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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b Nuremberg, Sept 25, 1548; d Nuremberg, Oct 2, 1620).

German metal-founder . He was among the last of Nuremberg’s famous metal-founders, following the Vischer and the Labenwolf families. His mother Barbara was the daughter of Pankraz Labenwolf, and he trained with and later worked for his uncle Georg Labenwolf. Two misconceptions exist in most literature on Wurzelbauer and the Labenwolfs. Firstly, although numerous statuettes and reliefs have been attributed to them by Bange and other scholars, these artists were metal-founders not sculptors. In virtually every case, their role was to cast the image in metal; the design and the carving of the model were tasks executed by sculptors, such as Hans Peisser and Johann Gregor van der Schardt. As their portion of the project was the last and most expensive, Wurzelbauer and the Labenwolfs were frequently mentioned in the documents. Proud of their achievements, they occasionally signed the completed work. Secondly, Wurzelbauer and the other Nuremberg metal-casters used brass, rather than bronze as has been thought by previous scholars. Recent research has demonstrated that the Nuremberg artists included a much higher percentage of zinc in their copper alloy, thus making brass, than most other German founders who blended more tin with their copper to form bronze....


[ Vigne, Antoine de la ; Viñas, Antonio de las ]

(b ?Antwerp, c. 1525; d Madrid, 1571).

Flemish draughtsman, etcher and painter, active also in the northern Netherlands, Italy, France, England and Spain . Although few facts about his life are known, his movements can be reconstructed from his numerous topographical drawings, most of which are preserved in Vienna (Österreich, Nbib.; 53 drawings), Oxford (Ashmolean; 47 drawings), London (V&A; 31 drawings) and Antwerp (Plantin–Moretus Mus.; 23 drawings). He was apparently also active as a townscape painter, but none of his paintings is known. His earliest dated drawing is a View of Dordrecht (1544; Oxford). Also assigned to the mid-1540s is a panoramic View of London (Oxford), a drawing so large that, although previously kept rolled, it is now mounted as 14 separate sheets. In 1552–3 he was in Italy, where he made an elaborate etched View of Genoa, dated January 1553 (unique impression, Stockholm, Kun. Bib.) and probably drew views of Rome (e.g. four in Oxford; one in New York, Met.; one in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) and Naples (Oxford). By ...


Song Xu  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Sung Hsü; hao Shimen]

(b Chongde, Zhejiang Province, 1525; d c. 1607).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. Unlike other literati Southern school painters of the late Ming period (1368–1644), Song Xu came from a humble background. In the 1570s he moved to Songjiang Prefecture, the principal city of which, Huating, later came to be associated with Dong Qichang and his followers. Song is said to have lived in a Daoist shrine; sources record that he was respected as an ‘untonsured monk’ and that he took Buddhist sobriquets. The work of Shen Zhou was the main influence on his landscape manner. A handscroll after the Southern Song (1127–1279) painter Xia Gui, produced when Song Xu was not yet 20, suggests that in his youth he studied masters of the Song period (960–1279) as well.

Song is said to have written a laudatory evaluation of the styles of the 10th- and 11th-century monumental landscapists Li Cheng, Guan Tong and Fan Kuan; however, it seems that, in common with the Huating artists, he favoured the work of the masters of the Yuan period (...



Burglind Jungmann

Korean family of scholars and painters. They were descended from Yi Kyang-gun, eighth son of King Sŏngjong (reg 1469–94) of the Chosŏn dynasty (the family name of this dynasty was Yi). Two of Yi Kyang-gun’s great-grandsons, (1) Yi Kyŏng-yun and (2) Yi Yŏng-yun, were painters and were influenced by the Chinese Zhe school . Yi Kyŏng-yun’s son, (3) Yi Ching, a court painter, also worked in the Zhe school tradition. Two other sons, Yi Ch’uk (1566–1637) and Yi Wi-guk (b 1597), had the reputation of being good calligraphers.

(b 1545; d 1611).

As a direct descendant of King Sŏngjong in the fourth generation, he was not allowed to sit any examinations. He did, however, achieve the title of nobility of Hangnim-su (senior fourth rank) and later gained promotion to Hangnim-jŏng (senior third rank). The artist used both titles as sobriquets. Contemporary texts reflect his reputation as a painter. Thus, Yi Myŏng-han (...



