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(b Istanbul, April 19, 1899; d Istanbul, 1968).

Turkish painter. He spent his childhood in the Hijaz (now Saudi Arabia), where he took painting lessons from a retired Ottoman officer while an apprentice in a workshop. In 1919 Tollu enrolled at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul but a year later went to Anatolia to join the forces fighting for Turkish independence, serving until 1923 as a cavalry lieutenant. After leaving the army he worked in a railway workshop in Edirne but in 1926 returned to the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul. In 1927 he was appointed art teacher at the Teacher Training College in Elazig and Erzincan. He made two trips to France and Germany, where for some two years he studied under such painters as André Lhote, Marcel Gromaire and Hans Hofmann, and such sculptors as Charles Despiau and Marcel Gimond (1894–1961). In Turkey he contributed to the first exhibitions of the Müstakīl Ressamlar ve Heykeltraşlar Birligi (Association of Independent Painters and Sculptors) and was a founder-member of the ...


Sulejman Dashi


(b Aka, Turkey, 1865; d Tiranë, Feb 11, 1918).

Albanian sculptor, collector and poet of Turkish birth. His family was in exile in Turkey, and he began his studies in the school of Madame Fyres (1878), finishing them in the Sultanie Lycée of Galatasaray in Istanbul (1894). Toptani’s artistic work is intrinsically linked to his efforts in the struggle for Albanian independence. Works such as the bust of ...


Morgan Falconer

(b Jerusalem, May 18, 1945).

Israeli conceptual artist. He emerged as an artist, in the 1970s, without having had any formal education, addressing disparate concerns germane to conceptual art. The series Five Finger Excercise, begun in 1973, looked at the idea of sameness and uniqueness in art by covering canvases with the artist’s fingerprints. Towards the end of the decade he began to settle on a core of related themes and concerns that continued to preoccupy him. Fascinated by Modernist art’s pursuit of formalism, Toren sought metaphors for the way in which art cannibalizes itself; in so doing he has addressed issues relating to representation in art. In the series Neither a Painting nor a Chair (1979–80; see exh. cat. 1990–91, p. 15) Toren used shavings of wood from a demolished chair as pigment for a series of ten paintings reconstituting the chair as an image. A similar series begun in 1983, Of The Times...


N. Ezerskaya


(b Tbilisi, Jan 4, 1934).

Georgian decorative artist. He studied (1952–8) at the Academy of Art, Tbilisi, under Ucha Dzhaparidze (1906–91), Iosif Sharleman’ (1880–1957) and Vasily Shukhayev, from whom he gained a feeling for colour and high standards in painting. His works at the academy were primarily decorative landscapes with brilliant and contrasting colours. Tsereteli’s acquaintance with ancient art, in particular with the mosaics of the 5th-century basilica at Pitsunda (Bichvinta), fostered an interest in monumental art. The study of mosaic technique at the studio of Marc Chagall in France helped Tsereteli to revive the traditions of smalto mosaic in Georgian art, and he discovered in it new aesthetic and technical possibilities.

Tsereteli’s smalto work (two- and three-dimensional) is elegant, decorative and festive in spirit. He used pagan and folkloric motifs lavishly, as well as flora and fauna and Georgian ornamental themes, which he developed into colourful compositions. The mosaics covering the wall of the bar and the decorative walls outside the hotel at the resort of Pitsunda (...


Daniel E. Mader

(b Cairo, Egypt, Feb 28, 1935).

American sculptor of English origin. He returned with his family to England in 1937 and studied history at Oxford University from 1955 to 1958 and sculpture in London, at the Central School of Art and Design and at St Martin’s School of Art, from 1959 to 1960. Like Phillip King and other British sculptors who took part in the influential exhibition The New Generation: 1965, in his early work he favoured simple geometric shapes and industrial materials such as fibreglass and sheet metal painted in bright colours. The works that he showed in this exhibition, such as Meru II (fabricated steel, 962×2324×410 mm, 1964; London, Tate), which consists of a series of stepped units rounded on the outside and rectilinear on the inside, bear a superficial resemblance to Minimalist work of the same period. In distinction to the work of Americans such as Donald Judd, however, Tucker suggested an organic development of form and even hinted at narrative, rather than proposing basic geometric forms that could be perceived in their entirety almost at a glance. In the 1970s, with works such as ...


Christine Clark

(b Ismâilîya, Egypt, Jan 18, 1921; d Sydney, Nov 24, 1973).

