wrote a short text called Lun hua (‘Discussion of painting’), the first surviving text on landscape painting since the Xie shanshui jue (‘Secrets of describing landscape’), written by Huang Gongwang about three centuries earlier. The essay adheres to Huang’s concerns with dynamic force (shi), natural order (li) and the organization of mountain masses in long, continuous movements within the composition. Zhao Zuo’s text lacks the stern intellectual tone of Dong Qichang’s writing. It offers practical advice for the artist, such as how to sketch houses, trees and bridges in dry brushwork before developing the forms with wet ink, and includes advice on depicting figures, villages and temples, anecdotal elements not often found in Dong’s painting. Indeed, Yunjian school painting in general, and Zhao’s work in particular, is more representational, more relaxed and executed with softer brushstrokes and less dramatic tonal contrast than comparable Huating school works....


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

German family of sculptors. They were among the most important and productive families of sculptors in southern Germany in the 17th century. Hans Zürn the elder (1555/60–after 1631) had six sons, all of whom became sculptors. No documented work of his has survived, but on the basis of his presumed contribution to the high altar in Überlingen Minster (see §1 below), an attractive Crucifix (Wangen, Kapelle am Isnyer Tor) and a bust of St Jacob (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) have been attributed to him. These wooden figures, with their slender, elongated bodies and gaunt, introspective faces, have a precious yet frail quality when compared with the work of his sons, with whom he frequently collaborated. The most prominent of these, all of whom started their careers in the Bodensee region, was (1) Jörg Zürn of Überlingen, whose masterpiece was the five-storey Mannerist high altar in Überlingen Minster. ...