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Daniel Robbins

(b Moscow, July 31, 1879; d Paris, Oct 30, 1968).

Russian painter, designer and illustrator. He was directed to enter the piano factory operated by his Finnish father, and besides learning the piano he took a commercial diploma in 1897. After becoming severely ill at the age of 22, he rethought his career and entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Introduced to the modern movement through the collections of Sergey Shchukin and Ivan Morosov, he joined the ranks of the Moscow avant-garde and by 1906 was close to the circle associated with the magazine Zolotoye runo (see Golden Fleece). He also met Alexander Archipenko, exhibiting with him in the company of David Burlyuk, Vladimir Burlyuk, Mikhail Larionov and Natal’ya Goncharova. With Hélène Moniuschko, whom he subsequently married, he travelled to Western Europe, visiting Paris in July 1908. The following August the couple settled in Paris, where Survage worked as a piano tuner and briefly attended the short-lived school run by ...


(b Arthabaska, Qué., April 5, 1869; d Daytona Beach, FL, Jan 29, 1932).

Canadian painter, sculptor and illustrator. He was educated at Arthabaska College and Nicolet seminary. Brought up in an ecclesiastical environment, in 1889 he helped to decorate the walls of the parish church of Arthabaska and the chapel of the local Collège du Sacré-Coeur. In 1890 he moved to France where he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Léon Bonnat as well as at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi. He remained in France until 1908, returning only briefly to Canada in 1893.

While in France Suzor-Coté painted many rural landscape works in a controlled Impressionist style, as in Return from the Harvest Field (1903; Ottawa, N.G.). He also painted occasional history subjects, such as the Death of Montcalm (1902; Quebec, Mus. Qué.), which depicts the death of the French commander in Canada, Louis-Joseph Montcalm (1712–59), after the defeat by the British. In 1908 he returned to Canada, setting up a studio in Montreal, and he then spent his summers in Arthabaska and the rest of the year in the studio. Many of his works were then Impressionist landscapes, such as ...


Katalin Gellér

(b Kolozsvár [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania], May 8, 1835; d Mátyásföld [now part of Budapest], Aug 21, 1910).

Hungarian painter and illustrator. He studied drawing in Kolozsvár and in the early 1850s was taught by Carl Rahl and Nepomuk Geiger at the Akademie in Vienna, where he also briefly attended Ferdinand Waldmüller’s classes. After returning to Hungary, he painted portraits and also signboards for shops and inns in Transylvania (now in Romania) and Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic). From 1859 he studied at the Munich Akademie under Wilhelm von Kaulbach and Karl Theodor von Piloty. As Székely’s sketches (Budapest, N.G.) reveal, he was already a mature artist on his arrival in Munich, where he produced his first important history painting, the Discovery of the Corpse of King Louis II, and also a Self-portrait (both 1860; Budapest, N.G.), the latter being one of his most striking works. In 1859 he painted a series of scenes based on the life of Caravaggio and in 1863 a historical secco in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich. Székely then went on a study tour of France, Flanders and the Netherlands and, on his return to Hungary, began painting portraits as a means of supporting his family....


Bailey Van Hook

(b West Groton, MA, April 26, 1862; d New Castle, NH, Aug 1, 1938).

American painter, illustrator, and teacher. He attended drawing lessons at the Normal Art School, Boston, MA, and art classes with W. A. G. Claus. From 1877 to 1880 he was apprenticed to a lithographic company in Boston. In 1879 Tarbell entered the School of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, where he was a pupil of Otto Grundmann (1844–90), a former student of Baron Hendrik Leys in Antwerp. In 1883 Tarbell left for Paris with his fellow student Frank W. Benson. Both Tarbell and Benson attended the Académie Julian, where they studied with Gustave Boulanger and Jules Lefebvre. They travelled to Italy in 1884 and to Italy, Belgium, Germany, and Brittany the following year. Tarbell returned to Boston in 1886. Initially after his return, Tarbell made a living from magazine illustration, teaching privately, and painting portraits. In 1889 Tarbell and Benson took Grundmann’s place at the Museum School. Tarbell was a popular teacher, whose prominence was so marked that his students were called ‘Tarbellites’. His teaching methods were traditional and academic: he required his pupils to render casts before they were allowed to paint. His motto was ‘Why not make it like?’, a query that shows his dedication to the model....


