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Guilhem Scherf

(b ?Paris, 1696; d Paris, Dec 1, 1754).

French sculptor. He seems to have been the son of the leading bronze-founder Joseph Vinache (1653–after 1717) and perhaps trained with Antoine Coyzevox. His technical skill led to a summons to Dresden from Augustus II of Poland, Elector of Saxony, to complete an equestrian statue of the King left unfinished at the death of François Coudray (1678–1727). A model in gilt plaster (Dresden, Skulpsamml.) and a bronze reduction (Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) preserve the design of this scheme: the King is shown in Roman armour on a rearing horse, stabilized by a massive tail. The concept was inspired by Bernini’s equestrian statue of Louis XIV (Versailles, Château) and the widely diffused small bronzes of Jean-Baptiste Gobert (d after 1723). Vinache executed numerous other works for Augustus and also made copies after the Antique.

On his return to Paris, Vinache was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in ...


Elizabeth Miller

[ Francis ]

(b St Jean-du-Bruel, Aveyron, July 11, 1708; d London, Nov 26, 1780).

French engraver and print publisher, active in England. He is considered to be one of the founders of the English school of landscape engraving. A Huguenot, he came to London in 1711 and learnt engraving with Joseph Wagner (1706–80). His earliest dated print is from 1739. He helped introduce the Rococo style into England as an engraver or publisher of ornament books c. 1740–60, for example his engraved plates for William De la Cour’s First Book of Ornament (1741). Many of his landscape prints were after paintings by French and Dutch Old Masters, beginning with 11 plates for Arthur Pond’s Italian Landscapes project (1741–6; London, BM), a 44-plate survey of the works of Gaspard Dughet and Claude Lorrain in British collections. Typical of his mature work is the print after Claude, Great Annual Sacrifice at the Temple of Apollo on the Island of Delos (...


Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Lyon, 1657; d Bonn, Dec 5, 1734).

French painter and pastellist, active in Germany. He trained in Paris in 1672 with the painter François Bonnemers (1638–89), also attending the Académie Royale, where his oil painting the Punishment of Adam and Eve (untraced) won a second prize in 1678. Only in 1698 was he received (reçu) at the Académie, as a pastellist, on presentation of portraits of the sculptor François Girardon and of the architect Robert de Cotte (both Paris, Louvre). Having been commissioned to execute a pastel Self-portrait (Florence, Uffizi) by Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, in 1699, the following year he was appointed the Elector’s principal court painter ( see Wittelsbach, House of family ). He henceforth divided his time between Paris, the Elector’s courts at Brussels and Munich, and the court of Maximilian Emanuel’s son, Clemens August, Elector of Cologne, at Bonn.

In 1700 Vivien executed, presumably in Brussels, the first of a series of imposing portraits of Maximilian II Emanuel and his family. Like the portraits of ...


Humphrey Wine and Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

French family of painters and draughtsmen. (1) Antoine Watteau was one of the foremost exponents of the Rococo style in French painting, creating an entirely distinctive pictorial world. His nephew (2) Louis Watteau and the latter’s son (3) François Watteau (both known as Watteau de Lille) were provincial painters who dominated the artistic life of Lille in the later 18th century and the early 19th.

Humphrey Wine

(b Valenciennes, bapt Oct 10, 1684; d Nogent-sur-Marne, nr Paris, July 18, 1721).

He is best known for his invention of a new genre, the fête galante, a small easel painting in which elegant people are depicted in conversation or music-making in a secluded parkland setting ( see under Fête champêtre ). His particular originality lies in the generally restrained nature of the amorous exchanges of his characters, which are conveyed as much by glance as by gesture, and in his mingling of figures in contemporary dress with others in theatrical costume, thus blurring references to both time and place....


Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

(b Ehrenstetten, Dec 10, 1710; d Freiburg, Aug 1, 1797).

German sculptor, painter, stuccoist and architect . He went to Italy as a journeyman and spent two years (1729–31) in Rome, then six months in Strasbourg. His earliest surviving work is the font at the monastery of St Peter in the Black Forest. From 1735 to 1737 he was in Paris, where he attended and won prizes at the Académie de St Luc. In 1737 he carved the large figures for the high altar of Oberried Monastery, and in 1740 he made eight huge stone figures for the portal (destr. 1768) of the monastery of St Blasien in the Black Forest, and also made models for the stairwell figures. Wentzinger signed the contract for the magnificent tomb of General von Rodt in Freiburg im Breisgau Cathedral in 1743. In 1745 he made a model of the Mount of Olives for the church of St Martin in Staufen (now in Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus). For the new building at Schloss Ebnet, near Freiburg, he created the stone relief on the gable, figures representing the seasons in the park and stucco sculptures for the salon, modifying the original plans for the building by decorative embellishments. He also painted the double portrait (...


William Garner

(fl 1752–61; d Dublin, 1790).

Irish stuccoist. He is a typical example of the many plasterers working in Dublin during the mid-18th century whose work remains largely unidentified. In 1752 he was described as a plasterer when admitted as a freeman of the City of Dublin. In 1756 he was paid £534 for ‘plaistering and stucco’ in the city’s Rotunda Hospital, where it is thought he decorated the staircase ceiling. In 1761 he worked at 9 Cavendish Row and at 4 and 5 Parnell Square, three houses built by Bartholomew Mosse (1712–59), Master Builder of the Rotunda.

