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Enrique Valdivièso

( fl 1639–51).

Spanish painter . He was a minor painter, active in the region of Guadalajara and in Madrid, who confined himself to religious subjects and to landscape, a relatively rare genre in Spanish Baroque painting. His works are often based on engravings of Flemish paintings; he had a conventional drawing style and a poor sense of colour, and his figures frequently lack expression.

The earliest known works by him are the paintings for the altarpiece in the collegiate church at Pastrana, near Guadalajara, of 1639. There are ten figures of female saints and a St Francis and a Crucifixion in the upper part. In these works Ximeno made strong use of chiaroscuro, but they are of modest technical quality. In 1640 he painted the Adoration of the Shepherds, the Annunciation and the Adoration of the Magi for the altarpiece of S María del Rey at Atienza, near Guadalajara. The paintings of St James...

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Burglind Jungmann

Korean family of scholars and painters. They were descended from Yi Kyang-gun, eighth son of King Sŏngjong (reg 1469–94) of the Chosŏn dynasty (the family name of this dynasty was Yi). Two of Yi Kyang-gun’s great-grandsons, (1) Yi Kyŏng-yun and (2) Yi Yŏng-yun, were painters and were influenced by the Chinese Zhe school . Yi Kyŏng-yun’s son, (3) Yi Ching, a court painter, also worked in the Zhe school tradition. Two other sons, Yi Ch’uk (1566–1637) and Yi Wi-guk (b 1597), had the reputation of being good calligraphers.

(b 1545; d 1611).

As a direct descendant of King Sŏngjong in the fourth generation, he was not allowed to sit any examinations. He did, however, achieve the title of nobility of Hangnim-su (senior fourth rank) and later gained promotion to Hangnim-jŏng (senior third rank). The artist used both titles as sobriquets. Contemporary texts reflect his reputation as a painter. Thus, Yi Myŏng-han (...

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Burglind Jungmann

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Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[zi Tianshu; hao Xihu Waishi, Shitoutuo]

(b Qiantang, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 1585; d c. 1664).

Chinese painter. Lan Ying spent most of his early life in Hangzhou (one of his hao names, Xihu Waishi, means ‘unofficial historian of West Lake’, referring to the city’s famous lake). He was classified by Chinese writers as the last of the professional painters working in the tradition of the Zhe school, a lineage that began with Dai Jin. Despite his professional status, Lan travelled widely and drew from masters of Suzhou in Jiangsu Province, such as Shen Zhou, and from the Huating (modern Songjiang in Shanghai Municipality) circle of painters, including such artists as Sun Kehong (1533–1611) and Chen Jiru, led by Dong Qichang.

Lan Ying is said to have shown great talent by the age of eight and to have produced a landscape of mountains, forests, rivers and clouds on the floor of a hall in his house with ashes from the family’s ancestral altar; he copied the works of painters of the Tang (618–907) and Song (...

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Peter Mitchell

(b Antwerp, 1601; d Antwerp, before 1693).

Flemish painter . In 1613–14 he was apprenticed to his uncle, the flower and still-life painter Osias Beert I, and he became a Master at Antwerp in 1630. According to his own declaration (1641), Ykens travelled in Provence after his apprenticeship, staying at Aix and Marseille. He married in 1635, purchased a house in 1651 and made a will in 1666. Most of his work is signed.

Ykens’s still-life and flower paintings were executed in a number of styles and formats over a long career. Under the influence of Daniel Seghers, he painted many garlands of flowers surrounding votive images by other artists, using cartouches, putti and fruits to vary the composition (versions, Oxford, Ashmolean; Paris, Louvre; Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.). He also painted bouquets of flowers in glass vases in the manner of Seghers and Jan Philip van Thielen (1618–67); these tend occasionally to sparseness and a slightly sombre effect, but variations in quality throughout his work make assessment difficult. Ykens’s ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Constantino Reyes-Valerio and Liliana Herrera

Term used to designate the architecture characteristic of the Yucatán peninsula in south-east Mexico, particularly the religious architecture of the 16th century. A number of factors militated against Spanish settlement in Yucatán in the early 16th century, notably the intense heat, difficulties in irrigating the area, the lack of precious metals, and the sparseness of the Indian population, which was mostly Maya. Consequently, the peninsula’s social and economic development was very different from that of the more densely populated central plateau, and this was reflected in its architecture, which was of a simpler and more austere character.

