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Article

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in western Chita (Aichi Prefect.), Japan. Tokoname, together with other important centres such as Bizen, Shigaraki, Seto, Tanba and Echizen, is famous for its continuous production to the present day (see Japan §IX 3., (ii)). The origins of the ware can be traced back to the 12th century, when increased agricultural development encouraged the spread of high-fired ceramics techniques from the central Sanage kiln complex, near the city of Nagoya, to neighbouring districts, including Higashiyama, Atsumi and Tokoname. Evidence for the Sanage lineage is seen in the Tokoname tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 1., (v)) with a dividing pillar, variously placed at the fire-mouth or inside the kiln at the base of the slope. Unlike the Sanage potters, however, the Tokoname potters made larger vessels by coiling rather than with the potter’s wheel.

Before the 16th century, Tokoname kilns made three principal products: narrow-mouthed jars (...

Article

A. Daguerre de Hureaux

(b Sèvres, Aug 28, 1810; d Paris, March 20, 1865).

French painter. He was brought up among the Sèvres ceramics workers and received his first lessons in drawing and painting from Denis-Désiré Riocreux (1791–1872), a porcelain painter who was one of the founders of the Musée National de Céramique. Troyon began his career as a painter at the Sèvres factory while also studying landscape painting in his spare time. He became a friend of Camille Roqueplan, who introduced him to a number of young landscape painters—especially Théodore Rousseau, Paul Huet and Jules Dupré—who were later to become members and associates of the Barbizon school. After an unremarkable début at the Salon of 1833, where he exhibited three landscapes depicting the area around Sèvres (e.g. View of the Park at Saint-Cloud; Paris U., Notre-Dame), he took up his career in earnest and made several study trips to the French provinces. Following the example of contemporary collectors, he began to take a great interest in 17th-century Dutch painting, particularly the work of Jacob van Ruisdael, whose influence is seen in such early paintings as ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

[American China Manufactory]

American porcelain manufactory. William Ellis Tucker (b Philadelphia, 11 June 1800; d Philadelphia, 22 Aug 1832) made an enormous contribution to the history of American ceramics as the founder of this major porcelain factory in Philadelphia. His interest in ceramics probably stemmed from working with the material in his father’s china store, where he occasionally painted European blanks and fired them in a small kiln. Experiments to make porcelain began in 1825. Funding the experiments and later the production of porcelain was so expensive that partners were acquired to help alleviate the financial problems. The factory was known under various titles, chiefly Tucker & Hulme (1828) and Tucker & Hemphill (1831–8). After Tucker’s death, production continued with his brother Thomas Tucker (1812–90) as manager. Tableware and decorative pieces in the fashionable French Empire style were the main products of the firm. Although the company stayed in business until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Region in northern England known for its pottery production. Pottery has been made on the banks of the river Tyne to the west of Newcastle since the early 18th century. By 1827 there were at least 20 potteries producing household wares (especially Willow pattern plates), and a smaller number making tiles. In the 19th century the most important firms were Thomas Fell & Co. (1817–90) and C. T. Maling and Sons (c. 1850–1963); Maling replicas are now produced by Ringtons Ceramics, and New Castle Delft operates in the buildings of the Maling pottery. In the 20th century the most prominent pottery was Adams & Co., which was founded in 1880 as a manufacturer of toilets and sinks, and from 1904 to 1975 made art pottery (notably Art Nouveau pottery) that it sold as ‘Adamesk’.

R. C. Bell and M. A. V. Gill: The Potteries of Tyneside...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American porcelain factory. Originally founded in Greenpoint, NY, as William Boch & Bros in 1850 to make porcelain hardware trimmings, it was bought by Thomas Carll Smith (1815–1901) c. 1861. The wares were first made of bone china, but in 1864 Smith began to experiment with a hard-paste formula, and his firm is considered the first in America to have used this material. In 1875 Smith hired Karl Müller (1820–87), a German sculptor, to create models for the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia, and his work includes the ‘Century’ vase (New York, Met.), ‘Liberty’ cup and ‘Keramos’ vase. In addition to artwares, the firm also made porcelain tiles for fireplaces and decorative wainscoting, hardware trimmings and tableware. (The factory closed c. 1922.)

E. A. Barber: The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States (New York, 1893, rev. 3/1909/R 1976), pp. 252–8 A. C. Frelinghuysen...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Ellen Paul Denker

(b Felicity, OH, March 21, 1869; d Colorado Springs, CO, July 4, 1904).

