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Article

Gordon Campbell

German pottery factory established in Hannover in 1736 by Baron Rudolf Johann of Wrisberg. Production of faience and stoneware began in 1737. Most wares were for domestic use, including jugs, dinnerware and flower pots. The factory also made tiles, of which there are 800 (including 680 emblem tiles) in the Tile Room of Wrisbergholzen Castle, and figures. The factory closed in ...

Article

Yixing  

Rose Kerr

Town in Jiangsu Province, China, situated c. 5 km west of Lake Tai, famous during the Qing period (1644–1911) and the 20th century for its high-quality teawares made of red stoneware. Most of the kilns lie to the south of Yixing in the village of Dingshuzhen.

It has been tentatively established that the earliest purplish-red Yixing stonewares were produced as early as the Song period (960–1279); examples include two pear-shaped vessels with dark purplish stoneware body and partial olive-brown glaze, found in a disused well in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in 1961 (see Lo, p. 15). Excavations in that area have revealed kilns as well as sherds of coarse red stoneware, including many fragments of teaware. The production of Yixing wares is first well documented for the mid-16th century (e.g. teapot from the tomb of the court official Wu Jing (d 1533); Nanjing, Jiangsu Prov. Mus.). It was at this time that the names of individual potters were first recorded. They adopted the practice for which Yixing became famous, that of marking their wares with their own signatures (e.g. hexagonal red stoneware teapot signed by ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American centre of ceramics production. In 1875 the American Encaustic Tile Factory was founded in Zanesville, OH, and in 1888 Samuel A. Weller moved his pottery from nearby Fultenham. Weller was followed by other potteries, such as the Roseville Pottery Company (1892) and in 1895 Weller bought the ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...

Article

Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics factory. In 1851 the merchant Miklós Zsolnay the elder founded the factory in Pécs, southern Hungary, for his eldest son Ignác Zsolnay. Early wares comprised very simple, useful wares, including dishes, water pipes and terracotta garden ornaments, that satisfied local demands. In 1865 Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) took over the concern from his brother and added a range of decorative vessels including flower-pots, wash-bowls and jugs. Zsolnay used a high-firing cream body decorated with a glaze mixed with metallic oxides, which was known as ‘porcelain faience’. Production is characterized by various styles of decoration based on Bronze Age wares excavated in Transdanubia, called ‘Pannonia’ wares, and Renaissance, Japanese, Persian, Anatolian (Turkish) and Hungarian folk ceramics. In 1878 the factory exhibited a variety of ‘porcelain faience’ at the Exposition Universelle in Paris and was awarded the Grand Prix. In 1883, after numerous experiments with the chemists Lajos Petri and ...