Norbert Götz

(b Bad Kissingen, April 9, 1871; d Mitterndorf, Nov 25, 1913).

German sculptor, illustrator and designer. He studied from 1889 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. After some difficult years he was appointed by Hans Poelzig in 1903 to teach at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Breslau (now Wrocław). By 1905 he had established a studio in Berlin where he worked mainly as an architectural sculptor for new buildings by Ludwig Hoffmann.

In spite of these commissions in Berlin, Taschner kept close links with Munich and Upper Bavaria. In 1907 and the following years he established a home for himself and his family at Mitterndorf, which he completely equipped and furnished himself. He became a close friend of the poet Ludwig Thoma in 1903, illustrating some of his books and designing the set for the first performance of his play Magdalena in Berlin.

Taschner designed clocks, lights and other items for the Munich firm Steinicken & Lohr, as well as stained-glass windows and furniture. As a sculptor he was especially successful with small-scale figures at German and international exhibitions. He was commissioned to produce a statue of ...


Sally Mills

(b Paris, France, April 1844; d Honolulu, HI, May 18, 1889).

American painter and illustrator of Anglo–French origin. Born to British parents of French Huguenot descent, he studied in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Félix Barrias and from 1864 to 1870 exhibited at the Salon. After fighting in the Franco–Prussian War, Tavernier moved to London, working briefly as a newspaper illustrator before moving to New York in late 1871. He became a contributing artist to several journals, including Harper’s Weekly, which in 1873 sent him and fellow Frenchman Paul Frenzeny (1840–?1902) to remote US territories and Indian lands; the two created a rich pictorial record of the changing landscape and peoples of the West. Reaching San Francisco in 1874, Tavernier decided to stay. He cultivated a bohemian lifestyle, socializing, travelling, entertaining and occasionally working in his lavish, exotically decorated studio. Primarily he painted landscapes and subjects drawn from his Western travels: Dreams at Twilight (The Artist’s Reverie)...


David Alexander

English family of engravers, illustrators and publishers. Isaac Taylor (i) (b Worcester, 13 Dec 1730; d Edmonton, 17 Oct 1807) worked initially for the London map publisher Thomas Jeffreys (fl 1732; d 1771). He engraved some plates of Old Master pictures for John Boydell and exhibited at the Society of Artists in 1765–80. He was a capable artist, much in demand for book illustrations, which he both designed and engraved, for example a vignette (1765) retained for many editions of Oliver Goldsmith’s Deserted Village and frontispieces (1780) for each of the seven volumes of Samuel Richardson’s Sir Charles Grandison. He also engraved architectural plates and in the 1770s he took over the business of Henry Webley of Holborn, the leading publisher of architectural books. From about 1775 he traded as I. & J. Taylor, at first with his brother James Taylor (...


Lewis Johnson

(b London, Feb 28, 1820; d London, Feb 25, 1914).

English illustrator and painter. Impatient with the hierarchic structure of the curriculum at the Royal Academy schools in London, he left to follow a less formal education at the Clipstone Street Art Society’s life and anatomy classes and in the British Museum’s sculpture galleries and Print Room. His research into the history of costume and armour provided material for his early oils of chivalric scenes, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy (1837–42, 1851). Tenniel was among the artists commissioned to decorate the New Palace of Westminster, and he went in 1845 on a state-sponsored trip to Munich to study fresco technique. His contact with the school of Peter Cornelius while there confirmed his emphatic preference for a precisely drawn line. His mural of St Cecilia (in situ) in the House of Lords was not followed by further commissions for paintings.

