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John Percival and Geoffrey C. Tyack

Type of house, originally built as a country retreat for a wealthy patron; the term later applied also to smaller detached suburban or urban houses in garden settings. In ancient Rome the Latin word villa referred to a house in the country as opposed to a town house (aedes); the term villa suburbana was commonly applied to a house close to but outside a town. Some Roman villas were luxury retreats but these were not typical; the great majority were farms (villae rusticae) or the centres of landed estates, where the residence was known as a villa urbana, and even the most palatial examples were likely to have an agricultural base. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the villa virtually disappeared as a building type until the revival of economic prosperity and security in the early Renaissance period, when the word villa usually applied to a small country estate or a semi-rural retreat close to a town, the equivalent of the ...


David R. Coffin


Villa on the edge of the town of Tivoli, famous for its fine gardens with their spectacular fountains and waterworks. In 1550 Ippolito II d’Este, Cardinal of Ferrara, was appointed governor of Tivoli. He decided to transform the governor’s residence located in a portion of an old run-down Benedictine monastery attached to S Maria Maggiore into a lavish villa with splendid gardens devised by Pirro Ligorio. Although some gardens and vineyards were purchased below the monastery at this time, little was accomplished on the project for the next decade as the Cardinal was diverted by political affairs. The villa itself is, in architectural terms, somewhat plain. Ligorio did, however, execute a fine staircase loggia on the garden front. This is bordered on either side by ranges of private rooms, which are largely frescoed with such works as an Allegory of Nature by the school of Federico Zuccaro and the Labours of Hercules...


Susan B. Taylor

French château and garden in the département of Indre-et-Loire, 17 km south-west of Tours. In 1906 Dr Joachim Carvallo (1869–1936) purchased the 12th-century château. He intended to restore the grounds in the style of a 16th-century French garden; despite its axial alignment and symmetrical plan, however, his work (completed c. 1924) does not represent a historical reconstruction. He planned the garden as a series of three terraces set at right-angles to the château, which is located in the lower north-east corner of the grounds. Water for the garden is supplied by an ornamental pool at the highest level; this flows into a canal across the garden and encircles the château by means of a reconstructed moat. The canal divides the site and provides a vertical axis, whereas the two avenues bisecting it create east–west axes that further distinguish the different levels of the garden. As Woodbridge (...


Ian Dunlop and Tamara Préaud

Château and park in east Paris, France.

Begun as a hunting-lodge in 1162, the château was enlarged by Philip II Augustus (reg 1180–1223) in 1183 and by Louis IX in 1248 and was one of the favourite residences of the Capet dynasty. The donjon, begun by Philip VI (reg 1328–50) in 1337 and completed 1370, is a square building (h. 54 m) with cylindrical corner towers: it follows the design of that of the Temple (1306; destr.) in Paris. It was surrounded by an outer wall with a chemin-de-ronde and a gate-house, in which was the king’s study. Charles V wished to establish a royal city here, almost a prototype of Versailles. He built the curtain wall with nine large towers capable of lodging 2000 people. The area enclosed by the moat measured 334×175 m. Raymond du Temple was Charles V’s architect, although Charles probably contributed to the design. The donjon has six storeys: the kitchens were at the bottom, the next two storeys were reserved for the king, the fourth storey for the treasury, the fifth for officers of the household, and the top storey for soldiers....



Mairead Dunlevy

Irish city and centre of glass production. The earliest Waterford glass factory was established in Gurteens, near Waterford, during the 1720s, and production included lead-glass drinking vessels with pedestal stems, garden glasses, vials, bottles and other green glassware. The factory was closed about 1739.

In 1783 the Waterford Glass House was established by the merchants George Penrose and William Penrose, who employed John Hill and other glassmakers from Stourbridge, England. In 1799 the factory was taken over by three partners, James Ramsey (d c. 1810), Jonathan Gatchell (1752–1823) and Ambrose Barcroft, who in 1802 extended the works and installed new machinery. In 1823 George Gatchell became manager, and the works remained in the family until it closed. The factory produced cut, engraved and moulded glass of excellent quality, and c. 1832 steam power was installed in the factory, which allowed an increase in production.