Despite the obstacles to settlement, Franciscan missionaries arrived in the Yucatán peninsula in the 1530s and 1540s and began to construct simple buildings to house the monks. In order to accommodate the large congregations of Indians, however, and to protect them from the sun, they built ramadas, or large shelters, in the monastery compounds. These were supported by tree trunks, with roofs made from branches, and they had no side walls, thereby allowing the free passage of air. Services were conducted from a small, open-fronted stone chapel or chancel, which was built facing the ...

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Rose E. Lee, Yi Sŏng-mi and Kim Kumja Paik

Korean family of painters and scholars. (1) Yun Tu-sŏ is regarded as one of the Sam chae (‘three literati masters’) of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910), together with Chŏng Sŏn and Sim Sa-jŏng. His great-grandfather was the poet Yun Sŏn-do (1587–1671). His son (2) Yun Tŏk-hŭi and grandson Yun Yong (1708–c. 1754) followed him in painting, and his great-grandson was the sirhak thinker and painter (3) Chŏng Yag-yong.

(b Haenam, South Chŏlla Province, May 20, 1668; d Haenam, Dec 26, 1715).

His eclectic output bridged the transition between painting of the mid-Chosŏn and late Chosŏn periods. Learned in Confucian classics, military strategy, geography and astronomy, he passed the initial state examination (chinsa) in 1693 but returned to Haenam in 1713 without acquiring office. He was aligned with the out-of-power Southerners (Namin), advocates of sirhak (‘practical learning’) and sŏhak...

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Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[ Hsiao Yün-ts’ung ; zi Chimu ; hao Wumen Daoren ]

(b Wuhu, Anhui Province, 1596; d 1673).

Chinese painter and poet . He was born some 150 km north of the region inhabited by artists of the Anhui school , with which he became associated, and was a contemporary of its leading member, Hongren. His family hoped he would pursue an official career, but Xiao failed the civil service examinations and instead became a semi-professional painter. He joined the loyalist Fu she (Restoration Society) in 1638 and in 1645 was forced to flee Wuhu in the face of invading Qing troops. On his return two years later he found his house ruined.

Perhaps partly from a need to make money, Xiao participated in two important printing projects, the Lisao tu (‘Illustrations to the poem Lisao’; c. 1645) and the Taiping shanshui tu (‘Topographical illustrations of the Taiping region’; 1648). Both projects brought together some of the best artists of 17th-century China and are exceptional examples of woodblock-carving and printing, an art that flourished in Anhui Province during the Ming period (...

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Dawn Ho Delbanco

[Ting Yün-p’eng; zi Nanyu; hao Shenghua Jushi]

(b Xiuning, Anhui Province, 1547; d after 1625).

Chinese painter. The son of a physician with modest artistic aspirations, he inherited his father’s love for art but was left with no financial means and was obliged to paint for a living. Ding became known primarily for his Buddhist figure painting, though he also painted landscapes and designed woodblock book illustrations. Ding was the most conservative of the major late Ming-period (1368–1644) figure painters with whom he is often grouped, but although he did not develop a distinctive or inventive personal style, he was a versatile artist of eclectic tastes, displaying a wide range in subject-matter and style (see fig.).

In the late 1570s Ding left Xiuning for the influential artistic centre of Huating in Jiangsu Province (modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality). He lived occasionally in Buddhist monasteries as a lay practitioner and made religious pictures for various temples. His earliest surviving dated work, an album depicting ...

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Joan H. O’Mara

(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1533; d 1615).

Japanese painter. He was the fifth son of a samurai retainer of the Asai clan, the rulers of Ōmi Province on the shores of Lake Biwa. In his youth he entered Tōfukuji, an important Zen temple in Kyoto, serving first as a page and later as a lay priest, reportedly with some reluctance. His service at Tōfukuji did, however, spare him the fate that befell the rest of his family in 1573, when the Asai clan was destroyed by Oda Nobunaga.

As a painter, Yūshō is said to have received early encouragement at Tōfukuji and training under a master of the Kanō family school, the leading school of painting at the time. He may have studied with Kanō Motonobu or perhaps with Kanō Eitoku, but he did not stay in the Kanō studio. During his formative years he was also exposed to the works of the Chinese painter Liang Kai...

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[Mir Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Ḥusaynī Muṣavvir]

(fl Isfahan, 1636–66).

Persian painter. A prolific artist during the reigns of the Safavid shahs Safi (reg 1629–42) and ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66), Muhammad Yusuf worked in a variety of styles. His earliest works, including the eight illustrations in a copy (1636; London, BL, Add. MS. 7922) of Baqi’s Dīvān (collected poetry) and single-page drawings and paintings (e.g. Youth Holding a Cane; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A., 14.637), exhibit fine draughtsmanship and a bright palette. In the 1640s he adopted a bolder calligraphic style for tinted drawings, such as the ones illustrating a copy of Hafiz’s Dīvān (1640; Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1010) and several single-page compositions (e.g. Paris, Bib. N., MS. arabe 6074, fols 3r, 4v and 5r). This change from the artistic ideals of the early 17th century to a new linear style may have resulted from exposure to the work of his contemporary ...

