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Article

(b Riga, July 15, 1900; d New York, Dec 24, 1983).

American painter and printmaker of Latvian birth. He enrolled in art school in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and then travelled through Russia. Early influences were Vasily Kandinsky and Kazimir Malevich. He left the country after the Revolution (1917). During the 1920s he lived variously in Europe and Latin America, establishing contact with such leading artists as Emil Nolde, Karl-Georg Heise (1890–1979), and Diego Rivera. Yunkers fought in the Spanish Civil War (1936–9) and moved to Stockholm from 1939 to 1947, where he edited and published the periodicals Creation, Ars, and Art Portfolio (1969 exh. cat., pp. 30–31). In 1947 ten years’ work was lost in a studio fire.

Yunkers immigrated to the USA in 1947, acquiring citizenship in 1953. At this time he embarked on ambitious projects of prints and paintings including Polyptych, a five-panel woodcut, 4 m long, and in 1957 a series of large-scale pastels culminating in ...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(Augusto )

(b Panama City, Feb 5, 1930).

Panamanian printmaker and painter, active in Spain. He studied under Juan Manuel Cedeño at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura in Panama City and from 1953 to 1959 at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City. In 1961 he moved to Madrid, where he began his important work at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Zachrisson’s etchings, drypoints, lithographs and woodcuts tell stories, mock tradition and criticize society, encompassing subjects as varied as the circus and the myth of Icarus. In works such as the Death of Chimbombó (1963; New York, MOMA) he depicts life with humour and satire in a cruel and even tragic vision. His fantastic world is peopled by an entourage of monsters, witches and grotesque figures drawn from Panamanian urban folklore, Spanish literature, classical mythology and personal experiences. Zachrisson’s paintings, produced since the 1970s, tend to be less detailed than his etchings but are equally biting in their use of irony, secual explicitness and references to his Panamanian background. Formally, his paintings emphasize colour and design over volume, with flat intense hues, hard edges and nearly invisible brushstrokes, as in ...

Article

Christa Lichtenstern

[ Zadkin, Osip ]

(b Vitebsk, July 14, 1890; d Paris, Nov 25, 1967).

French sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker of Belorussian birth. He spent his childhood in Smolensk in a circle of cultured and assimilated Jews. His father was a convert to the Orthodox Church, and his mother came from an immigrant family of Scottish shipwrights. While staying with his mother’s relatives in Sunderland, northern England, in 1905, he attended the local art school and taught himself to carve furniture ornaments. At the age of 16 he continued his artistic training in London, taking evening classes in life drawing and making his living as an ornamental woodcarver. During this time he became friendly with the painter David Bomberg. He continued his studies at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London, and later, in 1908, at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, where he concentrated on techniques in wood.

Early works such as Volga Boatmen (1908; destr.) were oriented towards a socially critical realism. During a brief return to Russia in summer ...

Article

(b Istanbul, Aug 5, 1906; d Ankara, 1974).

Turkish painter and printmaker . He studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul and worked as a teacher in Konya for a short period before graduating in 1930. The visit to Konya was his first to Anatolia, and it gave him the opportunity to observe the peasant and nomadic life. As a result Anatolian themes entered his work, although he used the techniques of Western painting. He was also inspired by East Asian art and by the Turkish miniature painting tradition. Upon graduation he went to Paris to continue his studies but stayed only a few weeks and returned to Turkey to teach in Sivas, where he rekindled his interest in Anatolian life. His works were exhibited in Istanbul by the D Group (founded 1933), which he later joined. In 1939 he participated in the tours to the provinces organized for artists by the Turkish government, returning from the town of Kayseri with a series of paintings. His individual style for depicting local scenes, which used well-defined forms in bright colours, became popular in Turkey, and the narrative element of his paintings related them to themes in Turkish folklore. Zaim’s aim was to develop a contemporary pictorial language to express life in Anatolia. He also produced etchings in the 1930s and linoleum prints in the early 1960s. His daughter ...

Article

Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(b Samokov, June 8, 1895; d Sofia, Nov 28, 1971).