Burglind Jungmann



Alice R. M. Hyland

[T’ang Yin; zi Bohu; hao Ziwei, Liuru]

(b Suzhou, April 6, 1470; d Suzhou, Jan 7, 1524).

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher. He was born into the merchant class of Suzhou, where his father was a restaurateur, and although lacking social standing, he received an excellent education. He was a brilliant student and became the protégé of Wen Lin (1445–99), the father of Wen Zhengming. His friends in Suzhou scholarly circles included Shen Zhou, Wu Kuan (1436–1504) and Zhu Yunming. In 1498 Tang Yin came first in the provincial examinations in Nanjing, the second stage in the civil service examination ladder. The following year he went to Beijing to sit the national examinations, but he and his friend Xu Jing (d 1507) were accused of bribing the servant of one of the chief examiners to give them the examination questions in advance. All parties were jailed, and Tang Yin returned to Suzhou in disgrace, his justifiably high hopes for a distinguished civil service career dashed forever....


Ellen Johnston Laing

[Ch’iu Ying; zi Shifu; hao Shizhou]

(b Taicang, Jiangsu Province, ?1494; d c. 1552).

Chinese painter. Chinese historical writings refer to Qiu as one of the Four Great Masters of the Ming period (1368–1644), along with Shen Zhou, Wen Zhengming and Tang Yin. He was born into a humble family and studied painting with Zhou Chen in Suzhou, centre of the Wu school of painting, but lived and worked on the fringes of scholarly Suzhou society. His livelihood depended solely upon his skill in satisfying the tastes and demands of his patrons. More fortunate than other commercial artists, he had three art collectors as patrons, with each of whom he stayed for several years. One was Chen Guan from Suzhou. The other two were Zhou Fenglai (1523–55), from nearby Kunshan, and the well-known wealthy collector Xiang Yuanbian, whose home was in Jiaxing in Zhejiang Province.

To satisfy his patrons, Qiu depicted a broad range of subjects in a wide variety of styles. Some of his pictures were commemorative, while others were used as birthday or presentation gifts. His paintings emphasize visual beauty, often including detailed luxuriant settings and rich colours, reflecting the deep-rooted sensuousness that is a major aspect of Ming taste. He also made exact copies of ancient masterpieces, and this and his talent for incorporating older motifs into his own work have made it difficult to establish his oeuvre, a problem compounded by a lack of extant dated works and a plethora of imitations and forgeries....



Rose Kerr

Town in Jiangsu Province, China, situated c. 5 km west of Lake Tai, famous during the Qing period (1644–1911) and the 20th century for its high-quality teawares made of red stoneware. Most of the kilns lie to the south of Yixing in the village of Dingshuzhen.

It has been tentatively established that the earliest purplish-red Yixing stonewares were produced as early as the Song period (960–1279); examples include two pear-shaped vessels with dark purplish stoneware body and partial olive-brown glaze, found in a disused well in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in 1961 (see Lo, p. 15). Excavations in that area have revealed kilns as well as sherds of coarse red stoneware, including many fragments of teaware. The production of Yixing wares is first well documented for the mid-16th century (e.g. teapot from the tomb of the court official Wu Jing (d 1533); Nanjing, Jiangsu Prov. Mus.). It was at this time that the names of individual potters were first recorded. They adopted the practice for which Yixing became famous, that of marking their wares with their own signatures (e.g. hexagonal red stoneware teapot signed by ...


Constantino Reyes-Valerio and Liliana Herrera

Term used to designate the architecture characteristic of the Yucatán peninsula in south-east Mexico, particularly the religious architecture of the 16th century. A number of factors militated against Spanish settlement in Yucatán in the early 16th century, notably the intense heat, difficulties in irrigating the area, the lack of precious metals, and the sparseness of the Indian population, which was mostly Maya. Consequently, the peninsula’s social and economic development was very different from that of the more densely populated central plateau, and this was reflected in its architecture, which was of a simpler and more austere character.

Despite the obstacles to settlement, Franciscan missionaries arrived in the Yucatán peninsula in the 1530s and 1540s and began to construct simple buildings to house the monks. In order to accommodate the large congregations of Indians, however, and to protect them from the sun, they built ramadas, or large shelters, in the monastery compounds. These were supported by tree trunks, with roofs made from branches, and they had no side walls, thereby allowing the free passage of air. Services were conducted from a small, open-fronted stone chapel or chancel, which was built facing the ...