The outstanding qualities of Waterford glass are its clarity and the precise cutting. The typical early Waterford decanter is barrel-shaped, has three or four neck rings and a wide, flat, pouring lip. Stoppers of Waterford production are almost invariably mushroom-shaped with a rounded knop below the stopper neck. From the cut patterns on marked Waterford decanters it would seem that popular designs included the pillar and arch embellished with fine diamonds. The numerous drawings of Waterford designs (Dublin, N. Mus.) made between ...


Cornelia Bauer

(b Steckborn, July 9, 1812; d Zurich, Feb 12, 1858).

Swiss architect . He studied at the Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe (1832–3), under Heinrich Hübsch and Friedrich Eisenlohr. In 1833 he directed work on the buildings in the botanic garden at Heidelberg, and in 1835 he studied in Munich under Friedrich von Gärtner. From 1836 he worked in Zurich. His reputation rests on his public buildings in Zurich, which were compact structures that made sparing use of classical and historical ornamentation. They include the Kantonsspital (1836–8), built jointly with Leonhard Zeugheer, and the main railway station (1846–8). Wegmann’s great interest in technical matters included advanced heating systems, sanitary arrangements and the solution of constructional problems, as in a greenhouse (1836–8) for the botanic garden in Zurich. Between 1839 and 1842 he built the Kantonsschule on the Rämibollwerk, closely modelled on Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Bauakademie in Berlin. The round-arched windows and sparse ornamentation of the heavy cube of the Mädchenschule (...


( Reijmert )

(b The Hague, Jan 12, 1860; d Santpoort, June 25, 1937).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and illustrator . He first trained as a landscape gardener in Amsterdam. In 1878–9, however, he received lessons in painting from the cattle painter Dirk van Lokhorst (1818–93) and he was working in Drenthe, Gelderland and North Brabant. During that time he also received tuition from the marine painter Jacob Eduard van Heemskerck van Beest (1828–94). Wenckebach lived and worked in Utrecht from 1880 to 1886, in Amsterdam until 1898 and thereafter in Santpoort.

Wenckebach’s preference was for traditional genres such as land-, river- and townscapes; in the latter, his drawings of views of old Amsterdam in particular are well known. In his style of painting and choice of subject-matter, he showed himself to be a late follower of the Hague school . Through a number of publishers he received many commissions as an illustrator and designer of books. In this field he collaborated on, among other things, the Verkade albums, a large series devoted to the history and nature of the Netherlands, and various children’s books. He is, however, particularly well known for his work for the ...


Michael Symes

[ Whateley ]

(d London, May 26, 1772).

English writer, garden designer and politician . An MP from 1761 until his death, he served as a Treasury Secretary in 1764–5, helping to draft the Stamp Act (1765), a key document in events that led to the American Revolution in 1775. Whately’s writings include his Observations on Modern Gardening, for which he is perhaps best remembered. This work describes a large number of English landscape gardens, some in great detail, and attempts to analyse and categorize them. It was considered by his contemporary Horace Walpole to be ‘a system of rules pushed to a great degree of refinement’ (‘On Modern Gardening’, Anecdotes of Painting in England, ed. R. N. Wornum, 1849, iii, p. 807). Whately described gardens as such (e.g. Stowe, Bucks), as well as in relation to farms (e.g. The Leasowes, W. Midlands), parks (e.g. Painshill Park, Surrey) and ridings (e.g. Piercefield, Gwent). He examined specific features, such as buildings, rocks, trees and the form of the land, and this led him to reject overtly emblematic uses of temples, statues or inscriptions—all of which featured in early 18th-century English gardens—in favour of less contrived effects. Visitors to gardens would often use the ...