Bulgarian printmaker, graphic designer, illustrator, bookbinder, art historian, theorist, critic and teacher . He is considered to be the founder and leading representative of 20th-century Bulgarian graphic art, who in the 1920s developed his own style in the spirit of the national tradition, but with a contemporary western European outlook. In 1919 he graduated from the National Academy of Arts (Natsionalna Hudozhestvena Academia), Sofia. In 1922–4 he studied at the State Academy of Graphic Art and Book Decoration, Leipzig, where he made an in-depth study of graphic techniques. After his return to Bulgaria, he was engaged in a variety of activities, including ex-libris, illustration, bookbinding and the design of postage stamps and banknotes. From 1924 until his death he was a professor of graphic and decorative arts at the National Academy of Arts. His output of graphic art was prodigious and included woodcuts (Basilica of St Sofia, 1925; e.g. Sofia, N.A.G.), coloured mezzotints (...

Article

Margarita González Arredondo

(b Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Jan 12, 1908; d Morelia, Jan 19, 2003).

Mexican painter, printmaker and teacher. He studied in Mexico City at the Academia de San Carlos (1924–9) and at the Escuela de Grabado y Talla Directa. In 1930 he founded the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura in Taxco. He was also a member of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios and an early member in 1937 of the Taller de Gráfica Popular, taking part in their group exhibitions and publications until 1950. From 1951 he was director of the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura in Morelia, Michoacán. In addition to his career as a teacher he was active politically. He practised primarily as a printmaker with a clear and precise draughtsmanship; he published, for example, a portfolio of eight lithographs, Estampas de Yucatán (1945), after travelling through the area for several months. He was also involved with the muralist movement in Mexico, and in 1930...

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...

Article

Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

( fl Nuremberg, 1580s).

German goldsmith and engraver . He was recorded as a goldsmith’s apprentice in Nuremberg in 1580 but became known through his two collections of engravings, published in 1580 and 1581 (2nd edn 1584), which are essentially pattern books for goldsmiths. These engravings illustrate goblets, cups, ewers and basins decorated with sculptural animal and human heads, foliage and flowers, bunches of fruit, scrollwork and arabesques. He was probably the first to apply the goldsmith’s technique of punching to printmaking. Zan was influenced by the Netherlandish ornamental style and especially by the etchings of Georg Wechter I, which had been published shortly before. Zan was also a propagator of the type of scrollwork that gradually replaced the arabesque. His engravings acted as an important stimulus to the art of goldsmithing in the late 16th century and continued to be valued as craftsmen’s patterns until the end of the 19th century. Zan’s signature is ...

Article

(b Tehran, 1937).

Iranian painter and printmaker . He studied at the College of Fine Arts and the College of Decorative Arts in Tehran and began to exhibit his work early in his career, at the Biennales in Paris (1959–63), Tehran (1960–66), São Paulo (1963) and Venice (1964), receiving a number of awards. He first began to be influenced by Iranian Shi‛ite folk art in 1959, presenting it in his work in a distinctive way, with neither parody nor satire. He went to live in Paris in 1961 but continued to take a close interest in the development of art in Iran. At the third Tehran Biennale in 1962, held in the Abyaz Palace in the Gulistan compound, he exhibited canvases that consisted of geometric patterns of squares, triangles and circles, using colours characteristic of religious folk art, and covered with calligraphy to create a distinctive texture. It was on this occasion that the Iranian art critic ...

Article

(b Chicontepec, Veracruz, Jan 1, 1947).

Mexican draughtsman, printmaker, painter, and illustrator. Zenil is known for his reworking of recognizable Pop Mexicanist imagery—or known icons of Mexicanismo (mexicanidad; Mexican identity and culture)—such as the Mexican flag, sacred heart, Virgin of Guadalupe, calaveras (skulls), and lotería (Mexican bingo) symbols among others—while collapsing boundaries of the sacred and the profane and challenging the heteronormative. Zenil has been dubbed a member of the stylistic movement neomexicanidad (Neo-Mexicanism), alongside such Mexican artists as Javier de la Garza (b 1954), Julio Galán, and Rocío Maldonado. Zenil has acknowledged Enrique Guzmán (1952–86) as the initiator of Neo-Mexicanism in his work Oh Santa Bandera (a Enrique Guzmán) (1996; Mexico City, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo), which is a reworking Guzmán’s ¡Oh! Santa bandera! (1977) that reiterates Guzmán’s early ironic reinterpretation of Mexican iconography as cultural critique.

