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Charles Talbot

(fl c. 1485–1510).

German draughtsman, engraver and painter. The signature Mair appears on all but one of his twenty-two engravings and on one of three woodcuts. The rest of his posthumously acquired name derives from the Landshut coat of arms on the engraving Hour of Death (1499; Lehrs, no. 19), which presumably indicates that Mair was working there. Nine other engravings are dated the same year, the only date to appear on any of his engraved work. Former identification as Nicolaus Alexander Mair, a painter in Landshut documented in 1492, 1499 and 1514, has proved untenable. None of Mair’s other dated works is earlier than 1495 or later than 1504, years in which he was also associated with Munich and Freising. Stylistic evidence suggesting he assisted Jan Polack c. 1490 in painting an altarpiece for St Peter in Munich tallies with an entry in the Munich tax records from 1490 that lists a ‘Mair Maler von Freising’. In ...


Vivian Atwater

French family of engravers. Nicolas-Joseph Voyez (b Abbeville, 1742; d Paris, 1806) studied in Abbeville with Jacques-Firmin Beauvarlet, one of the engravers who were helping, through reproductive engravings, to popularize Netherlandish Baroque paintings in France. Both Nicolas-Joseph and his brother François Voyez (b Abbeville, 1746; d Paris, ...


Madeleine Van De Winckel

[Jan] [Frisio, Johan]

(b Leeuwarden, 1527; d ?Antwerp, ?1606).

Dutch designer, architect and painter, active in the southern Netherlands and throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Though an artist of many talents, it was through his engravings that he most influenced his contemporaries. The distribution of his works by the publishers of Antwerp made him one of the leading and best-known exponents of Mannerist decoration and the instigator of a new urban vision in northern and central Europe.

He first studied drawing in his native Leeuwarden in Friesland for five years with Reijer Gerritsz., a glass painter from Amsterdam, who moved to Leuven c. 1544. Vredeman de Vries then spent two years in Kampen, before moving to Mechelen, where he learnt to paint in watercolour on canvas, a technique typical of that town. In 1549 he assisted Pieter Coecke van Aelst on the decoration of the triumphal arches constructed for the ceremonial entry into Antwerp of Charles V and his son, the future Philip II. On Vredeman de Vries’s return to Friesland, he was briefly in Kollum, where he is reported to have applied himself ‘night and day’ to copying the works of Sebastiano Serlio and Vitruvius from editions published and translated by Coecke van Aelst. Vredeman de Vries returned to Mechelen to stay with the painter and art dealer ...


(b Nuremberg, 1526; d Nuremberg, March 28, 1586).

German painter, engraver and designer. Although he described himself as a painter, he is best known for his designs for gold and silver. In 1571 he produced a design for the Akeley Cup (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), named after and shaped like the bell-flower, which subsequently became a masterpiece for the Nuremberg goldsmiths’ guild. His most influential contribution to goldsmithing was his pattern book 30 Stück zum verzachnen für die Goldschmied verfertigt Geörg Wechter 15 Maller 79 Nürnberg (Nuremberg, 1579; e.g. Berlin, Kupferstichkab.), which offered 30 designs of various types of vessels in forms that came readily within the scope of the competent goldsmith who could not create designs himself. Wechter introduced a new version of low-relief strapwork ornament that contrasted with the popular high-relief strapwork style created in the 1530s at Fontainebleau ( see Strapwork ). His designs are characterized by low-relief strapwork composed of interlacing C- and S-curves covering the whole surface of the vessel. His followers Bernhard Zan, Jonas Silber and Paul Flindt II used and developed flat, chased strapwork in their work....


Hans J. Van Miegroet

[Master of the Crossed Staffs; Pilgrim, Johann Ulrich; Vuechtelin, Johannes]

(b Strasbourg, c. 1480–85; d after 1526).

German woodcut designer. Documentary evidence about him is sparse. Both his father and grandfather were citizens of Strasbourg. He was recorded in 1505 in Nancy, and in 1506–7 in Wittenberg, where he must have met Lucas Cranach the elder. He was registered as a citizen of Strasbourg on 16 November 1514, being still active there in 1526. A few drawings were formerly attributed to Wechtlin, but these attributions are often contested. Wechtlin’s emblem, two crossed pilgrim’s staffs, was identified in 1777 by von Murr. Bartsch (1808) considered Wechtlin as the inventor of chiaroscuro print, but this is no longer accepted. Whether Wechtlin cut his own prints is unknown.

