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Stephen Deuchar

(b London, July 6, 1851; d London, April 6, 1931).

English painter and engraver . He was the son of Katherine (née Benham) Wyllie and a prosperous, minor genre painter, William Morrison Wyllie ( fl 1852–90). He spent most of his childhood summers in France, where his parents owned houses on the coast, first at Boulogne and later at Wimereux. He began plein-air drawing and painting at an early age, encouraged by both his father and his stepbrother Lionel Smythe (1839–1918). After studying at Heatherley’s Art School in London, (c. 1863), he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1866 and two years later exhibited his first picture, Dover Castle and Town (untraced), at the summer exhibition. Though his precocious talent was again rewarded in 1869, when he won the Turner Gold Medal for Landscape with his Dawn after a Storm (untraced; engraved for the Illustrated London News, Jan 1870), the 1870s were to bring some disappointment: the Academy refused two of his pictures for exhibition in ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....


Sulejman Dashi

(b Opar, Korçë, 1863; d Korçë, March 26, 1953).

Albanian painter . In his youth he worked for several years as an apprentice in an icon workshop in Istanbul. He later returned to Korçë, where he opened his own atelier. Under the influence of contemporary progressive ideas he abandoned religious painting and embraced the patriotic subject-matter connected with the Albanian national renaissance. He was self-taught as an easel painter and concentrated on portraits and group compositions. Such paintings as the ...


Valerio Terraroli

(b Palermo, April 11, 1855; d Rome, Dec 20, 1926).

Italian sculptor . He attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Palermo (1868–71) under the guidance of the sculptor Vincenzo Ragusa (b 1841). In 1872 he moved to Naples, where he was influenced by Domenico Morelli and Stanislao Lista (1824–1908), and was also in close contact with Vincenzo Gemito. Between 1874 and 1880 he lived in Florence, supported by a grant, and became familiar with various aspects of Renaissance sculpture, which enhanced his eclectic tendency. In 1878 he travelled to Paris, where he came into close contact with the work of Rodin and Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. On returning to Italy he began a period of extraordinary artistic productivity, and from 1885 to 1894 was Director of the Istituto Statale d’Arte in Urbino. His original training was strictly realist, and he was also influenced by the Renaissance Revival in Italian sculpture in the late 19th century. His first public works, including the monuments to ...


Evita Arapoglou

(b Kephallinia, 1826; d Athens, Feb 1909).

Greek painter . He studied in Italy and under Hector Leroux and Jean-Paul Laurens in Paris, where he lived for more than 30 years until his return to Greece in the late 1890s. Primarily a portrait and still-life painter, he remained faithful to academic Realism throughout his period in France. Among his most acclaimed works is the portrait of ...


V. Rakitin

( Bogdanovich )

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 2, 1884; d Erevan, Dec 28, 1928).

Georgian stage designer and painter of Armenian origin, active in Russia . He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1901–3) but was expelled after a disagreement over the teaching methods. Posted to the Far East during military service, he became acquainted with Far Eastern decorative art, which inspired the works he exhibited with the Blue Rose group after his return to Moscow in 1907 (e.g. The Races, 1905; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). His work of this time refers to traditional Chinese and medieval European art refracted through Art Nouveau, in an attempt to create a new decorative style in easel painting. In Moscow he often designed the décor for artistic soirées and balls, creating architecturally decorative compositions whose basic components were painted panels. In 1910 he travelled to Italy and in 1912–13 he worked in Paris, where he became acquainted with Sonia Delaunay and Robert Delaunay. In ...


( Vasil’yevna )

(b Wiesbaden, Jan 31, 1870; d Chêne Bougerie, nr Geneva, Dec 27, 1902).

Russian painter, decorative artist and designer . She was a major Symbolist artist in Russia and played a significant role in the revival of folk traditions in Russian art in the late 19th century. She grew up in Moscow and studied (1885–8) under Yelena Polenova and Vasily Polenov as an external student at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Subsequently she joined Yelena Polenova’s group for the study of the historical and archaeological monuments of Moscow and became closely associated with the Abramtsevo group. From 1888 she spent winters in Paris, where she enrolled as a student at the Académie Julian. Her paintings, sometimes consisting of melancholic depictions of decaying mansions in the manner of Viktor Borisov-Musatov, were dominated by decorative landscapes. Always striving to express the synthetic inner vitality of organic life, she concentrated on forest motifs (e.g. The Window and Aspen and Fir Tree (both pokerwork and oil on panel, ...


Shearer West

(b Taganrog, Russia, Dec 18, 1835; d Teignmouth, Devon, May 3, 1918).

English painter. The son of a British consul in Russia, Yeames was sent to school in Dresden after the death of his father in 1842. He also studied painting there. The collapse of the Yeames family fortune resulted in a move to London in 1848, where Yeames learnt anatomy and composition from George Scharf (1788–1860). He later took lessons from F. A. Westmacott. In 1852 he continued his artistic education in Florence under Enrico Pollastrini and Raphael Buonajuto, from whom he learnt the methods of the Old Masters. He drew from frescoes by Ghirlandaio, Gozzoli and Andrea del Sarto and painted in the Life School at the Grand Ducal Academy. He then went to Rome and made landscape studies and copied Old Masters, including Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican. His extensive study of Italian art gave him a precision and facility that assisted his artistic success upon his return to London in ...