Australian painter and museum administrator. He studied at Hornsey School of Art, London, and at Kingston School of Art (1937–40). After serving as a fighter pilot in World War II he continued his studies from 1947 to 1949 at the National Art School, East Sydney Technical College. In 1950 he began working as an attendant at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney but within a year was appointed assistant to the Director. He held this position, retitled Deputy Director in 1957, until his death. He painted all his life, but his career as a painter was overshadowed by his administrative job. He was responsible for the curating and building up of the fine collection of aboriginal and Melanesian art in the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

During his lifetime Tuckson had only two one-man exhibitions, in 1970 and 1973 at the Watters Gallery, Sydney. Influenced by Picasso, Klee, and de Kooning, American Abstract Expressionists and aboriginal art, his art progressed from portrait and figurative studies through to Abstract Expressionist works. It is for these later works that he is admired as one of Australia’s best ...


(b Dresden, 1933).

Israeli sculptor, draughtsman and stage designer of German birth. His family left Germany in 1935 to settle in Palestine and there he studied at the Technical School of Tel Aviv until 1949. After serving in the Israeli army he returned to Germany in 1953 to design sets for Bertolt Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble and in 1956 he produced sets for Brecht’s Der gute Mensch von Sezuan. In 1957 he designed theatre sets in the Netherlands, Germany and Israel, by which time he was sculpting in iron, creating works such as Chariot (1956; see 1980 exh. cat.). He had his first one-man show in 1956 at the Santee Landwer Gallery in Amsterdam. In the 1960s he largely used bronze and iron to make his sculptures and assemblages, often incorporating weapon parts into them, as in Aggression (1964; see 1967 exh. cat., pl. 55). Other works of this period are similarly disturbing, such as ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Tunis, May 15, 1922).

Tunisian painter. He was educated at the Lycée Carnot in Tunis from 1936 to 1940, participating in his first group exhibition in 1943, and for two months in 1951 attended art courses at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. In 1956 he received a grant to study at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome, returned to Tunis in 1957 and taught drawing at the Lycée Technique Emile Loubet. The same year he also visited China, Central Europe and Russia. In 1959 he visited the USA for the first time, where he attended Columbia University, NY, and discovered the work of contemporary American painters. After 1963 he taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Tunis. He visited Nigeria in 1977, South Korea in 1978, and made a second journey to the USA in 1979, where he met George Segal in California. His early paintings were in a naturalistic style, but after his first visit to the USA he reacted against the pictorialism and folkloric representations of the Ecole de Tunis and pioneered abstract painting in Tunisia. Influenced by the work of Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko, he evolved a style that was characterized by complex colour compositions within linear or grid frameworks. His abstract paintings include ...


John E. Bowlt


(b Aralyk, Armenia [now in Turkey], May 10, 1887; d Vologda, Feb 10, 1942).

Russian artist and watercolourist of Armenian birth. He did not receive a systematic art education, although he studied with Léon Bakst at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg from 1905 to 1910. He regarded Bakst, a clear influence in the many nude studies of the early and mid-1910s, as one of his principal mentors. During this period Tyrsa also studied and copied church frescoes, sharing in the general rediscovery and reappraisal of the national traditions of Russian culture, including icons, church architecture and the decorative arts. After the October Revolution of 1917 he was successful as a commercial designer, poster artist and book and magazine illustrator, especially for children’s literature. Together with the artists Vladimir Konashevich, Vladimir Lebedev (1891–1967) and Yury Vasnetsov, and the writers Korney Chukovsky (1882–1969) and Samuil Marshak (1887–1964), Tyrsa contributed to the virtual renaissance of the children’s book during the 1920s and early 1930s. He also gave much attention to the Russian classics, illustrating Pushkin’s ...


Susan T. Goodman

(b Tel Aviv, 1939).

Israeli sculptor, painter, draughtsman, printmaker and conceptual artist. He studied at Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design in Jerusalem and in 1965 at Central School for Arts and Crafts in London. After painting abstract pictures in an expressionist technique he began to make etchings and (from the early 1970s) drawings. He also became involved in land art and conceptual art projects, some of them politically oriented, such as the Messer-Metzer Project in 1972, which involved an exchange of earth between an Arab village and an Israeli kibbutz. On some of these projects he collaborated with other artists, among them Moshe Gershuni and Avital Geva.

From 1978 Ullman evoked graves, archaeological excavations or trenches both in drawings and in sculptures in earth such as Lot’s Wife (1984), a six-foot deep pit dug in Har Sedom, Israel. As Israel’s representative at the Venice Biennale in 1980 he showed a large work, the ...


(b Safed, Palestine [now Zefat, Israel], 1927).