American potter. He worked from 1887 as an underglaze painter at Rookwood Pottery . In 1899, suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Colorado Springs, CO; in 1901 he opened a pottery, where he modelled Art Nouveau vases with designs based on American flora. After his death the Van Briggle Pottery was run by his widow until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French term variously used to denote a small sofa with an asymmetrical back (also known as a méridienne) or a small night-light or night-lamp. It is normally used, however, to denote a bedside food-warmer made of pottery or porcelain. The lower, drum-shaped, portion, in which oil is burnt on a wick, is normally perforated to allow light to escape; on top there was a covered bowl (in the 18th century) or a teapot (in the 19th century). The factories of Jacob Petit made ...

Article

Bruce Tattersall

German ceramics and glass manufacturers. In 1748 François Boch (1695–1754) founded a small factory for the production of faience fine (a lead-glazed earthenware) at Audun-le-Tiche in the Meurthe-et-Moselle region of France, near Luxembourg. In 1766 a second factory was opened at Septfontaines in Luxembourg, and more diversified wares were produced. In the early 19th century Boch’s son Jean-François Boch (1735–1817) visited England to study ceramic techniques, which led to the introduction of transfer-printing at the factory. In 1809 Boch founded a factory for the production of creamware at the monastery of Mettlach. In 1787 another earthenware factory had been started at Vaudrevanges-Wallerfangen, Luxembourg, by Nicolas Villeroy (1759–1843). Under the direction of the Englishman John Leigh this also produced faience fine decorated with enamelled and transfer-printed flowers and views. Pierced wares and Neo-classical vases, influenced by wares from the Leeds factory, were also made. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Baltimore, 1841; d Metuchen, NJ, 1914).

American landscape painter and potter. After an early career as a landscape painter Volkmar opened a pottery workshop in Greenpoint, Long Island. His early work reflected contemporary French styles, but he gradually abandoned elaborate decoration in favour of a minimalist technique that reflects Japanese influence. He moved his pottery to Corona, Long Island, and in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German centre of porcelain production. In 1762 a Thuringian porcelain factory that had been established in Sitzendorf two years earlier relocated in Volkstedt. The original owner, Georg Heinrich Macheleid, made soft-paste porcelain, but when it passed to Christian Nonne in 1767 it began to produce hard-paste porcelain, including tableware, vases and figurines; its catalogue of 1795 offered 90 figurine models. In the 19th century the factory became well known for its ‘Dresden lace’ figures (notably ballerinas), in which the decorative effect was achieved by dipping cotton lace in soft paste porcelain and then fired; the fabric burnt away, but a delicate porcelain lace ‘fabric’ remained. The factory is still operational.

In 1832 the privilege granted by the Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was revoked, and other porcelain factories were opened; at least six used the name ‘Volkstedt porcelain’, which can make identification problematical. The best-known was founded by Anton Müller (d...

Article

(b Hessle, nr Hull, May 28, 1857; d Winchester, Hants, Feb 12, 1941).

English architect and designer. Although his importance and his influence on his contemporaries has long been recognized, his reputation rests on an oeuvre that is limited in both quantity and scope. He is chiefly remembered for a small number of country houses (c. 1890–1910) that are neither large nor grand and for the fittings (and often the furniture, wallpaper and textiles) that he put into them. What is remarkable about these houses is that they are independent of past styles to an extent revolutionary at the time, and yet they breathe the spirit of vernacular tradition.

He was the son of a Yorkshire clergyman, the Rev. Charles Voysey, who was expelled from the Church of England for denying the doctrine of Everlasting Hell. The family moved to London in 1871, where his father founded the Theistic Church. In 1874 Voysey was articled for five years to the architect ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1792; d 1870).

English porcelain painter. He specialized in floral decorations, and his painted roses were popularly said to be so natural that one could smell them. He worked in Derby and Worcester before moving to London, where he worked in the decorating workshop of John Randall, decorating wares from Nantgarw and Swansea.

Article

Gaye Blake Roberts and Robin Reilly

English firm of ceramic manufacturers. It was founded in 1759 by Josiah Wedgwood (i) (bapt Burslem, Staffs, 12 July 1730; d Burslem, 3 Jan 1795; see §1 below) and was to become one of the most successful and influential English ceramic factories. Although during the early 19th century the factory’s fortunes declined, during the 1840s it regained its former prestige. In the late 20th century the factory was best known for its extensive production of table and ornamental wares.

Gaye Blake Roberts

Josiah Wedgwood (i) was the 12th and youngest child of Thomas Wedgwood (1685–1739) and Mary Wedgwood of the Churchyard Pottery, Burslem. He received a basic education in Newcastle-under-Lyme, but his studies were cut short by the death of his father. He immediately went to work for his eldest brother, Thomas Wedgwood (1717–73), who had inherited the family pottery, and on 11 November 1744...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1851; d 1925).