Burglind Jungmann

(fl 16th century).

Korean painter. Hardly anything is known of his life. What information is available states that he painted well. From this it can be assumed that Ham was a professional painter, as ordinary court painters at the Tohwasŏ (Bureau of Painting) occupied a very lowly position in society, their accomplishments only being mentioned in contemporary sources in cases of extreme merit. Riding a Donkey (album leaf, light colour on silk, 155×194 mm; Seoul, N. Mus.), traditionally attributed to Ham Yun-dŏk, depicts a scholar on a donkey. The animal’s legs are splayed under the heavy burden as it stoops almost to the ground. Branches and twigs hang down from a rock face leaning obliquely into the picture. In its composition the painting is reminiscent of works produced by the Chinese Ming-period (1368–1644) Zhe school, which was much emulated in 16th-century Korea and the style of which was subsequently assimilated into the Korean tradition of literati painting. The painting is comparable to ...


Ho Chuan-Hsing

[Chu Yün-ming; zi Xizhe; hao Jishan]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1460–61; d Suzhou, 1527).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, essayist and poet . Born into an illustrious Suzhou family, he was commended in the provincial examinations, the second stage of the civil service career ladder, at the age of 33 but failed in several attempts at the national examinations. In 1514 he took office as magistrate of Xingning County in Guangdong Province and in 1522 was promoted to assistant prefectural magistrate of Yingtian District (now Nanjing). He retired after less than a year and died at the age of 67. Zhu was an outstanding representative of certain literary circles in Suzhou, revered not only for his calligraphy, but also for his scholarship, essays and poetry. His individual and non-conformist beliefs made him severely critical of Song Neo-Confucianism, the orthodox teaching of his day, seeing it as both ill-founded and constricting. His love of liberty and adherence to the classics are reflected in his calligraphy, which is at once informed by a thorough acquaintance with the classical masters and executed with an expansive and uninhibited flair....


Dawn Ho Delbanco

[Ting Yün-p’eng; zi Nanyu; hao Shenghua Jushi]

(b Xiuning, Anhui Province, 1547; d after 1625).

Chinese painter. The son of a physician with modest artistic aspirations, he inherited his father’s love for art but was left with no financial means and was obliged to paint for a living. Ding became known primarily for his Buddhist figure painting, though he also painted landscapes and designed woodblock book illustrations. Ding was the most conservative of the major late Ming-period (1368–1644) figure painters with whom he is often grouped, but although he did not develop a distinctive or inventive personal style, he was a versatile artist of eclectic tastes, displaying a wide range in subject-matter and style (see fig.).

In the late 1570s Ding left Xiuning for the influential artistic centre of Huating in Jiangsu Province (modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality). He lived occasionally in Buddhist monasteries as a lay practitioner and made religious pictures for various temples. His earliest surviving dated work, an album depicting ...


Joan H. O’Mara

(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1533; d 1615).

Japanese painter. He was the fifth son of a samurai retainer of the Asai clan, the rulers of Ōmi Province on the shores of Lake Biwa. In his youth he entered Tōfukuji, an important Zen temple in Kyoto, serving first as a page and later as a lay priest, reportedly with some reluctance. His service at Tōfukuji did, however, spare him the fate that befell the rest of his family in 1573, when the Asai clan was destroyed by Oda Nobunaga.

As a painter, Yūshō is said to have received early encouragement at Tōfukuji and training under a master of the Kanō family school, the leading school of painting at the time. He may have studied with Kanō Motonobu or perhaps with Kanō Eitoku, but he did not stay in the Kanō studio. During his formative years he was also exposed to the works of the Chinese painter Liang Kai...


