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Gordon Campbell

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Ferenc Batári

[János]

(b Kassa, Upper Hungary [now Košice, Slovakia], before 1728; d Lőcse, Upper Hungary [now Levoča, Slovakia], May 6, 1782).

Hungarian goldsmith. He was a prominent master goldsmith and worked in the late Baroque and Rococo styles. In 1729 he was made a master of the goldsmiths’ guild of Lőcse and until his death was First Guild Master. He decorated his works with figural and landscape scenes, perfected the technique of enamelling on copper and used gem- and hardstones on his monstrances. As well as his initials ...

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Richard Cleary

(b c. 1685; d 1762).

French architect. He was recognized by his contemporaries as one of the most prominent residential architects working in Paris during the first half of the 18th century. His clientele included middle-class property owners and wealthy financiers, such as the tax farmer Philippe Des Vieux and the director of the Compagnie des Indes, François Castanier, for whom he built adjoining hôtels (1726) on the Rue des Capucines, bevelling the inside angles of the courtyard elevations to obtain additional window space on the restricted sites. Jacques-François Blondel cited Tannevot as a model practitioner who adeptly coordinated the work of the various building trades, and also praised him for his ability to plan interiors that efficiently accommodated the public and private needs of his clients. A proponent of the Rococo decorative style, Tannevot frequently collaborated with decorators such as Nicolas Pineau on the design of interiors, including those of his own house (...

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Roger White

(b Woodford, Essex, 1714; d London, Sept 27, 1788).

English architect and sculptor. His father Robert (1690–1742), a master mason and monumental sculptor with a successful business in and around the City of London, apprenticed him at the age of 18 to the sculptor Henry Cheere. On completion of the apprenticeship he was given ‘just money enough to travel on a plan of frugal study to Rome’, but his studies there were cut short by news of his father’s death. On his return home he found the family finances in disarray; nevertheless he took over his father’s yard and soon prospered, even though it was some time before the debts were paid off. His own reputation as a sculptor was sufficiently advanced by 1744 for Parliament to commission from him a monument to Capt. James Cornewall in Westminster Abbey, London. In the same year he won the commission for the carved pediment of the Mansion House, London (a building on which his ...

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[term; terminus]

Decorative carved architectural feature, also used on Baroque and Rococo furniture, consisting of a bust- or half-length human, mythological figure or animal that appears to spring from the top of a pillar, pilaster, pedestal, bracket etc. The name derives from Terminus, the Roman god of boundaries (see also Herm...

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Bernd Wolfgang Lindemann

(bapt Holtschitz, nr Eisenberg, Bohemia, June 5, 1708; d Schloss Seehof, nr Bamberg, June 17, 1777).

Austrian sculptor, active mainly in Germany. He probably first studied with his father, the sculptor Johann Adam Tietz (1671–1742), and it is likely that he visited Vienna and was influenced by the work of Lorenzo Mattielli.

Ferdinand Tietz is first mentioned as a sculptor in 1736 at the Würzburg Residenz, working under Johann Wolfgang von der Auweras. Among Tietz’s earliest securely attributable independent works are the figures on the high altar of the parish church in Gaukönigshofen (1743). Works in the Premonstratensian abbey church at Gerlachsheim (c. 1737) and in the curia of Stift Haug at Würzburg (c. 1740) may also be attributed to Tietz on stylistic grounds. Through commissions such as these, Tietz became a serious rival to the Würzburg sculptors. In 1747 he went to Bamberg, where a year later he was made court sculptor. He received commissions from Philipp Anton von Franckenstein, Bishop of Bamberg, for sculptures for the Seehof Park and the Franckenstein Schloss Ullstadt (...

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J. Patrice Marandel

(b Paris, Nov 19, 1696; d Paris, Feb 10, 1772).

French painter and engraver. He studied briefly with the history painter Nicolas Bertin but was more influenced by the portrait painter Jean-Marc Nattier, whose studio he entered c. 1718, and whose daughter he married in 1747. In Nattier’s studio he executed copies of portraits by van Dyck, Nicolas de Largillierre and Hyacinthe Rigaud (e.g. a copy of Rigaud’s portrait of Cardinal de Fleury; Hillerød, Frederiksborg Slot). He may have participated in Pierre Crozat’s project, begun in 1721, to publish engravings of pictures in the collection of the Regent, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, making drawings alongside Nattier and Watteau, and he may also have executed engravings after the paintings by Charles Le Brun in the Grande Galerie at Versailles under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Massé (c. 1724).