The dating of Wechtlin’s woodcuts is very hypothetical. Like his Strasbourg contemporary Hans Baldung, he was clearly familiar with the Burgkmair–de Negker chiaroscuro technique. Of the prints generally accepted as Wechtlin’s, the majority are religious in theme. Strauss (1973...


Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Brussels, c. 1510; d Cologne, c. 1590).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver . He studied in Antwerp with Christiaen van de Queborn (c. 1515–78) and painted landscapes in the manner of Frans Mostaert. De Weerdt went to Italy c. 1560, probably visiting Rome and Venice. After his return to the Netherlands he moved to Brussels where he soon became a successful painter. His style reflected the influence of such Italian artists as Parmigianino, whose work he had studied during his stay in Italy. Bénézit referred to a series of paintings showing the Life of the Virgin. Thieme–Becker mentioned only two paintings attributable to the artist (a Madonna, Kassel, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, and a grisaille representing the Life of the Virgin, Warsaw, N. Mus.) and a few drawings: a Landscape (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) and four sheets with scenes from the Story of Ruth (Vienna, Albertina). In 1566, de Weerdt moved to Cologne, where he probably met the sculptor Willem Danielsz. van Tetrode, as de Weerdt published a print of a now lost sculpture group by van Tetrode (...


Hans Georg Gmelin

(b Landshut, c. 1465–70; d Landshut, 1533).

German painter and woodcutter . An artist as ambitious as Lucas Cranach I, he became one of Germany’s first accredited court painters, working for the Dukes of Landshut in the triangular area defined by Ingolstadt, Straubing and Munich. The son of a functionary working for the Dukes, he was probably first taught by a certain Sigmund Gleismüller (c. 1449–1511). Hans Mair (Mair von Landshut), who had come from Augsburg and had settled in Landshut, seems to have prompted him to work as a journeyman in Augsburg. His acquisition of citizen’s rights in Landshut in 1491 suggests he was a master by that date. Mair seemingly procured him a series of commissions between 1497 and 1499 from Prince Bishop Philipp of Freising (1480–1541). The only work to survive from this period, however, is the large panel of the Life of St Sigismund (1498) in Freising Cathedral. It retains the deep tones associated with Augsburg painting, and its shape, with a pointed arch at the top, must also have been developed in Augsburg. As in Mair’s work, several scenes are assembled in the arch and the side sections, creating a cramped Late Gothic framing architecture, but Wertinger divests this of fantastical elements. The large heads and bulky angular bodies are also typically Late Gothic, yet the scenes of Sigismund’s martyrdom are set out in a peaceful way....


Marianne Grivel

(b Neufchâteau, Vosges, 1532; d Damblain, Haute-Marne, 1599).

French goldsmith, painter, sculptor, medallist and engraver . He followed his father and grandfather in working as a goldsmith until c. 1555, after which he was primarily active as an engraver. In that year he received two privileges for the Pinax iconicus (Adhémar, 6), published in 1556, and the Livre d’anneaux d’orfèvrerie (Adhémar, 19), published in 1561 with a dedication to the poet Barthélemy Aneau. Around 1556 he executed three engravings with historical or mythological subject-matter, the Bull of Phalaris, Hasdrubal’s Wife Throwing Herself on the Pyre and Phocas Led Captive before Heraclius (Adhémar, 21–3). It was previously thought that Woeiriot went to Italy after 1550 and settled in Lyon on his return in 1554, but it now seems that he did not leave for Rome until c. 1559–60. At the end of 1561 he was in Nancy; he continued to make frequent visits to Lyon until 1571. On 1 December 1561...


Andreas Stolzenburg

(b probably Worms, 1493/6-1500; d Cologne, before in or 1541).

German woodcutter and painter . His family settled in Cologne c. 1510, and he was probably trained by his father, Jaspar Woensam the elder, who became the banneret of the painters’ guild in 1546. There is evidence that Anton Woensam worked as a woodcutter for book printers in 1517–18. His style was at first influenced by Cologne painting and Antwerp Mannerism, and he may also have been inspired by the Master of St Severin. Later he was influenced by Bartolomäus Bruyn the elder, Joos van Cleve and Albrecht Dürer.

Woensam’s extensive oeuvre, in which painting plays only a small part, can be divided into four creative periods. The earliest period (c. 1520) is characterized by a mixture of Late Gothic ornamental forms and Mannerist influences from the Netherlands; it was followed by a period of study (1521–6), during which his use of colour and composition became more sober and cool, and the mature period (...