A pioneer of Mexican Post-modernism in using strategies of appropriation, fragmentation, parody, and text, Zenil rejected the dominant style of ...

Article

Mark H. Sandler

[Junzō; Koma; Reisai; Tairyūkyo; Tanzen]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1807; d Tokyo, July 13, 1891).

Japanese lacquer artist, painter and ukiyoe woodblock print designer. Zeshin was the most important Japanese artist working in lacquer in the 19th century (see Japan, §XI). He was also an accomplished master of the Shijō school of painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (viii)) and a successful designer of surimono (‘printed object’, deluxe woodblock prints; see Japan, §X, 3, (iii), (f)). Zeshin came from a line of skilled woodworkers from Echigo Province (now Niigata Prefect.). His father, Junzō I, was trained as an architectural wood-carver and briefly studied ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) painting with the printmaker and painter Katsukawa Shunshō (see Katsukawa family, §1). Zeshin’s mother was said to have been a geisha in her youth. Thus, Zeshin was born and brought up in the heart of the urban merchant artisan classes of Edo, the social milieu which both inspired and supported his life’s work....

Article

Andrew Stoga

[Ziarnko, Jan; Le Grain, Jean]

(b Lwów [L’viv], later 16th century; d ?Paris, c. 1628).

Polish engraver and painter, active in France . He learnt his craft in Kraków. In 1596–7 he appears in Lwów archives as a member of the city’s Brotherhood of Catholic Painters. By 1598 he was already abroad; he reached Paris by way of Italy and settled there, though it has been suggested that late in life he returned to Lwów. In Paris, Ziarnki established himself as a painter-engraver closely associated with the courts of Henry IV and Louis XIII. His earliest engraving, dated 1605, represents Pope Leo XI. Ziarnki also illustrated books, frequently dedicated to the king or queen, and designed courtly festivals. He cooperated with such notable French engravers as Jean Leclerc (c. 1595–c. 1625), Léonard Gaultier, Claude Vignon and Robert Nanteuil. Ziarnki’s oeuvre includes over 90 engravings, but his activities have been little studied.

Thieme–Becker E. Rastawiecki: Słownik malarzów polskich tudzież obcych w Polsce osiadłych lub czasowo w niej przebywających...

Article

Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....

Article

Anita Kühnel

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Dec 20, 1926).

German painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at the Hochschule für Bildende und Angewandte Kunst (1950–55) in Weissensee, Berlin, and at the Deutsche Akademie der Künste (1955–8) under Heinrich Ehmsen. As well as Ehmsen, the work of Picasso, Georges Rouault and Chaïm Soutine were important sources of inspiration early in his career. In the late 1950s he and other like-minded painters in Berlin embraced sensualism in painting. His important early pictures include Dead Fisherman (1957; artist’s col.), Boy with a Hen (1959; Schwerin, Staatl. Mus.) and Agricultural Apprentice (1961; Berlin, Alte N.G.)

From c. 1964 colour became more important for its own sake. Zickelbein’s knowledge of Jackson Pollock’s work was influential on the Darss landscapes (1963–4). His experience of the primeval forest-like character of the Darsser Wald opened up new artistic perspectives. In numerous gouaches the unbridled growth process of nature is turned into a feast of colours applied in broad brushstrokes and dabs. In his gouaches (his favourite medium), as well as vitality he developed a wealth of nuances in the scale of subdued broken colours, controlled with great sensitivity. In his lithographs of Darss landscapes form is conveyed entirely by bundles of lines and strokes. In the mid-1960s he began a long period of works related to architecture (sometimes in conjunction with ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...

Article

[ Philippe ]

(b The Hague, April 20, 1857; d Villefranche, Oct 3, 1930).

Dutch printmaker, painter and writer. He went to the drawing academy in The Hague, where he was taught by J. C. K. Klinkenberg (1852–1924) and Anton Mauve. He was a painter and draughtsman as well as an etcher, engraver and lithographer, and depicted landscapes, townscapes and still-lifes. He lived and worked mainly in The Hague, belonging to both the Amsterdam society Arti et Amicitiae and the Pulchri Studio there. As a graphic artist he achieved considerable fame, especially through his reproductive etchings of works by painters of the Hague school (J. Israëls, the Maris brothers and Weissenbruch) and 17th-century masters such as Vermeer.