It was at the relatively late date of 1731 that Tocqué was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale on presentation of the ...

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Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Cholet, 1703; d Paris, May 11, 1739).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher

. In 1719 he began apprenticeship in the Paris studio of Jean-Baptiste van Loo, and thanks to family connections he soon made contact with the influential patron the Comte de Caylus, in whose house he lodged. One of his first commissions was to etch two sets of three plates (1726 and 1728) after drawings by Antoine Watteau for the collection of prints Figures de différents caractères de paysages et d’études …, published by Jean de Jullienne in 1726. Trémolières also attended drawing lessons at the Académie Royale, and in 1726 and again in 1727 he gained second prize in the Prix de Rome competition. In 1728 he went to complete his artistic education at the Académie de France in Rome with Pierre Subleyras and Louis-Gabriel Blanchet.

In Rome the works of Guido Reni seem to have had a particularly strong influence on Trémolières; in the first year of his stay he made a copy (Grenoble, Mus. Peint. & Sculp.) of Reni’s ...

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Ugo Ruggeri

(b Capodistria [now Cape of Istra, Slovenia], April 9, 1656; d Rome, July 30, 1746).

Italian painter. He painted altarpieces and cabinet paintings of biblical and mythological themes in a style that varies between the classicism of Maratti and the softer, sweeter manner of the Barocchetto. His portraits, both of noble Italian patrons and visiting Grand Tourists, are distinguished by their unusual informality and the sense of intimacy between artist and subject.

He trained in Venice, first with Antonio Zanchi and later with Joseph Heintz the younger (1600–78), who specialized in genre painting (Pascoli). No paintings survive from this early Venetian period, and c. 1678 Trevisani moved to Rome. There he worked for Cardinal Flavio Chigi until the latter’s death in 1693, and is first recorded in the Chigi archives at Ariccia. The titles of documented paintings, such as Bullfight in Venice, Bertoldo the Goatherd with Goats and a Goatherd’s Wife with Hens and Turkeys (all untraced) suggest that, influenced by Heintz, he was producing genre works at this time....

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Ulrich Knapp

(b Wessobrunn, March 23, 1703; d Maria Steinbach, April 27, 1763).

German stuccoist. He was active c. 1730 as a journeyman with Johann Baptist Zimmermann, collaborating on the stuccowork at Schloss Alteglofsheim to designs by François de Cuvilliés I, and in the Reichezimmer of the Residenz in Munich. At Diessen am Ammersee he worked (1736–7) for the first time with Franz Xaver Feichtmayer (i) and Johann Michael Feichtmayer, and it was here that his first rocaille forms, combined with strapwork, lattice motifs and hanging trophies, were carried out. From 1741 to 1744 he was court stuccoist at the abbey at Kempten. Üblher shared Johann Michael Feichtmayer’s workshop until c. 1750; thereafter he was in partnership with Franz Xaver Schmuzer II, to whom he was related through his wife Maria Agatha. From 1759 he again worked on projects with Johann Michael Feichtmayer: according to Jocher Üblher was responsible for figurework during this period of collaboration. In 1735–7, working with Johannes Schütz, Üblher decorated the state apartments at the Residenz at Kempten. The throne-room (...

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José Fernandes Pereira

Portuguese family of artists. They belong to a period of transition in northern Portugal, from Baroque to Rococo, when structural elements adhered to the earlier style and the elegance of form depended on the new. Their training and architectural practice were closer to those of artisans, but they did have access to Augsburg engravings that were circulating among the monastic orders in the region. For these reasons their work often reflects the conflict apparent in Portuguese art of the second half of the 18th century, which fluctuated in form and decoration between Baroque and Rococo.

(fl c. Guimarães, 1748).