Blinded in his right eye by his father in a fencing match, Tenniel relied on what he called ‘a wonderful memory of observation’ and concentrated on book illustration. He achieved success with Hall’s ...


Leonée Ormond

(b Calcutta, July 18, 1811; d London, Dec 24, 1863).

English writer, illustrator and critic. His gift for rapid sketching declared itself in childhood, and he decided to become an artist. His addiction to draughtsmanship and gambling contributed to his failure to graduate from Trinity College, Cambridge. On visits to Paris in 1829 and 1830 he studied prints and made copies in the Bibliothèque du Roi. After leaving Cambridge in 1830 he spent several months in Germany, and on returning to England in 1831 he was briefly a law student. He contributed reviews and articles to a number of periodicals and in 1833 became part-owner of a weekly paper, the National Standard, appointing himself Paris correspondent. Over the next few years, he worked intermittently in the studios of Eugène Lepoittevin, Charles Lafond (1774–1835) and Antoine-Jean Gros. In London he attended Henry Sass’s drawing school.

At the end of 1833 Thackeray lost most of his inherited fortune in a bank crash. Soon afterwards, the ...


(b London or Portsea, July 31, 1773; d Portsea, April 6, 1843).

English painter and illustrator. He travelled to Paris with his father in 1787, returning to London at the outbreak of the Revolution. In 1790 he entered the Royal Academy Art Schools in London and was also a pupil of John Opie in 1791. He travelled extensively in Italy from 1793 to 1798 and returned to England via Vienna and Germany in 1799. He contributed scenes from The Tempest, among others, to John Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery and in 1800 began exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy. He was elected an ARA in 1801 and an RA in 1802 and from then on exhibited numerous genre, historical and mythological works, for example the Raising of Jairus’ Daughter (exh. RA 1820; London, Tate), and also some portraits. He provided illustrations for The English Classics (24 vols, London, 1803–10) and other works published by John Sharpe. In 1825 he succeeded Fuseli as Keeper of the Royal Academy but was forced to relinquish the post two years later becuase of severe illness. He retired to Portsea and produced no further significant work. Many of his paintings achieved considerable popularity, especially through the mezzotint copies made of them....


(b Dresden, Oct 23, 1775; d Dresden, Feb 11, 1842).

German architect and illustrator. He studied architecture and perspective (1791–5) with Gottlob August Hölzer (1744–1814). As little was built in Dresden until the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), he devoted himself to architectural and landscape drawings, often using them as a basis for engravings and etchings. These included the series of plates Dresden mit seinen Prachtgebäuden und schönsten Umgebungen (Dresden, 1807–8). He was appointed court inspector in 1810, subsequently rebuilding the Fürstenschule in Meissen and designing festive decorations for Napoleon’s entry into Dresden (1812) and the return of the king of Saxony (1815). In 1813 he visited Italy and in the same year supervised the rebuilding of the Marienkirche at Bischofswerda, near Dresden, where he later built the Rathaus (1818), a simple cube with a pyramidal roof. His particular Neo-classical style emerged in his designs of ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

[Vasily (Fyodorovich)]

(b nr Riga, June 9, 1820; d Berlin, April 7, 1895).

Russian painter, illustrator and lithographer of German descent. He began his career as a painter of battle scenes while studying under Gottlob Sauerweid (1783–1844) at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, although his first independent work was as an illustrator. In 1840–44 he produced drawings for a satirical publication in St Petersburg, and some of his work was used as official nationalist propaganda. Timm’s highly distinctive style influenced the later illustrative work of Aleksandr Agin (1817–75) amd Pyotr Boklevsky (1816–97). His work also influenced numerous artistic and literary ‘physiological’ studies of St Petersburg in the mid-19th century. Timm continually renewed his personal impressions of urban life and was influenced by the work of Honoré Daumier, Paul Gavarni and Aleksey Venetsianov, although he was blamed by many of his contemporaries and later cultural historians for lack of discrimination when choosing texts for illustration. In 1843...


