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(b Cesena, bapt April 12, 1574; d Rome, July 13, 1630).

Italian painter and writer . After studying optics and perspective in Cesena with the scientist Scipione Chiaramonti, he established himself in Rome from 1599 as a specialist in perspective. He painted the fictive architecture and decorative borders for Baldassare Croce’s frescoes (1598–1600) of scenes from the life of the saint in the nave of S Susanna, Rome. In collaboration with Giuseppe Agellio (c. 1570–after 1650), a pupil of Cristofano Roncalli, he painted the rear choir vault of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, in 1602 with an illusionistic opening to the sky, revealing his interest in the contemporary ceiling decorations of Cherubino Alberti and his brother Giovanni Alberti, who had decorated the front choir vault. After joining the Theatine Order in 1605, he worked exclusively for its monasteries and churches, including spending some time in Naples (c. 1621–3). He is known for a four-volume treatise on ...


Andrew John Martin

(di Bosio) [Francesco da Cotignola]

(b Cotignola, nr Ravenna, 1470–80; d Ravenna, between 31 Jan and Dec 3, 1532).

Italian painter . He was possibly a pupil of Marco Palmezzano in Forlì. He primarily studied Ferrarese painting, which permeates his oeuvre and may account for certain eccentricities of style. He shared a workshop in Cotignola with his brother Bernardino Zaganelli ( fl 1499–1509). Their first known joint work was the Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS John the Baptist and Florian and Three Angels (signed and dated 1499; Milan, Brera). Their last, the Holy Family (1509; Bergamo, Gal. Accad. Carrara), is unusual in the prominence accorded to St Joseph. The fan-shaped trees that rise above the wooded landscape in this painting are also found in the one work definitely assigned solely to Bernardino, St Sebastian (signed and dated 1506; London, N.G., together with the original lunette).

Francesco is documented in Ravenna from 1513, with his wife and orphaned niece, and from this period date the Baptism (signed and dated ...


Gordon Campbell

German family of printers. Günther Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Buxheim, 13 April 1478) seems to have been trained in the workshop of Johann Mentelin (c. 1410–78) in Strasbourg, and in 1468 he established the first printing workshop in Augsburg. His publications include the first illustrated Bible (1475), the first printed edition of the De imitatione Christi of Thomas à Kempis and an edition of the 13th-century Golden Legend (Lombardica historia) of the Genoese hagiographer Jacopo da Voragine in which the lives of the saints are illustrated with 231 woodcuts. Johann Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Ulm, c. 1523), who was probably Günther’s brother, moved to Ulm in the early 1470s, where he established a printing workshop that specialized in illustrated books. In 1476 he published the first edition of Aesop’s Fables in German.

A. Fujii: Günther Zainers druckersprachliche Leistung: Untersuchungen zur Augsburger Druckersprache im 15. Jahrhundert, ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

( fl Nuremberg, 1580s).

German goldsmith and engraver . He was recorded as a goldsmith’s apprentice in Nuremberg in 1580 but became known through his two collections of engravings, published in 1580 and 1581 (2nd edn 1584), which are essentially pattern books for goldsmiths. These engravings illustrate goblets, cups, ewers and basins decorated with sculptural animal and human heads, foliage and flowers, bunches of fruit, scrollwork and arabesques. He was probably the first to apply the goldsmith’s technique of punching to printmaking. Zan was influenced by the Netherlandish ornamental style and especially by the etchings of Georg Wechter I, which had been published shortly before. Zan was also a propagator of the type of scrollwork that gradually replaced the arabesque. His engravings acted as an important stimulus to the art of goldsmithing in the late 16th century and continued to be valued as craftsmen’s patterns until the end of the 19th century. Zan’s signature is ...


(b Florence or Rome; d Vilnius, Lithuania, 1541).

Italian architect and sculptor, active in Poland and Lithuania . Until 1529 he served as an assistant to the architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Berrecci in his work on the Sigismund Chapel, Kraków Cathedral. In about 1531 he founded an architectural–sculptural partnership with Giovan Battista Cini (d 1565) and Filippo da Fiesole (d 1540), also former collaborators of Berrecci. Their main achievement was the cathedral in Płock (1532–41): a basilica with a nave in three bays, aisles, transept with apse and a dome (raised in height, 1901–3), it was the only imitation north of the Alps of Renaissance basilicas of the type built in Rome by Florentine architects in the last quarter of the 15th century, e.g. S Agostino (1479–83) and S Maria del Popolo (1472–80). In July 1534 Zanobi and his associates entered into a contract to rebuild the cathedral in Vilnius (begun ...