West is variously described in legal documents as plasterer, Master Builder and merchant, and it is known that he developed property in Lower Dominick Street, Granby Row, Great Denmark Street and City Quay. He built 20 Lower Dominick Street before 1758, and the ceilings there can be attributed to him. Various motifs in the hall—serrated acanthus in high relief and birds holding flowers—are also to be found in the staircase hall of 56 St Stephen’s Green. This latter work is crowded and crudely modelled, though the ceiling of Lower Dominick Street’s hall is one of the most daringly conceived and freely modelled Rococo ceilings in Dublin. Here, trophies of musical instruments, caryatids and birds standing on pedestals are close in treatment to those in the Rotunda Chapel. At Florence Court, Co. Fermanagh, the dining-room ceiling is similar to that in the back drawing-room of 9 Cavendish Row, with its flat acanthus set within robust rectangular mouldings. Although West is popularly associated with the bird motifs found in Dublin Rococo plasterwork, few are actually to be found in the houses where he is known to have worked. Nothing by West can be dated later than ...


Sarah Yates

(bapt Bury St Edmunds, July 7, 1698; d Thurston, Suffolk, Aug 31, 1761).

English goldsmith. In 1712 he was apprenticed to the goldsmith Samuel Wastell, and in 1720 he gained the freedom of the Goldsmiths’ Company, London. He registered his first marks in 1721–2, giving his address as Threadneedle Street; his earliest known extant works, two silver mugs (priv. col., see Barr, fig.), date from this time. In 1730 he moved to Norris Street and entered into a partnership with John Craig, which continued until 1735, when Wickes moved to the King’s Arms, Panton Street, and began working independently. In that year he was appointed goldsmith to Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the ledgers of his business (London, Garrard & Co.; V&A) record the numerous commissions from royalty, aristocracy and gentry, and are the only surviving examples from the 18th century, indicating that Wickes built up a large and successful enterprise. Such members of the Prince’s circle as Francis, Lord North (later Earl of Guilford), who ordered tureens from Wickes in ...


Christina Thon

Pilgrimage church situated 3 km south-east of Steingaden in Upper Bavaria, Germany. An outstanding work of Bavarian Rococo, it stands in a forest meadow against a background of the Trauchgau Mountains. It is the last collaborative work of the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann. About 1743 Abbot Hyazinth Gassner (d 1745) of the Premonstratensian monastery of Steingaden commissioned Dominikus Zimmermann to design a church to house a miraculous image of the Flagellation; Wies Church was executed in 1745–57. The nave, an elongated oval surrounded by eight pairs of supports in an alternately wide and narrow spacing ( see fig. ), opens on to an ambulatory. On the west side a vestibule with organ gallery was added, to the east a long choir with an apsidal end, flanked at ground-floor level by an ambulatory and on the upper floor by galleries. On the east side a tower and the priest’s house adjoin the building....


Marie Fredericq-Lilar

(b Ghent, July 31, 1691; d Ghent, March 24, 1772).

Flemish architect . His earliest known work was the Pakhuys (warehouse; 1719; destr. 1897), Ghent, in which the main emphasis was on the wide, projecting, central range, pierced by round-headed apertures set off by rusticated joints, the whole surmounted by a triangular pediment. The horizontals of the building were accentuated by projecting cornices and the balcony balustrades. The Tuscan and Corinthian pilasters and the large urns above the attic confirmed the influence of the French style of elevation. De Wilde’s concern to distinguish his work from traditional Ghent architecture by turning to French models is also to be seen in his designs (1738; Ghent, Rijksarchief te Gent) for the Guard House (now the Handelsbeurs commercial exchange) and the headquarters of the Guild of St Sebastian, both situated on the Kouter, a large square in southern Ghent. The Guard House, executed by David ’t Kindt , comprises a ground-floor, attic and a mansard roof; with its projecting central range pierced with round-headed apertures, Tuscan pilasters, a triangular pediment and rustication, the building recalls the Pakhuys built 20 years earlier. The rocaille decoration and the cartouche set at an angle, the first examples of Ghent Rococo, are taken up again in his design for the headquarters of the Guild of St Sebastian. De Wilde is also attributed with the Hôtel Falligan (...


(b Eichstätt, Dec 19, 1738; d Munich, Feb 2, 1797).

German painter and etcher. After a five-year apprenticeship to the painter of sculptures Anton Scheidler ( fl 1745–after 1775) in Eggenfelden and short stays in Augsburg and Freising, he returned to Eichstätt and trained for a further year with the sculpture painter Jacob Feichtmayr ( fl 1735–67). From 1759–60 he was in Munich, first as assistant to Johann Michael Kaufmann (1713–?86), then as theatre painter at the electoral court, working to the designs of Lorenzo Quaglio, among others. His designs for the Elector’s Gobelins factory were recorded in a series of large-format oil paintings. In 1769 he became court painter.

Winck is regarded as the most heavily employed fresco painter in Munich in the later 18th century. His first major fresco (Starnberg, St Joseph) was completed in 1766; in the same year he worked at St Remigius, Raisting (nr Weilheim), and from 1767 in St Johann Baptist, Inning, but none of these early works have survived intact. His most important early work (...


J. E. P. Leistra

(bapt Amsterdam, Dec 19, 1695; d Amsterdam, Nov 12, 1754).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher and writer . He was the leading 18th-century Dutch decorative painter, specializing in Rococo ceiling and room decorations and groups of putti painted naturalistically in colour or as imitation reliefs in grisaille. His preparatory drawings for ceiling decorations were collected during his own lifetime, but he also executed independent finished drawings specifically for collectors (e.g. Three Hovering Putti; Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab.)

At the age of nine de Wit was apprenticed to Albert van Spiers (1666–1718), a painter of ceiling pictures and overmantels who had studied with Gérard de Lairesse and in Rome. From 1708 de Wit studied at the Koninklijke Academie in Antwerp and, from 1709 to 1712, with the history painter Jacob van Hal (1672–1718). In 1711–12 de Wit made drawn copies of the 36 ceiling pictures designed by Rubens in the Jesuit church in Antwerp (now St Carlo Borromeo). When these were destroyed by fire in ...