American potter. In 1872 he founded a pottery in Fultenham, OH. In 1888 he moved the pottery to nearby Zanesville, and in 1895 he bought Lonhuda Pottery (and the right to produce ‘Louwelsa’) and began to supplement his utilitarian wares (e.g. cookware, flowerpots and cuspidors) with art pottery; by 1905 he had become the world’s largest producer of hand-thrown pottery for the art market. Weller developed the ‘Eocean’ line (1898), which was a grey version of ‘Louwelsa’, and then produced simplified versions (‘Floretta’, 1904; ‘Etna’, 1906) in which decoration was partially mechanised by the use of embossed floral motifs in the moulds. From 1895 to 1904 the artistic director of Weller Pottery was Charles Babcock Upjohn (1866–1953), whose best-known product was the sgraffito ‘Dickensware II’ line (1900). Other designers included Frederick Hurten Rhead (who developed the the ‘Jap Birdimal’ and ‘Weller Rhead Faience’ lines) and Jacques Sicard (...

Article

Elizabeth Collard

(b Bristol, Dec 28, 1799; d Saint John, NB, Jan 15, 1870).

Canadian potter of English birth. In 1814 he was apprenticed to the Bristol potter J. D. Pountney. Later, with his brother James White, he carried on a successful business in Bristol making Rockingham, black teapots and stoneware jugs (1828–55). The brothers’ leadless liquid glaze for stoneware was of such quality that London potteries, including Doulton, purchased supplies of it. They retired in 1855 and Joseph White jr (1829–75) took over the pottery. In 1864 Joseph White’s son Frederick J. White (1838–1919) persuaded him to buy the Courtenay Bay Pottery, Crouchville, New Brunswick. There he quickly introduced the ‘latest English designs’ in moulded earthenware and ‘superior’ stoneware with his Bristol glaze. Though the Crouchville pottery failed under his sons, his grandson James W. Foley (1857–1904), whom he had trained, set up his own pottery in Saint John. White’s Foley descendants potted there until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of pottery production. The clays of the Cumbrian coastal town of Whitehaven were first used for the commercial production of pottery in 1698, when a pipe factory was opened; clay pipes were made by various manufacturers in Whitehaven until the 1850s. The oldest surviving example of Whitehaven pottery is a jug with naval scenes (Whitehaven, Mus.) dated 1797; the maker is not known. A pottery in a building known as Gin House was founded in 1740 by Thomas Atkinson, and operated by him and his successor John Hudson until 1781. A second pottery was founded in 1813 by John Goulding and John Tunstall. The third and best-known pottery, known as the Whitehaven Pottery, was founded in 1819 and run by Woodnorth, Harrison, Hall and Co., who made tablewares with printed decorations similar to the products of the Staffordshire potteries; it was taken over in 1829 by John Wilkinson, whose widow and son Randle (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Blue Willow]

Chinoiserie design used on English blue-and-white transfer-printed wares in the late 18th and 19th centuries. The originator of the pattern may have been Thomas Minton, who is thought to have designed it for the Caughley Pottery c. 1780. The design was copied and imitated in many variants by potters in Staffordshire and beyond. By ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

Article

John Mawer

English family of potters . After working for John Astbury and Thomas Whieldon, Ralph Wood the elder (b Burslem, 29 Jan 1715; d Burslem, 12 Dec 1772) started up on his own account at the Hilltop Factory in Burslem c. 1754, producing plain, salt-glazed figures. He developed a technique of staining lead glazes with metallic oxides, which, combined with his fine modelling, resulted in the creation of some fine, useful and decorative items (e.g. ‘Vicar and Moses’ figure, c. 1789–1801; Stoke-on-Trent, City Mus. & A.G.) and ‘Toby’ jugs. Ralph’s brother, Aaron Wood (b Burslem, 14 April 1717; d Burslem, 12 May 1785) was the most renowned block-cutter in Staffordshire and was reputed to have been a modeller for all the potteries in the county. His superb interpretation and skilled block-cutting gave enormous character to his figures. He was probably responsible for modelling the first, true ‘Toby’ jug—also known as a Twyford Jug or Step Toby—which his brother Ralph made famous. Ralph’s son ...

Article

Henry Sandon

English centre of ceramic production. Pottery was made in and around Worcester, Hereford & Worcs, from pre-Roman times but its importance as a centre of ceramic production did not begin until the mid-18th century. In 1751 the Worcester Porcelain Co. was founded by Dr John Wall (1708–76), a physician, William Davis, an apothecary, and 13 other partners in Warmstry House on the banks of the River Severn. In the articles of agreement it was stated that the special porcelain body had been invented by Wall and Davis, but it has subsequently been proved that it had been developed from that used by Benjamin Lund in the first Bristol porcelain factory and earlier at the short-lived Limehouse porcelain factory in London. The recipe, using soapstone (steatite) from the Lizard peninsula, Cornwall, produced a fine, soft-paste porcelain that did not crack or craze in contact with hot liquids, which made it especially useful for teawares....