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(b Cesena, bapt April 12, 1574; d Rome, July 13, 1630).

Italian painter and writer . After studying optics and perspective in Cesena with the scientist Scipione Chiaramonti, he established himself in Rome from 1599 as a specialist in perspective. He painted the fictive architecture and decorative borders for Baldassare Croce’s frescoes (1598–1600) of scenes from the life of the saint in the nave of S Susanna, Rome. In collaboration with Giuseppe Agellio (c. 1570–after 1650), a pupil of Cristofano Roncalli, he painted the rear choir vault of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, in 1602 with an illusionistic opening to the sky, revealing his interest in the contemporary ceiling decorations of Cherubino Alberti and his brother Giovanni Alberti, who had decorated the front choir vault. After joining the Theatine Order in 1605, he worked exclusively for its monasteries and churches, including spending some time in Naples (c. 1621–3). He is known for a four-volume treatise on ...

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Eleanor Sims

[Muḥammad Zamān ibn Ḥājjī Yūsuf Qumī]

(fl 1649–1704; d before 1720–21/ah 1133).

Persian painter. He was the foremost practitioner of stylistic eclecticism in 17th-century Safavid painting (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). In 20th-century writing on Persian painting he was confused with a Persian Christian called Muhammad-Paolo Zaman, who is mentioned in the Storia do Mogor, a history of Mughal India by the Venetian adventurer Niccolas Manucci (?1639–after 1712). According to Martin, for instance, Muhammad Zaman was sent by Shah ‛Abbas II to study painting in Rome in the 1640s; he returned a convert to Christianity and had to take refuge at the court of the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, who gave him an official post in Kashmir. This theory would account for the distinctive features in his painting, such as figures in European dress, an interest in atmosphere, night scenes and cast shadows, and an elusive but pervasive flavour of Mughal India. In 1962, however, this account was discredited by the publication of the ...

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Bernard Aikema

(b Este, nr Padua, Dec 6, 1631; d Venice, April 12, 1722).

Italian painter . His first teacher was Giacomo Pedrali (d 1660), whose influence, however, is not discernible in Zanchi’s work. At an early age he travelled to Venice to study under Matteo Ponzone (1580/90–1664). The latter’s style, which was influenced by Tintoretto, played a limited role in his development; the influence of Francesco Ruschi ( fl 1643–56), originally from Rome and also active in Venice, Vicenza and Treviso, was more important during the artist’s formative years. The plasticity of the figures and the hard, almost metallic fall of the folds in the drapery that characterize his first known works, a series of etched frontispieces for opera librettos (earliest 1655: La Statira by G. F. Busenello), are certainly indebted to Ruschi. The few paintings by Zanchi that can be dated to the 1650s, such as the Entry into Jerusalem (Padua, Casa di Pena; ex-S Marta, Venice), also display similarities to Ruschi but at the same time betray a great interest in the early work of Luca Giordano and in Giovanni Battista Langetti, who had come from Genoa and worked in Venice. In the following years Zanchi adopted their stylistic traits, characterized by a strongly accentuated realism, dramatic chiaroscuro effects and a preference for violent subjects. He soon became a prominent representative of the ...

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Giovanna Perini

( Cavazzoni )

(b Paris, Oct 4, 1674; d Bologna, Sept 28, 1765).

Italian writer, painter and poet . He trained as a painter with Lorenzo Pasinelli and was active mainly in Bologna. Although his painting, as exemplified by such works as Joseph Retrieving the Silver Cup from Benjamin’s Sack (Bologna, Credito Romagnolo), was undistinguished, being a weak blend of classicist clichés and the graceful Rococo palette derived from Pasinelli, Zanotti was a friend of many outstanding men of letters and wrote widely on subjects connected with art. In 1710 he contributed a defence of Guido Reni’s works in the controversy between Domenico Bouhours and Giovan Gioseffo Orsi concerning the concepts of ‘delicateness’ and ‘weakness’ in painting. By that date he had already published a number of works, including a biography (1703) of Pasinelli, a defence (1705) of Carlo Cesare Malvasia’s Felsina pittrice (1678), which championed the late Baroque Bolognese tradition, and a revised edition (1706) of ...