In 1885 Zilcken was involved in setting up the Dutch Etching Club (Nederlandsche Etsclub). As an editor of Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift from 1896 to 1905, he became a well-known writer on art. With his etchings of exceptional quality and his publications about graphic art, he contributed towards the revival of Dutch etching. He also did much to publicize the Hague school, particularly in America, where he had many connections with collectors and museum officials. Zilcken had about ten pupils, among them his daughter ...

Article

(b Radeburg, nr Dresden, Jan 10, 1858; d Berlin, Aug 9, 1929).

German draughtsman, printmaker, photographer and film maker. He attended evening classes at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, while serving a lithography apprenticeship (1872–5). He subsequently worked for an art printing company, where he learned the techniques of etching and aquatint. His first drawings were exhibited at the Berlin Secession in 1901, where he exhibited regularly thereafter. His work also appeared in Jugend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben and Lustige Blätter. Zille’s sympathetic depictions of impoverished workers, children and prostitutes in Berlin are in a humourous vein but with serious undertones, and carry captions in Berlin slang; his photographs of Berlin street scenes also provide rare documents of everyday life. In 1926 he made the film Die da Unten

Zille, Heinrich Kinder der Strasse (Berlin, 1908) L. Fischer: Heinrich Zille in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1979) W. G. Oschilewski: Heinrich Zille Bibliographie (Hannover, 1979)...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Manila, Aug 27, 1924; d Rome, June 2, 1984).

Spanish painter, printmaker and collector of Philippine birth. He was born into a wealthy family and was never in financial need, which allowed him to devote himself to painting without suffering any kind of setback. He had a cosmopolitan education, graduating in philosophy and arts and completing his degree with a thesis on the theatre of Federico Garcia Lorca at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1949. While living there he met painters from the Boston area, notably Reed Champion Pfeufer and Hyman Bloom, and began to paint under the influence of their symbolic and romantic expressionism, which was superficially similar to Abstract Expressionism. At this time he tried out a variety of printmaking processes including etching, wood-engraving and woodcut.

In 1951 Zóbel returned to Manila, holding his first one-man exhibition there at the Philippine Art Gallery in 1952: the works he showed were representational paintings of Philippine customs. During 1954...

Article

(b nr Florence, 1711 or 1717; d Florence, May 1767).

Italian painter and printmaker. He began his training in Florence. The Marchese Andrea Gerini took him under his protection from an early age, sending him to Rome, Bologna, Milan and Venice to continue his studies. In Venice Zocchi saw engravings of views by Michele Marieschi and Bernardo Bellotto and painted a small oval portrait of Andrea Gerini and Antonio Maria Zanetti (1750 or 1751; Venice, Correr). Zanetti was a Venetian connoisseur and a friend of Gerini.

Zocchi is especially noted for two series of etched views of Florence and its environs: Scelta di XXIV vedute delle principali contrade, piazze, chiese e palazzi della città di Firenze and Vedute delle ville e d’altri luoghi della Toscana (Florence, 1744). Commissioned by the Marchese Gerini to provide visitors to Florence with a memento of their stay, they were both reissued in 1754, and the Vedute delle ville again in 1757. Zocchi’s preparatory drawings for both volumes have survived (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib.). ...

Article

Dario Succi

(b Nervesa, Treviso, Sept 24, 1700; d Venice, May 20, 1778).

Italian painter and engraver . He studied when very young with Nicolò Bambini (1651–1736), and later became a follower of Sebastiano Ricci. Before 1733 he executed a series of frescoes for S Nicolò da Tolentino, Venice, which included the Four Evangelists on the pendentives, Old Testament scenes on the drum, and, in the dome, the Holy Trinity. Of another early fresco cycle, in the church of the Servi at Gradisca, near Gorizia, only the vault fresco, the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin in Glory, survives. Zompini’s most considerable work as a history painter was a series of eight dramatic canvases, in a style reminiscent of Ricci and Giambattista Tiepolo, of scenes from Homer and Virgil, and seven monochrome overdoors representing Olympian deities, on a gold background, painted for the Palazzo Zinelli, Venice (all 1736; Moschen Castle, near Kujau, Silesia, Tiele-Winckler priv. col.)

In 1737 Zompini made drawings for the illustrations for ...