Israeli draughtswoman. She studied drawing in Tel Aviv with David Hendler whom she later married. In 1956 she won the Dizengoff prize and in 1957 had her first solo show at the Tel Aviv Museum. This had a strong impact on younger Israeli artists who saw it as a contrast to the contemporary, brightly coloured works of the New Horizons group. Uri exhibited with the 10+ group around Raffie Lavie, founded in 1965, which reacted against the New Horizons style and prepared the way for the developments of the 1970s. Her drawings are mostly in black chalk, very sparely used, taking landscape as the starting point. The result is near abstract gestural works such as Landscape (1960; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.). She also made limited use of coloured chalk on occasion, as in Drawing (1967–8; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.). In addition her later work included purely abstract drawings, such as ...


A. V. Ikonnikov

Azerbaijani architectural partnership formed c. 1929 by Mikael’ Useynov (b Baku, 19 April 1905; d 1992) and Sadykh (Alekper ogly) Dadashev (b Baku, 15 April 1905; d Moscow, 24 Dec 1946). Useynov studied at the Azerbaijan Polytechnical Institute, Baku, from 1921 to 1929. Dadashev completed his studies at the same institution the same year. In their first joint works they applied Constructivist principles within the context of the physical and climatic conditions of Azerbaijan. Examples include the food factory (early 1930s) in Bailov, a suburb of Baku, with numerous terraces and a pergola on the flat roof, and the teaching block (1930–31) of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute, Baku. In the same style are several residential buildings, some of which were extended into large complexes, such as the Novy Byt complex (early 1930s), Baku. Using reinforced-concrete construction, and occasionally imitating it in stone, Useynov and Dadashev overcame the stark asceticism that characterizes many Constructivist residential blocks of this period....


Carlos Lastarria Hermosilla

(b Santiago, Sept 9, 1931; d Santiago, May 18, 1993).

Chilean sculptor. He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Santiago under the Chilean sculptors Julio Antonio Vásquez (b 1900), Lily Garáfulic (1914–2012), and Marta Colvin. He left Chile in 1958 for Spain, France, and Morocco, settling in Spain in 1961 but returning to Chile in 1974 to produce a number of works, including an important commission for the Parque de las Esculturas in Santiago (Bandaged Torso; stone, h. 1.62 m, installed 1989), before leaving again for Spain.

Valdivieso worked in bronze and in stone (granite, limestone, diorite, and basalt). Much of his work was concerned with natural forms, conveyed with a directness of feeling. Approaching mass through a process of gradual abstraction, Valdivieso sought a balance between the visual and tactile qualities of his materials and the meanings implicit to their forms. He often formulated his sculptures first in easily molded, ductile materials, which he then translated into the final work. He particularly favored chrome-plated bronze for its accentuation of the surface with its brilliant finish....



S. J. Vernoit

[Vedat Bey; Vedat Tek]

(b Istanbul, 1873; d Istanbul, 1942).

Turkish architect and teacher. After completing his secondary education at the Ecole Nonge in Paris, he studied painting at the Académie Julian and civil engineering at the Ecole Centrale, and then trained as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, completing his studies in 1897. On returning to Istanbul in 1899, he was employed by the Municipality, becoming chairman of the Supervising Committee for Public Works and later the chief architect. In 1900 he also became the first Turk to teach architectural history at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul. Like his contemporary, Kemalettin, he played an important role in the development of a revivalist Turkish idiom in architecture, known as the First National Architectural Style, and his works and his writings reveal the theoretical approach behind the movement.

Vedat’s first major work, the Central Post Office (1909) in Sirkeci, Istanbul, employed such features of traditional Ottoman architecture as depressed or pointed arches and glazed tiles (...


(b Nîmes, May 18, 1936).

French painter. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montpellier from 1955 to 1959, and spent the following two years in national service in Algeria. Until 1960 he painted still-lifes, horses and portraits in a style reminiscent of that of Courbet. From 1962 to 1963 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, under the French painter Raymond-Jean Legueult (b 1898), and during this time he discovered the work of Rauschenberg, Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. In 1964 he began teaching at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Nice, where he remained for three years. By this time he had begun producing the repeated pattern works using mainly primary colours, which formed the basis of all his later works, such as Untitled (1968; Paris, Pompidou).

In 1966 Viallat had his first one-man show at the Galerie A in Nice, and in 1967 he moved to Limoges to take up a professorship at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts there. His first works using knotted rope, sometimes painted, were made in ...


Esmé Berman

(b Bergamo, May 31, 1915).