Architect. He designed the impressive façade of the Lobo Machado mansion (1750–75), Guimarães. Here the lintel forms, as well as the carved, voluted and inverted pediment forms of the window cornices, are derived directly from the work of Nicolau Nasoni in Oporto, though the forms have been rearranged and given a more powerful expression; the swinging line of the cornice comes from the architecture of the neighbouring city of Braga. A related design by the same architect is seen on the façade of the church of S Domingos, the Third Order of St Dominic, Guimarães, built before ...

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Elisabeth Kieven

(b Rome, Aug 21, 1683; d Rome, April 7, 1761).

Italian architect. He trained at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, and first worked as a draughtsman and engraver for such architectural publications as the third volume of the Studio di architettura civile (1721), published by Domenico de Rossi. Valvassori’s first documented work as an architect was for the spa buildings (begun 1713) in Bagni di Nocera Umbra. In 1715 he was commissioned to design the small church of S Giuseppe alle Fornaci in Foligno, where he made use of Rococo ornamentation. In 1717 Valvassori entered the service of the Pamphili princes, first as an assistant to Carlo Bizzaccheri, under whom he designed unusually decorative railings for the Villa Pamphili, becoming architect to the Pamphili in 1720. In 1723 he built the high altar of the church of S Agnese in Piazza Navona, Rome, for Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili. In 1732 Valvassori executed the garden portals, outer walls and fountains for the ...

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Roger White

(b Durham, bapt Feb 20, 1718; d London, May 17, 1765).

English architect, engraver and furniture designer. The son of a gardener, he was appointed Clerk of the Works at the Queen’s House, Greenwich, in 1736 and was clerk at a succession of royal buildings, notably at the London palaces of Whitehall, Westminster and St James’s (1746–54). In this capacity he became closely associated with William Kent, whose Horse Guards scheme he was responsible for executing and possibly modifying (1750–59). He engraved and published a number of Kent’s designs (notably in Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones and Mr William Kent, 1744). Not surprisingly, Kent’s influence is strongly felt in Vardy’s own work, such as the ‘New Stone Building’ adjoining Westminster Hall (begun 1755; destr. 1883) and the unexecuted scheme (1754) for a building for the new British Museum in Old Palace Yard, Westminster.

Vardy’s private commissions included the remodelling (1761–3) of Hackwood Park (destr. in later alterations, ...

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Reinhard Zimmermann

Village in Bavaria, 7 km north-east of Würzburg, Germany. The garden at Veitshöchheim is the best-preserved Rococo garden in Germany. It was created in several stages between 1702 and 1776 as the pleasure-ground of the Prince–Bishops of Würzburg, who had had a summer residence with a pheasantry at Veitshöchheim since 1680. In the first phase after 1702, under Prince–Bishop Johann Philipp von Greiffenklau, the basic layout was established; the final, luxurious elaboration, with ornaments, sculptures and waterworks, was executed in 1763–8 under Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim; it was planned by Johann Philipp Geigel (1757–1800), with sculptures by Ferdinand Tietz, Johann Wolfgang von der Auwera and Johann Peter Wagner. The garden (270×475 m) consists of two parts of different sizes, each with its own axis of symmetry. The smaller part is related symmetrically to the castle (designed by Heinrich Zimmer, 1680–82; extended by Balthasar Neumann, 1749–53), the far larger part lying to one side of it to the south; its east–west main axis is parallel to that of the palace garden. The large, transverse, rectangular garden, laid out with trees and hedges, is divided in the longitudinal (north–south) direction into three zones of unequal widths, each representing iconographically distinct spheres. The narrow wooded strip to the east with animal figures points to the realm of nature; the somewhat broader strip next to it with deciduous trees, hedges and stone figures of cavaliers, court ladies and playing children addresses the sphere of courtly culture; while the broad strip to the west embellished with two lakes represents the world of gods and the arts. Mount Parnassus with a grotto base (...

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Anna Menichella

[Gianantonio; Giovanni Antonio]

(b Pavia, 1683–1686; d Broni, Apr 18, 1749).