Barbu Brezianu

(b Bârlad, April 13, 1885; d Bucharest, Feb 26, 1940).

Romanian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and writer. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Iaşi (1902–7), the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1908–9), under Hugo von Habermann, and in Paris (1909–10) in the studios of the painters Edmond Aman-Jean and Pierre Laprade. He held numerous exhibitions in Romania and abroad. He taught Byzantine decorative art, painting and drawing at the Academy of Sculpture and Painting, Bucharest (1929), and he was a professor and President of the Iaşi National Academy of Fine Arts (1933–40). He began working as a graphic artist from 1908, contributing to over 40 periodicals, sketches, drawings and cartoons, as well as reviews and polemical pieces. He decorated 13 churches, and he also wrote and illustrated several books.

Tonitza’s early graphic work was mostly political and social in inspiration, in the style of such artists as Olaf Gulbransson, Honoré Daumier and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen. In the course of time Tonitza achieved a personal style characterized by concision, versatility and elegance in line, with large-scale simplification and with a typical use of decorative accent. Such features were later also integrated into his paintings, following his gradual discarding of the academicism inspired by the Munich School. His palette, initially almost entirely dominated by brownish hues, eventually became lighter, with brighter tones dominated by ochre, yellow, burnt umber and shades of gold interspersed with cobalt and ultramarine. Tonitza’s personal style became most apparent in his series of children’s portraits, with their characteristically wide, melancholy eyes dominating the entire composition; his series of female nudes and torsos, which display a sensuality full of light, grace and candour, are also distinctive. Portraits of women and children are the main themes of his paintings, but other favourite subjects include still-lifes and panoramic landscapes frequently viewed from an elevated position. His last works, which show his attraction to the beauties of the Black Sea landscapes, have a charming combination of a calm and a sunny, Oriental atmosphere....


Alberto Villar Movellán

(d 1886).

Spanish architect. There is little biographical information on him, but his name is associated with the headquarters building of the Exposición Nacional de la Industria y las Artes (1881), Paseo de la Castellana, Madrid. His design replaced that of the English architect Peck, which had been awarded first prize in an international competition in 1862. Torriente’s design is one of the most notable examples of 19th-century iron architecture in Spain. It combines classicizing elements articulated in red brick and ceramics with structures of iron and glass in an eclectic mix. The iron structures were the work of the Belgian company Braine-le-Conte. Federico Villalva collaborated in the building and, after the death of Torriente, Emilio Boix Merino completed it in 1887. It was later partly modified to become the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and subsequently became the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales.

P. Navascués: i) [Colegio nacional de arquitectos, Cuba], ii) [Colegio oficial de arquitectos, Madrid; cont. as Rev. N. Arquit.]...


Alexandra Kennedy

(b Caranqui-Imbabura, Oct 25, 1845; d Ibarra, March 15, 1920).

Ecuadorean painter. He was self-taught as an artist. Between 1870 and 1874 he was appointed as the sole illustrator to a team of German scientists, including the naturalist Wilhelm Reiss and the geologist Alfons Stübel, who undertook volcanic surveys in Ecuador. Stübel trained him to make scientific oil paintings of landscapes in situ, emphasizing the details of flora and the exact location of mountains and rivers. A few of the 66 works executed during these years are in the Städtische Reiss-Museum, Mannheim. This scientific vision of the Andean landscape, combined with the freedom of the contemporary Romanticism, created a personal style that changed little and made him one of the most important 19th-century landscape painters in Latin America. His scientific paintings served as models for such later works as the Eastern Mountain Range from Tiopullo (1874; Quito, Banco Cent. del Ecuador) and the Deer Hunt (1918; Guayaquil, Mus. Antropol. & Mus. A. Banco Cent. del Ecuador). Troya executed portraits of notable Ecuadorean society figures, including the politician and historian ...