M. Hamilton-Phillips and R. P. Maccubbin

Term applied primarily to decorative arts produced in The Netherlands and England during the reign (1689–1702) of William III and Mary II ( see Orange Nassau, House of family §(5) ) and that spread also to North America at the end of the century. It covers a vocabulary of visual forms rather than a movement, and is represented by richly ornamented furniture, displays of wares from the Far East, embossed and engraved silver, ceramics, luxurious textiles, architectural ornament and garden design. The decorative arts of the 1690s reflect the blending of French, Dutch and English ornamental styles as well as an increased taste for exotica. Although at war with France, William III admired the sophistication of French culture and encouraged the immigration of Huguenot refugees, the French Protestants who fled from France after 1685 when Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed them freedom of worship (...



Robert Williams

(b 1653; d Warwick, Dec 15, 1738).

English garden designer . About 1687 he joined the group venture of George London at Brompton Park, a nursery fast becoming the largest and best-stocked in London. By 1694 he was London’s sole business partner, and was subsequently co-translator of their two gardening directories. London’s influential position in the royal gardens helped provide a ready market for Brompton’s stock, and Wise too became increasingly involved in work for the Crown. Between 1689 and 1692 he improved the gardens at Hampton Court Palace: the ground was re-levelled, avenues of timber planted in neighbouring Bushey Park, and a basin dug to receive the Diana Fountain. During the 1690s he and London developed a useful working partnership, with Wise managing Brompton while London scoured England’s country seats for commissions.

At Anne’s succession in 1702 Wise was appointed Royal Gardener, and numerous alterations and additions on Crown property were made by him over the next few years. At the palaces of ...


Reinhard Alex

Town in Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, 16 km east of Dessau in the Elbe valley, and the site of Schloss Wörlitz and its extensive park, Germany’s first garden of major importance in the English landscape style. This large park (112.5 ha) was created between 1764 and c. 1805 as part of the summer residence of Prince Francis Anhalt-Dessau , and it was open to the public from the very beginning. Its numerous early Neo-classical and neo-Gothic buildings, monuments and bridges in various styles are a programmatic reflection of the ideas of the Enlightenment. Thus the poplars of Ermenonville were faithfully reproduced, as was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s tomb (1782), while Gotthold Ephraim Lessing’s advocacy of religious tolerance was reflected in a temple (1789–90) that was equipped as a synagogue (fittings stripped by the Nazis). The garden was largely conceived by Prince Francis himself and the architect Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff , who were both profoundly influenced by travels in England and Italy; evidence of a lasting enthusiasm for Italy is seen in the Insel Stein (...


Kristin E. Larsen

(b Lawrence, KS, July 2, 1878; d Newton, NJ, July 9, 1936).

American landscape architect and housing reformer. Educated at the University of Pennsylvania, Wright received his early training in planned picturesque park and streetscape design in the offices of the landscape architect George Kessler (1862–1923). Wright’s first widely recognized project in Clayton, an upscale neighborhood in St Louis, MO, featured palatial homes on large lots along curvilinear roads and oriented toward interior parks. He moved to Washington, DC, in 1918 to design new communities for war workers in the ship building industries. This short-lived experiment in federally funded housing transformed Wright, connecting him with such architects as Clarence Stein (1882–1975), who shared his social reform sensibilities. In the 1920s and 1930s, in partnership with Stein, Wright designed “new towns” inspired by the English garden city writings of Ebenezer Howard but reflective of the new “motor age.” Begun in 1924, Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, New York, featured single family, duplex and cooperative apartments arranged in a perimeter design around central courtyards. In ...


Philip Attwood

(b c. 1720; d London, Dec 3, 1779).

English medallist. He may have been responsible for engraving some admission tickets for the entertainments at Vauxhall Gardens, London, in the 1730s. His first known medals, and his best, are those commemorating the Battle of Culloden of 1746. Both the official medal (gold and bronze; see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, no. 283) and the larger medal portraying William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, as Hercules (gold, silver and bronze; hfg, ii, 278) demonstrate Yeo’s mastery as an engraver, while the imaginative allegorical reverses combine effectively with decorative Rococo flourishes. In 1749 he was appointed Assistant Engraver to the Royal Mint, London, and in 1775 he was promoted to the position of Chief Engraver, a post he retained until his death. In the 1760s and 1770s he made the dies for a number of coins of George III. His relatively small number of known medals includes the exquisite Cambridge University Chancellor’s medal of ...