Rose Kerr

Town in Jiangsu Province, China, situated c. 5 km west of Lake Tai, famous during the Qing period (1644–1911) and the 20th century for its high-quality teawares made of red stoneware. Most of the kilns lie to the south of Yixing in the village of Dingshuzhen.

It has been tentatively established that the earliest purplish-red Yixing stonewares were produced as early as the Song period (960–1279); examples include two pear-shaped vessels with dark purplish stoneware body and partial olive-brown glaze, found in a disused well in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in 1961 (see Lo, p. 15). Excavations in that area have revealed kilns as well as sherds of coarse red stoneware, including many fragments of teaware. The production of Yixing wares is first well documented for the mid-16th century (e.g. teapot from the tomb of the court official Wu Jing (d 1533); Nanjing, Jiangsu Prov. Mus.). It was at this time that the names of individual potters were first recorded. They adopted the practice for which Yixing became famous, that of marking their wares with their own signatures (e.g. hexagonal red stoneware teapot signed by ...


Jenifer P. Borum

(b Ash Grove, MO, Feb 20, 1890; d Chicago, IL, Dec 25, 1972).

American painter of African, Cherokee, Creek, and European ancestry. Although Yoakum claimed to have been born on a Navajo reservation in 1888, his birthplace and childhood home has been established as Ash Grove, MO. His aunt was adopted by a Navajo family, and although the artist drew great inspiration from the Navajo, his connection to them was imaginary. Yoakum’s life was indeed one of adventure and travel—he toured with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, the Ringling Bros. Circus, and also traveled around the world as stow-away and later as a soldier in World War I. Yet the line between fact and fantasy will always be blurred when contending with his lyrical landscapes that ostensibly offer a record of his far-ranging adventures to exotic locales.

While Yoakum began to draw by the 1950s, he did not devote himself to this calling until he had retired in the early 1960s. Settling in Chicago in ...


Yoshikazu Iwasaki

(b Mito, Sept 18, 1868; d Tokyo, Feb 26, 1958).

Japanese painter . He graduated in 1893 from the painting department of the Tokyo School of Fine Arts. In 1898 Yokoyama participated in the formation of the Japan Art Institute in Tokyo and received theoretical instruction from Tenshin Okakura. He experimented resolutely and aimed to create a modern Japanese style (Nihonga; see Japan §VI 5., (iii) ), broadening the limits of expression in such works as Eight Views of the Xiaoxiang (1912; Tokyo, N. Mus.). The Japan Art Institute was closed temporarily in 1900, but Yokoyama was among its most prominent members after its revival in 1914, and he went on to produce such important works as Lively Perpetual Motion (1923; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.). His works range from a fluent, expressive style, in which line was subordinated to a predominant interest in colour, to a sublime style in which the use of black dominates. In 1937...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Wŏnchŏng, Ch’ŏnsimchukche]

(b Seoul, 1860; d Shanghai, 1914).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was active at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and was a nephew of Queen Myŏngsŏng, a member of the Min clan and wife of King Kojong (reg 1864–1907); under the Queen’s protection he played a central role among the conservatives from the age of 19 but abandoned politics to take up painting and calligraphy. In 1895, when the Queen was assassinated by the Japanese, he fled to Shanghai in China, where he spent his days as a calligrapher and painter, earning fame for his ink-orchids and ink-bamboo. Basing himself on the painting style of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, he achieved a level of excellence in his work characterized by strong, sharp brushstrokes. Idiosyncratic features in his paintings of orchids were the blunt tips and right-angled bend in the middle of the orchid leaves. Such paintings were highly regarded, even in the calligraphy and painting world of Shanghai. Fine examples of his work are two ink paintings, ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Kuryongsanin]

(b Seoul, 1878; d Seoul, 1968).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was born into a highly influential family at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and enjoyed a successful civil service career until the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, after which he concentrated on calligraphy and painting. As a child he had studied with the calligrapher and painter, Chi Un-su, and in his thirties and forties he was a prolific painter of bamboos and orchids in the style of Min Yŏng-ik. As a result of his association with the Chinese painter Fang Luo, who visited Korea in 1926, he came into contact with the style of the Shanghai school and began to paint sensuous flowering plants in a light palette. After Korean independence from Japan in 1945, his calligraphy was even more acclaimed, and he became actively involved in the Kukchŏn (National Art Exhibition; see Korea, §IV, 3) as a judge and an adviser in the calligraphy section. In calligraphy he was particularly brilliant at semicursive script reminiscent of the standard and clerical scripts of Yan Zhenqing....