Peter Strieder

(b Nuremberg, 1434–7; d Nuremberg, Nov 30, 1519).

German painter and woodcutter. The head of a large workshop which produced altarpieces, memorial pictures, portraits, and designs for glass paintings in late 15th-century Nuremberg, he also provided notable innovations in the art of the woodcut. He is famed as the teacher of Dürer family §(1); after Wolgemut’s death in 1519, Dürer added that date to a portrait of his former master done in 1516, but the 82 years mentioned in the inscription could either be Wolgemut’s lifespan or his age when painted.

He was the son of the painter Valentin Wolgemut (fl 1433/6; d 1469–70), who may have been the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I), though the latter’s work does not begin until after mid-century. He was probably first trained in his father’s workshop. Michael Wolgemut is first mentioned as a painter when instituting legal proceedings in Nuremberg in ...


( Aspacio )

(b Cairo, IL, Aug 26, 1900; d New York, NY, Sept 6, 1980).

American painter, printmaker, and teacher . He was a leading artist of the Harlem Renaissance ( see African American art §I 2. ) and studied at the John Herron Institute, Indianapolis, the school of the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and the Académie Scandinave and the Académie Moderne, Paris. He also worked with Henry Ossawa Tanner in Paris (1931) and studied mural painting with Diego Rivera in Mexico City (1936). From the European schools he learnt strong composition and the narrative power of Goya. He was concerned to amplify the problems of Black Americans, and his murals (influenced by Rivera) carry sharp commentaries on subjects such as the poor social conditions of his compatriots and forebears in Georgia, the Amistad slave uprising and the creation of Talladega College (e.g. the Amistad Murals, Talladega College, AL). In the South, Woodruff discovered and taught several talented artists including ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

( fl Nuremberg, 1580s).

German goldsmith and engraver . He was recorded as a goldsmith’s apprentice in Nuremberg in 1580 but became known through his two collections of engravings, published in 1580 and 1581 (2nd edn 1584), which are essentially pattern books for goldsmiths. These engravings illustrate goblets, cups, ewers and basins decorated with sculptural animal and human heads, foliage and flowers, bunches of fruit, scrollwork and arabesques. He was probably the first to apply the goldsmith’s technique of punching to printmaking. Zan was influenced by the Netherlandish ornamental style and especially by the etchings of Georg Wechter I, which had been published shortly before. Zan was also a propagator of the type of scrollwork that gradually replaced the arabesque. His engravings acted as an important stimulus to the art of goldsmithing in the late 16th century and continued to be valued as craftsmen’s patterns until the end of the 19th century. Zan’s signature is ...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Heidelberg, 1556; d Tübingen, 1607).

German painter and woodcut designer . His training appears Swiss, but he is first documented in 1579 in Wildberg, in the duchy of Württemberg, painting an organ front. Shortly afterwards he was mentioned as the painter of epitaph pictures in Herrenberg (Stiftskirche) and in the vicinity of Tübingen (Derendingen). By 1583 at the latest he was connected with the court at Stuttgart. In 1586 he married the widow of the painter Hans Schickhardt (1512–85) in Tübingen, thereby acquiring a workshop and the rights and privileges of a painter. In Stuttgart he worked first as an illuminator, imaginatively creating richly decorated title pages for manuscripts, using ornamentation reminiscent of the decoration on Swiss painted glass. He was probably also employed in illustrating family record books, an art form that was flourishing in university towns at the time. Although he was not a salaried official of the court at Stuttgart, he was engaged for various specific tasks, mainly of a decorative nature. Between ...


Ilse O’Dell-Franke

(b ?1498; d Nuremberg, Feb 25, 1572).

German goldsmith, etcher and draughtsman . He was documented in Nuremberg in 1554, when he applied for citizenship, but was probably there earlier, as his main ornamental work, Novum opus craterographicum (a series of 31 etchings of vessels, attributed to him on stylistic grounds), was printed there in 1551. The ornamental details (such as castings from nature) in these prints suggest a goldsmith’s training. A smaller series of 22 etchings also contains models for brooches, daggers etc. The separate scrollwork title page bears the date 1553 and his full name.

In 1559 Zündt was recorded as an assistant of Wenzel Jamnitzer, who sent him to Prague to work on a table fountain, noting in a letter to Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol (1529–95) that Zündt was industrious but used foul language. Nothing is known of Zündt’s work for Ferdinand, nor of any other goldsmith’s work by him, though in ...