South African sculptor of Italian birth. He was studying sculpture in Milan when he was conscripted into the army at the outbreak of World War II. In 1940 he was captured in North Africa and sent to a prisoner of war camp in South Africa. After the war, Villa made South Africa his home. From conventional heads and figures of the 1940s, he moved progressively through stylized figuration to structural abstraction. Yet even in his most abstract work, there are constant allusions to human themes, in terms of structure, posture, attitudes, relationships and circumstances. Villa’s style developed significantly in the 1950s, when the influence of the aggressive forms of the African environment led him to create his first constructed works, using abstract elements cut from sheets and rods of steel. His achievement was recognized by awards at the São Paulo Biennales of 1957 and 1959. Notable commissioned works include Africa...


V. V. Vanslov

( Bagratovich )

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 13, 1909; d 1989).

Georgian stage designer. He studied at the Tbilisi Academy of Arts under Iosif Sharleman’ (1880–1957), at the Higher Artistic and Technical Institute (Vkhutein, formerly Vkhutemas) under Isaak Rabinovich (1894–1961) and Nisson Shifrin (1892–1961) and at the Leningrad (now St Petersburg) Academy of Arts under Mikhail Bobyshov (1885–1964). He started working in the theatre in 1927, and from 1932 to 1936 he was the principal designer of the Paliashvili Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Tbilisi, for which he also designed productions in later years. His best works at this theatre were his stagings of the ballets Serdtse gor (‘Heart of the hills’; 1936) with music by Andrey Balanchivadze and Othello (1957) with music by Aleksey Machavariani. From 1937 Virsaladze worked for the Kirov Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Leningrad; from 1940 to 1941 and from 1945 to 1962...


Pascale Linant de Bellefonds

(b Paris, Oct 18, 1829; d Paris, Nov 10, 1916).

French archaeologist and diplomat. He initially worked as a diplomat in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) in 1850, but he soon resigned and from 1853 to 1854 travelled around Greece, Turkey, Syria and Palestine, where he collected material for his work on Christian buildings. In 1861 he was sent to Cyprus by the historian Ernest Renan, with William Henry Waddington (1826–94), the epigrapher, and Edmond-Clément-Marie-Louise Duthoit, the architect, in order to explore the island systematically and organize large-scale excavations. Vogüé and Waddington continued their research in Syria and Jerusalem in 1862, enabling Vogüé to publish a detailed study of the Temple of Jerusalem two years later. Following Waddington’s departure in late 1862, Vogüé stayed a little longer in the East with Duthoit, exploring central Syria and Ḥawrān; this trip provided him with the material for the three-volume Syrie centrale. From 1868 Vogüé was a free member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and he was involved in producing the ...


Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Cairo, Aug 7, 1943).

Egyptian architect. He graduated from Ain-Shams University in Cairo in 1965. Between 1965 and 1970 he lectured at the university whilst studying and working with his mentor Hassan Fathy, the well-known proponent of indigenous architecture. In 1971 he went into private practice, eventually establishing offices in Cairo, Jiddah and Ashford, Kent. From 1993 he was based in Miami, Florida. He acted as an adviser to the Ministry of Tourism in Egypt (1972) and as consultant to UNESCO (1979–80). In 1980 he won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture for the Halawa house in Agamy, Egypt, completed in 1975. The two-storey house was built around a courtyard, and the articulation of space was handled with great sensitivity and simplicity. Openings in the white walls filter light to the interior through carved wooden screens (Arab. mashrabiyyas), and much of the courtyard remains in shadow, staying cool during the heat of the day. From this small vacation house El-Wakil went on to design larger houses such as the spectacular Al Sulaiman Palace in Jiddah, which uses the same principles but on a more lavish and larger scale. For a short time the architect toyed with other expressions of form but quickly returned to his exploration of tradition. El-Wakil’s most convincing designs have been those for mosques (for illustration ...


S. J. Vernoit

( Louis Marie Joseph )

(b Paris, Dec 18, 1887; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, April 20, 1971)

French historian of Islamic art. Son of Maxime Wiet and Berthe Rousseau and descendant of the English poet Sir Thomas Wyatt, from 1905 to 1908 Wiet studied Arabic, Persian and Turkish and Islamic history at the Ecole Nationale des Langues Vivantes, Paris, as well as acquiring a degree in law. In 1909 he joined the French Institut d’Archéologie Orientale in Cairo, where he met the orientalists Louis Massignon, Jean Maspéro, Max van Berchem , Henri Massé, René Basset, René Dussaud, Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes and William Marçais. In 1911 he was appointed professor of Arabic at the University of Lyon. He continued there until 1926, interrupted when he lectured on Arabic literature at the Egyptian University of Cairo and fought in World War I, receiving the croix de guerre for bravery. A member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres since 1925, Wiet continued the publication of van Berchem’s corpus of Arabic inscriptions. In ...