Paul Larmour

Irish architectural partnership formed in 1870 in Belfast by Robert Young (b Belfast, 22 Feb 1822; d Belfast, 21 Jan 1917) and his pupil John Mackenzie (b Belfast, 1844; d Belfast, 1917). Young’s son Robert Magill Young (b Belfast, 1851; d Belfast, 1925) joined the partnership in 1880. The founder of the firm, Robert Young, trained with Charles Lanyon in Belfast in the 1840s and became his chief assistant, with responsibility for railway engineering works and road bridges. He then worked briefly in the south of Ireland as an engineer for the railway contractor William Dargan, before setting up on his own in Belfast as an architect and civil engineer in the early 1850s. The partnership of Young & Mackenzie became the leading designer of Presbyterian churches in Ulster, working usually in Gothic Revival style (e.g. Fitzroy Presbyterian Church, 1872–4), but sometimes in Romanesque Revival style (e.g. Townsend Street Presbyterian Church, ...


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b Naples, March 12, 1851; d Naples, 1929).

British urban planner, architect and designer, active in Italy . His wealthy Scottish parents moved from India to Naples before his birth. He was educated first in Switzerland and then in Britain. Between 1872 and 1888 he devised several ambitious schemes for the city of Naples, none of which was realized. These included the construction of an underground railway (it would have been the third such system in the world after those in New York and London), which, as a public transport system, would have been integrated with the horse-drawn tramways; the redevelopment of the areas of the city struck by the cholera epidemic of 1884, a plan that would have involved raising the standard of the existing housing, constructing a new sewer system and installing sanitation in each house; the demolition of the overcrowded quarters of the city and the redistribution of the population; and finally, a scheme for the establishment of a new quarter on reclaimed land along the coast at Posillipo to be called Rione Venezia. He conceived this ...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Dec 6, 1879; d Buenos Aires, March 4, 1950).

Argentine sculptor. He enrolled at the Escuela de la Sociedad Estímulo de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, in 1898 and soon afterwards joined the studio of the sculptor Lucio Correa Morales (1852–1923). In 1899 he won a scholarship to study in Europe. In Paris he attended the studio of the sculptor Jules-Félix Coutan, at the same time studying drawing at the Académie Colarossi; he made studies of corpses in the morgue and acquired a great mastery of human anatomy. At the Salon in Paris in 1903 he exhibited The Sinners (see Prins), a major group of six female figures, influenced by Rodin’s Burghers of Calais in its rhythmic arabesques, open treatment of line and soft modelling. In 1904 it was shown again at the World’s Fair in St Louis, MO, where it was awarded a major prize, but he renounced both the prize and associated commission because of a controversy about his youth....


Marian Burleigh-Motley

( Fyodorovich )

(b Moscow, Oct 24, 1875; d Moscow, April 11, 1958).

Russian painter and writer . Yuon attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1894 to 1898, studying under Konstantin Korovin and others. From 1899 to 1900 he was in the workshop of Valentin Serov. In 1899 he also travelled extensively abroad. In 1900, together with Ivan Dudin (1867–1924), he opened an art school in Moscow, where many of the future avant-garde studied, including Lyubov’ Popova, Varvara Stepanova and Nadezhda Udal’tsova. Yuon painted the Russian landscape and views of old Russian churches and monasteries as had Apollinary Vasnetsov before him. Trinity Monastery: Winter (1910; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), with its light-filled atmosphere, is typical of his work. The landscape March Sun (1915; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) betrays the influence of the Impressionist style of his teacher Korovin in its portrayal of sunlight casting blue shadows on the snow, an effect that is repeated in End of Winter: Midday...


[ Christian ]

(b Rønne, March 31, 1843; d Frederiksberg, June 22, 1917).

Danish painter . He studied in Copenhagen at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in 1864–8 under Wilhelm Marstrand, Jørgen Roed, Niels Simonsen (1807–1885) and Frederik Vermehren. He worked as a teacher and as Head of the Kunstnernes Studieskoler (Free Arts Schools) in Copenhagen from 1885 to 1908. His works can be divided roughly into history and genre paintings. From the outset he was attracted to the great figures of 17th-century Danish history, especially Princess Eleanor Christine, whose autobiography Jammers-Minde [Memory of woe], first published in 1869 (Eng. trans. as The Memoirs of Leonora Christina, London, 1872), provided Zahrtmann with subject-matter for 18 large paintings (1870–1916). The Princess fell from grace because of her husband’s alleged high treason and was imprisoned for 22 years. In Eleanor Christine is Undressed and Searched by the Servants of Queen Sofie Amalie (3 versions: 1884–6, Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst; ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


Silvia Lucchesi

(b Venice, June 2, 1841; d Paris, Dec 30, 1917).

Italian painter . His father Pietro and grandfather Luigi tried to interest him in the plastic arts, but from a very early age he showed a stronger inclination for painting. Zandomeneghi soon rebelled against their teachings, and by 1856 he was attending the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under the painters Michelangelo Grigoletti (1801–70) and Pompeo Molmenti (1819–94). As a Venetian he was born an Austrian subject, and, to escape conscription, he fled his city in 1859 and went to Pavia, where he enrolled at the university. In the following year he followed Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousand; afterwards, having been convicted of desertion and therefore unable to return to Venice, he went to Florence, where he remained from 1862 to 1866. This period was essential for his artistic development. In Tuscany he frequented the Florentine painters known as the Macchiaioli, with some of whom he took part in the Third Italian War of Independence (...