K. A. Ottenheym

Dutch 18th-century garden (destr.) near Utrecht. In 1681 the Amsterdam merchant Jacob van Mollem established a silk factory on the River Vecht, near Utrecht. His son David van Mollem purchased additional land near his house, built sometime before 1693 next to the factory, and the garden that he established there became internationally famous ( see Garden §VIII 4., (v) ). From 1712 to 1736, when a neighbouring garden on the other side of the river was added to the complex, a formal, symmetrical garden was laid out. Influenced by French and particularly Italian examples that he must have known both from prints and his own observation, he incorporated into the garden an exceptional number of statues, arranged according to a specific plan and representing subjects from both Classical mythology and the Old Testament. Scattered throughout the garden were grottoes, a labyrinth, a theatre and a Turkish tent. At the centre were a large basin, and a triumphal arch backed by a hill and a dry hollow. In addition to numerous animal sculptures, the garden was also enlivened by fish ponds, a duck pond and a deer enclosure. Although the pleasure grounds no longer exist, their original appearance can still easily be reconstructed from the drawings (Utrecht, Cent. Mus.) made by ...


(b Haarlem, Feb 12, 1791; d Haarlem, July 8, 1870).

Dutch architect, urban planner and landscape designer. He was the most illustrious member of a family of architects and landscape gardeners. He and his brother, Karel George Zocher (1796–1864), were both trained by their father, Jan David Zocher the elder (d 1817), and he in turn introduced his son, Louis Paul Zocher (1820–1915), to the practice. Zocher the younger’s career was a microcosm of developments in 19th-century design. As a landscape architect he was dedicated to the Picturesque and introduced the English garden style into the Netherlands. His buildings, however, were the purest examples on Dutch soil of Romantic Classicism, a style that had relatively little impact there.

In 1809 Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, granted Zocher a bursary and in 1811 sent him to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Louis-Hippolyte Lebas. After completing his training Zocher toured France, Italy, Switzerland and England. This contact with current architectural trends abroad enabled him to break with the Palladian tradition that had prevailed in the Netherlands since the mid-17th century. Zocher returned to the Netherlands in ...


Complex in which wild and sometimes domesticated animals are kept and exhibited for scientific, educational and recreational purposes. The precursor of the modern zoo was the menagerie, which was essentially a place of entertainment but often also served as a royal status symbol. Collections of animals were well established in ancient Chinese, Asian and Egyptian cultures, mainly as public spectacles. Most of the ancient Greek city states had menageries designed mainly for the scientific study of the animals. A number of medieval European rulers had private menageries, including Henry I of England (reg 1100–35) and Philip IV of France, who kept his animals at the Palais du Louvre. Almost nothing is known, however, about the architectural form of such menageries. During the 18th century the menagerie became increasingly incorporated into Baroque garden designs. The design of the menagerie at the Belvedere (1716) in Vienna, by Dominique Girard and ...


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Merseburg, Saxony, Feb 20, 1733; d Warsaw, Aug 11, 1807).

German architect and landscape gardener, active in Poland . He worked in Dresden from 1747 and was appointed Clerk of Works (Kondukteur) in the Saxon Office of Works. He probably travelled to Italy in 1755 and lived in Poland from 1756, where in 1772 he was appointed Court Architect to Frederick-Augustus III, Elector and later King of Saxony (reg 1763–1827). In 1772, for Duke Casimir Poniatowski, he laid out the park at Solec. This was the first of a series of landscape gardens influenced by English models, with picturesque buildings, grottoes and artificial ruins, which he created for the Polish aristocracy. They included Mokotów (1775) for Elżbieta Lubomirska and the important park at Arkadia (from 1780) for Princess Helena Radziwiłł (1749–1821), with such features as an aqueduct, a ‘House of the High Priest’ and a temple to Diana (1783). Zug’s most important work was the Lutheran church (...