Marjorie Trusted

( fl Ávila, 1499 d Ávila, 1524).

Spanish sculptor and architect . He may have trained in Italy, whence he introduced Italian Renaissance forms to New Castile, particularly in Ávila. In 1499 he established himself at Ávila as a carver in alabaster. He was also active as an architect, and in 1508 he was involved with the reconstruction of the cloisters in Ávila Cathedral. He carved the wall tomb (c. 1515) of Archbishop Alonso Carrillo de Albornoz in the chapel of S Ildefonso, Toledo Cathedral, a work with a strong Italianate influence perhaps partly due to the presence of Domenico Fancelli in Ávila. The monument is in the form of a triumphal arch, but all surfaces are carved with a profusion of decorative motifs reminiscent of the Lombard school. In 1518 de la Zarza completed the monument to Bishop Alonso de Madrigal, known as El Tostado, in the trasaltar mayor (the area behind the altar) of Ávila Cathedral. The seated figure of the bishop writing at a lectern is dramatically posed, and the work displays virtuoso carving of the drapery. In ...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Gordon Campbell

(b, c. 1450; d before 1519).

Swiss glass stainer. His workshop in Zurich produced small heraldic panels in the Gothic style; the fine detail was achieved by scratching flashed glass with a quill. There are examples of his glass in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum in Zurich and (since 2000) in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....


Hans Georg Gmelin

(b Nördlingen, 1455–60; d Nördlingen, c. 1520).

German painter . He is famed for the distinctive style of his altarpieces, which served as a model for Swabian painting in the early 16th century and was later much admired by the Romantics. Zeitblom’s family moved to Nördlingen under his grandfather Lienhard. There he married a daughter of the painter Friedrich Herlin, though no trace of Herlin’s work shows in Zeitblom’s altarpieces. In 1482 he became a citizen of Ulm, where he seems soon to have made contact with the leading master Hans Schüchlin, one of whose daughters later became his second wife. Besides his connections with leading families in Ulm, Zeitblom had noble patrons like the knight Georg von Ehingen, Peter von Hewen, and the families von Rechberg, von Limpurg and Öttingen, enabling his altarpieces to receive a wide distribution throughout the Swabian Alps and the Danube region of Upper Swabia.

Zeitblom’s characteristic style, which was developed but not decisively altered in his later work, is first apparent in the altarpiece from ...


Diana Gisolfi

[ Giambattista ; Gian Battista ]

(b Verona, c. 1526; d Mantua, Aug 28, 1578).

Italian painter . According to Ridolfi, he was trained with Paolo Veronese in the workshop of Antonio Badile III in Verona. Much of Zelotti’s work was executed for prestigious villas and palazzi in and near Vicenza. Although works of uncertain attribution have often been assigned traditionally to Veronese, owing to his greater fame, a clearer picture of the distinctions between the two artists during their early years has emerged in the later 20th century (Gisolfi, 1987, 1990).

Probably the earliest collaboration between Zelotti and Veronese, in association with Anselmo Canneri, was the decoration (1551) of the Villa Soranzo (destr.), near Castelfranco Veneto. Of the surviving fresco fragments, Zelotti’s Temperance and Putto with an Apple (both Castelfranco Veneto Cathedral) are executed with flatter faces and less bold foreshortening than appear in Veronese’s fragments (Gisolfi, 1987). In 1553–4, working with Veronese and Giovanni Battista Ponchino, Zelotti painted in oil compartments of the ceiling in the Sala del Consiglio dei Dieci and with Veronese the ceiling of the Sala dei Tre Capi in the ...


Janice Shell

(b Treviglio, c. 1464; d Milan, Feb 10, 1526).

Italian painter and architect . In 1481 Zenale was already a qualified master and a member of the Scuola di S Luca, the painters’ guild, in Milan. In 1485 he and Bernardino Butinone were hired by Simone da San Pellegrino and other officials of S Martino, Treviglio, to paint a large altarpiece for the high altar (in situ); the carving of the frame was subcontracted to Ambrogio and Giovanni Pietro Donati. By January 1491 the altarpiece had been installed, and Zenale and Butinone made a final payment to the Donati brothers. The two-tiered polyptych, in an elaborate pedimented frame, shows the Virgin and Child, St Martin and the beggar and other saints. The architectural setting for each group, shown in steep perspective, is festooned with swags and encrusted with decorative patterning.