J. J. Martín González

Hieronymite monastery, near Plasencia, province of Cáceres, Spain. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ( see Habsburg, House of family §I, (5) ), retired to Yuste after his abdication in Brussels in 1556, and he lived there from February 1557 until his death on 21 September 1558. The building was begun in 1415 and was built under the patronage of the Condes de Oropesa (Alvarez de Toledo); part of the existing monastery dates from this time. Following the Emperor’s choice of Yuste, he sent plans for a new wing and detailed instructions for his personal requirements, and the enlargement was carried out in 1554–5 by Fray Antonio de Villacastín (1512–1603). It has been said that its style is derived from the house where Charles V was born in Ghent. The palace of Yuste was constructed of brick and masonry in a series of monolithic blocks along simple lines and without decoration. It is built on two floors with similarly disposed rooms, one floor for winter and the other for summer. Each floor contains a central corridor with access to the four rooms. Because of the Emperor’s poor health a ramp connected the ground floor to the first floor. On the first floor the ramp leads to a spacious terrace overlooking the magnificent landscape and valley of La Vera, from which there is access to the choir of the church, which the Emperor used. On the right of the entrance on each floor are an antechamber and chamber communicating with two other small rooms, belvederes resembling those in the towers of the Alhambra in Granada....


( fl c. 1514–17).

South Netherlandish sculptor . He was from Mechelen, but he is known only for work done for the town halls at Middelburg and neighbouring Veere in Holland, to which members of the Keldermans family from Mechelen also contributed. In 1514–18 Ywyns was paid for a series of 25 sandstone statues for the façade of the Stadhuis in Middelburg. The statues, which represent the counts and countesses of Holland, were placed in ten pairs beneath canopies set between the first-floor windows of the main façade, with a further figure on each of the five sides of the adjoining corner tower. Restoration work of 1838 was so extensive that little of the original style of the figures can be determined. Ywyns may possibly be identified with the sculptor IJssewijn, who was paid for an Annunciation (untraced) and a statue of ‘Heer Hendrick’ for the Stadhuis of Veere. The project was similar to the Middelburg scheme: seven sandstone statues, set between the first-floor windows, survive, representing the patron ...


Bruno Adorni

Italian family of architects, builders and engineers . Bernardino Zaccagni (b Torrechiara, nr Parma, c. 1460; d Parma, c. 1530) and his sons Benedetto Zaccagni (b 26 Nov 1487; d 26 Jan 1558), also known as il Torchiarino, and Gian Francesco Zaccagni (b 21 Feb 1491; d 1543) were active in Parma from the late 15th century to the 16th. Bernardino’s name is linked with the most important architectural works produced in Parma in the early 16th century. Between 1498 and 1507 he completed the Benedictine church of S Benedetto, Parma, which was begun in the local vernacular by Pellegrino da Pontremoli in 1491. Its graceful gabled façade, articulated by four elongated pilaster strips, betrays an ignorance of the rules of the Classical orders. Bernardino’s Benedictine church (1507–9) at Pedrignano, near Parma, also seems alien to the Renaissance climate and may have been inspired by local Lombardic churches. In ...


Stephen K. Scher

(b Bologna or Volterra, 1512–15; d ?Rome, c. 1565).

Italian medallist and sculptor . Son of the sculptor Zaccaria Zacchi (1473–1544) of Volterra, he spent almost his entire career in Bologna, working primarily for the Farnese family. One of his earliest and best-known medals (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1292) was modelled in 1536 and shows the 82-year-old Venetian Doge Andrea Gritti. It is signed IO. zacchus. f. on the reverse, which has a figure of Fortune holding a cornucopia and a tiller and standing on a globe encircled by a three-headed serpent. On only one other medal, that of Fantino Cornaro of Episcopia (Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant.), does Zacchi give this full signature.

Other medals, signed either IO. f. or simply IO, are attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds, but such attributions make sense both chronologically and geographically. One of these, signed IO. f. (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1293), is of ...


[ il giovane ]

(b Lucca, bapt Dec 27, 1524; d c. 1587).

Italian painter . He was a cousin of the Lucchese painter Ezechia da Vezzano, known as Zacchia il vecchio ( fl 1510–60), who probably brought him up and from whom he learnt to paint in the Florentine High Renaissance style. However, his Adoration of the Shepherds (1576; Lucca, Mus. & Pin. N.) is in an obviously mature style that owes something to the Mannerist compositions of Bronzino, particularly to his altarpiece (1564) on the same subject for S Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa. Two other reliably datable works, from the 1580s, feature typical Counter-Reformation themes: a Virgin and Child with SS Louis and John the Evangelist (1585; Lucca, S Paolino) and a Crucifixion with SS Lawrence and Julian (1587; Lucca, S Anastasio). Lorenzo treated these subjects in a style closer to that of Zacchia il vecchio and Fra Bartolommeo.

Some questions remain to be answered on Lorenzo’s career: a group portrait known as ...