Laura Suffield

(b Providence, RI, Feb 14, 1860; d Boston, MA, Dec 29, 1941).

American typographer, printer, and graphic designer. He was advertising manager and layout artist at the publishing house of Houghton, Mifflin & Co. before transferring to the firm’s printing works at the Riverside Press, where he worked until 1892. Updike’s first freelance commission, the design of a Book of Common Prayer (1892), was well received, and in 1893 he set up his own studio, initially with the idea of designing types but then as a printing press, the Merrymount Press. He commissioned a new type called Merrymount from Bertram Goodhue for use on a new Episcopalian Altar Book (Boston, 1896). Between 1893 and 1896 Updike produced c. 18 books before turning to printing them himself, assisted by John Bianchi (fl 1893–1947), his first typesetter and later his partner. The Merrymount Press undertook a wide range of work for publishers, book clubs, libraries, churches, and institutions. In ...


Lewis Johnson

(b London, Feb 24, 1782; d Staines, Middx, Aug 26, 1857).

English painter and illustrator. He was apprenticed to the line-engraver Benjamin Smith (d 1833) in 1797, but his greater interest in portrait painting led him to take life classes at the Royal Academy, London; he exhibited portraits there from 1799. Versatile and industrious, he painted miniature likenesses, taught drawing, designed and engraved illustrations for books in French, Portuguese and English, and wrote for and illustrated Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository. His half-a-crown watercolours, known as ‘pretty faces’, were particularly popular, and he found employment as an assiduous copyist. In 1809 he was elected to the Society of Painters in Water-Colours and for the next nine years exhibited careful and colourful images of the countryside that provided views of the year’s harvest. In 1817 Uwins travelled to France to record the Burgundian grape harvest, identifying the labour force more obviously as peasants than their English counterparts. In debt, he moved in ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Málaga, Aug 15, 1821; d Madrid, Feb 19, 1882).

Spanish lithographer, illustrator and painter. In 1859 he enlisted for the African Campaign in Morocco, and the studies he did in Africa led to drawings for an atlas of the battles in Africa (Madrid, 1860), as well as those for Crónicas de la guerra de Africa (Madrid, 1859) by Emilio Castelar and for Diario (Madrid, 1859–60) by the novelist Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833–91). He promoted a section for lithography at the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in Madrid. An excellent portraitist, he also made numerous drawings and illustrations for newspapers, royal chronicles and for Iconografia española (Madrid, 1855–64) by Valentín Carderera y Solano, as well as lithographs of bullfights. He provided decorative works for various public buildings in Madrid and the provinces.

A. Canovas: Pintores malaqueños del siglo XIX (Málaga, 1908) A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 356 E. Paez Rios...


Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...


Annemieke Hoogenboom

(b Dordrecht, May 18, 1864; d Amsterdam, July 1, 1925).

Dutch painter, graphic artist, poet and critic. He was trained by August Allebé at the Amsterdam Rijksacademie. The circle of Allebé’s pupils with whom he associated, including George Hendrik Breitner, Willem Witsen and Jacobus van Looy, were known as the ‘Amsterdam school’ and were closely linked with the literary world. In 1885 Veth became involved with the avant-garde periodical De Nieuwe Gids. The reviews he wrote for it advocated an individualistic aestheticism which is not, however, manifested in his own paintings of this period; the rather naive realism of the portrait of his sisters Cornelia, Clara and Johanna Veth (1884–5; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) is typical. The unforced portrait of the poet Albert Verwey (1865–1937) of 1885 (Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.), dominated by blue-green and grey colours, is nearer to an assertion of mood. Around 1886 Veth attempted landscape painting under the tutelage of Anton Mauve, with whom he went on study trips in the countryside. Drawings and etchings of subjects from peasant life date from this time. Some of Veth’s etchings, including ...