Italian architect. He trained from 1700 to 1707 with the Milanese architect Giuseppe Quadrio and successfully completed his studies to become “engineer and architect.” His first assignments were as land surveyor for the Collegio Borromeo in Pavia and various commissions for the local aristocracy and religious orders. He also taught architecture in Pavia for a long time. Veneroni’s only consistently acknowledged work is the Palazzo Mezzabarba (1726–1732; now the town hall), Pavia, which was erected for the counts Giuseppe and Gerolamo Mezzabarba. The building is in the form of a long parallelepiped, with two separate entrances on the front; a wide staircase is situated in a block that juts out at right angles to the rear. Thoenes suggested that the original project was organized around two courts corresponding to the twin entrances and that this scheme was not fully realized. The façade is distinguished by the elegant ornament at the windows and the symmetrical portals, surmounted by wide balconies. One of the portals leads to a scenographic entrance hall with three aisles, the other to a blind wall. A giant order of pilasters divides a rhythmical sequence of round-headed windows. These forms are reminiscent of the work of Francesco Borromini, and their unexpected presence in Lombardy has led to speculation as to their source. Both Arslan and Thoenes suggested that they were derived from Roman prototypes, although Wittkower classed the Palazzo Mezzabarba as a work of the Italian Rococo. In ...

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(b Antwerp, bapt Dec 13, 1696; d Augsburg, April 19, 1749).

Flemish sculptor and stuccoist active in Germany. He was probably trained by his father Gillis Verhelst, and in 1718 went to Munich, presumably via Paris, where he entered the workshop of his fellow countryman, the leading court sculptor Guillielmus de Grof. After being resident in Ettal intermittently from 1726 to 1736, he settled in Augsburg in 1738. His earliest known work is a 60 mm-high head of a boy in ivory (1722; Munich, Bayer. Nmus.), a piece which prefigures his later cherubs. Of his works for Ettal Abbey 12 fairly crude over life-size marble figures (c. 1726–35) on the church façade and two charming wall fountains with lead figures (c. 1726–30) in the sacristy have been preserved. His chief work there, the high altar of the abbey church with a monumental Assumption, made either of wood or stucco with lead relief panels (from 1726), was destroyed by fire in ...

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Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(b Braga, Dec 18, 1731; d Tibães, Aug 30, 1808).

Portuguese designer, wood-carver, sculptor and architect.

His godfather, the Reverend Constantino da Cunha Soto Maior (d 1757), was treasurer of the Cathedral of Braga, and one of his brothers, João de Araújo Ferreira Vilaça (b 1720), was clerk to the Vicar General of Vila Real in Trás-os-Montes. Frei José’s early training was with his father, Custódio Ferreira, a skilled carpenter. In November 1754 Frei José signed his first contract to carve the retable of the high altar of the church of the convent of S Clara, Amarante. From 1757 he worked at Tibães, near Braga, the headquarters of the Benedictine Order in Portugal, where, with José de Álvares de Araújo, he collaborated on carving the magnificent talha (carved and gilded wood) designed for the church of S Martinho by André Ribeiro Soares da Silva. The work began with the high altar, for which Frei José carved the statues of SS Martinho, Bento and Escolástica, and the whole scheme, one of the finest in Portugal, was subsequently completed in ...

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James Yorke

(b ?Somerset, c. 1700; d London, Aug 22, 1767).

English cabinetmaker. He is first mentioned in a letter written to George Selwyn on 10 August 1749 on behalf of William Hallett sr (c. 1707–81), who may have been his master. Several break-front secrétaires (e.g. London, V&A; Portsmouth, City Mus. & A.G.), formerly belonging to the 3rd Duke of Buckingham, with broken pediments and doors ornamented with carved oval wreaths, at one time regarded as the hallmark of the Vile workshop, have recently been reattributed to Hallett or at least to Vile operating under Hallett’s influence. No documented furniture by Vile has survived before the partnership he formed with John Cobb in 1751.

In partnership with Cobb, Vile provided furniture for many houses, including Croome Court, Worcs, Normanton Park, Leics, Woburn Abbey, Beds, Uppark, W. Sussex, and The Vyne, Hants. Work for Croome Court began in 1757 and included ‘a Handsome Comode Chest of Drawers …, a Good Mahogy [sic] Library Table’, a large amount of seating, a spectacular pair of console-tables, pier-glasses (...