During the 1480s and early 1490s Zenale frequently worked with Butinone: from these years date the decorations, including Dominican saints, for the nave of S Maria delle Grazie, Milan (...


J. Krčálová

Bohemian family of patrons . Jan Žerotín (d 25 Feb 1583), chief justice of Moravia, visited France in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A member of the Czech Brethren, he established on his estate at Kralice the sect’s printing works, issuing some 70 publications, including a translation of the Bible. In the 1570s he transformed the castles at Náměšť nad Oslavou and Rosice in Renaissance style. Náměšť Castle, which was probably the work of Leonardo Garovo (d 1574), was completed as an enclosed four-wing block c. 1580, as was Rosice Castle c. 1600. His son (1) Karel Žerotín and his nephew (2) Ladislav Žerotín continued the renovation of the family’s castles and the tradition of humanist scholarship and patronage.

A. Prokop: Die Markgrafschaft Mähren in kunstgeschichtlicher Beziehung, 3 (Vienna, 1904), pp. 668, 685, 744, 748, 763, 808–17, 830, 847–50, 945 Z. Tobolka: Žerotínská knihovna...


James Cahill

[Chin. Zhe pai]

Term used to refer to a school of Chinese painting within the Ming period (1368–1644). Derived from the south-eastern coastal province of Zhejiang, the name has been in common usage since the early 17th century. However, the definition and art-historical boundaries of the Zhe school are far from clear, since many of its artists are also included in the ‘Ming academy’, an equally problematic term loosely applied to a group of painters serving at the imperial court in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is true that the designation of a Zhe school as a local phenomenon has some validity in that many of its members, and notably its founder, Dai Jin, were from Zhejiang. Moreover, Zhe school masters followed an older, conservative stylistic tradition, that of the Southern Song (1127–1279) Academy ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (i) ), centred from its beginnings in the Hangzhou region of Zhejiang. Nevertheless, the school also included artists from other parts of China and drew on different stylistic traditions. In the end it seems best to retain both the term ‘Zhe school’ and the term ‘Ming academy’, while admitting that they do not define either a truly local school, in the strict sense, or an organized academy....


Lu Zhi  

Louise Yuhas

[Lu Chih; zi Shuping; hao Baoshan]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1496; d Suzhou, 1576).

Chinese painter and minor poet (see fig.). He is associated with the Wu school of painters active in Suzhou during the Ming period (1368–1644). Lu’s surviving paintings date to 1523–74; the most distinctive, executed between 1547 and 1555, represent a synthesis between the literati style of painting (wenren hua), as exemplified by Wen Zhengming (see Wen family, §1), and the professional tradition, as epitomized by Qiu Ying. Lu himself was a literatus: after he passed the local civil-service examination, his studies were supported by the prefectural government, though he never succeeded in the provincial examination. In 1557, at the age of 61, he was awarded the largely honorary gongsheng degree and allowed to retire.

Lu lived a life of genteel poverty. With the exception of two years as an instructor in a Confucian school in the early 1520s, he did not accept employment, refusing the hopeful students who sought him out. In the mid-1550s he built a retreat outside Suzhou on Mt Zhixing, where he lived in relative seclusion until the age of 80, when failing health forced him to return to the city. His biographer Wang Shizhen noted that Lu was somewhat misanthropic: he barred the door and hid at the approach of unwanted guests, though he might talk the night away over home-made chrysanthemum wine with a few select friends....


Andrew Stoga

[Ziarnko, Jan; Le Grain, Jean]

(b Lwów [L’viv], later 16th century; d ?Paris, c. 1628).

Polish engraver and painter, active in France . He learnt his craft in Kraków. In 1596–7 he appears in Lwów archives as a member of the city’s Brotherhood of Catholic Painters. By 1598 he was already abroad; he reached Paris by way of Italy and settled there, though it has been suggested that late in life he returned to Lwów. In Paris, Ziarnki established himself as a painter-engraver closely associated with the courts of Henry IV and Louis XIII. His earliest engraving, dated 1605, represents Pope Leo XI. Ziarnki also illustrated books, frequently dedicated to the king or queen, and designed courtly festivals. He cooperated with such notable French engravers as Jean Leclerc (c. 1595–c. 1625), Léonard Gaultier, Claude Vignon and Robert Nanteuil. Ziarnki’s oeuvre includes over 90 engravings, but his activities have been little studied.

Thieme–Becker E. Rastawiecki: Słownik malarzów polskich tudzież obcych w Polsce osiadłych lub czasowo w niej przebywających...


Barbara Kahle

German family of ivory-turners . The family originated in Nuremberg, where various members were occupied with artistic turnery, particularly in ivory, from the late 16th to the 18th century. Indeed, it was principally the work of the Zick family that made Nuremberg one of the three main centres (along with Regensburg and Dresden) of ivory-turning for the manufacture of objets d’art. The family workshop achieved extraordinary skill in overcoming the greatest technical difficulties. Although little is known of the careers of individual family members, such contemporary sources as Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1730) and Johann Michael Teuber (1740) provide important points of reference. The artistic dynasty is thought to begin with Peter Zick I (1571–1629), who was at some period turnery master to Emperor Rudolf II at his court in Prague. Peter Zick I was famous for his ivory drinking vessels (e.g. in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), and an ivory nef (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.) may also be attributable to him; it bears an imperial coat of arms, perhaps a reference to his stay at the court in Prague. His son ...


(fl 1559–97; d Bamberg, after 1616).

German painter. Versatile but mediocre, he worked as court painter at Bamberg. His few surviving works include wall paintings (1559) in the Schloss at Forchheim and a large cycle on the Legend of St George (1575; Bamberg, Diözmus.), concluding with the battle between Emperor Henry II and King Bolesław of Poland. He also designed wall hangings, worked as an illuminator and etcher and produced moulds for woodcuts....


Janez Höfler

[ Wilhalm ]

(b Creglingen, c. 1480; d ?Rothenburg ob der Tauber, after 1537).

German painter. He was apprenticed to Hans Burgkmair I in Augsburg in 1502. From 1507 to c. 1520 he lived as an independent master painter in Rothenburg ob der Tauber. His work there includes the panels for the St Wolfgang altar in the Wolfgangskirche (1514), which are very much in the style of Burgkmair. Ziegler later came under the influence of Dürer and Hans von Kulmbach. From 1522 he shared a studio with Hans Boden in Fribourg; some works from this period (e.g. panels from an altar to Our Lady, 1522, 1523) are in Fribourg’s Musée d’Art et d’Histoire. He obtained citizenship of Fribourg in 1527 and was appointed municipal painter.

In 1531 Ziegler made a brief but fruitless return to Rothenburg ob der Tauber. In 1534 he turned up as a master painter in Würzburg, which had remained Catholic; however a dated and signed map of the Rothenburg area (...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Heidelberg, 1556; d Tübingen, 1607).

German painter and woodcut designer . His training appears Swiss, but he is first documented in 1579 in Wildberg, in the duchy of Württemberg, painting an organ front. Shortly afterwards he was mentioned as the painter of epitaph pictures in Herrenberg (Stiftskirche) and in the vicinity of Tübingen (Derendingen). By 1583 at the latest he was connected with the court at Stuttgart. In 1586 he married the widow of the painter Hans Schickhardt (1512–85) in Tübingen, thereby acquiring a workshop and the rights and privileges of a painter. In Stuttgart he worked first as an illuminator, imaginatively creating richly decorated title pages for manuscripts, using ornamentation reminiscent of the decoration on Swiss painted glass. He was probably also employed in illustrating family record books, an art form that was flourishing in university towns at the time. Although he was not a salaried official of the court at Stuttgart, he was engaged for various specific tasks, mainly of a decorative nature. Between ...


S. J. Turner

(b Florence, c. 1540; d Rome, before April 3, 1596).

Italian painter and draughtsman . He was trained in the studio of Vasari, whom he assisted in the decoration of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, as early as 1557. He accompanied Vasari to Pisa in 1561, from when dates his earliest known drawing, Aesculapius (London, BM). Between 1563 and 1565 he was again in Florence and is documented working with Vasari, Joannes Stradanus and Giovan Battista Naldini on the ceiling of the Sala Grande (Salone dei Cinquecento) in the Palazzo Vecchio; a drawing of an Allegory of Pistoia (Florence, Uffizi) is related to the ceiling allegories of Tuscan cities. In 1564 Zucchi entered the Accademia del Disegno and contributed to the decorations erected for the funeral of Michelangelo. He travelled to Rome with Vasari and was his chief assistant on decorations in the Vatican in 1567 and 1572, where he executed frescoes of scenes from the Life of St Peter Martyr in the chaptel of S Pio V....