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Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Ch-ŏngji ; ho Pihaedang , Maejuk-hŏn , Nanggan-kŏsa ]

(b 1418; d 1453).

Korean calligrapher, painter, poet and collector . Also known as Prince Anp’yŏng, he was the third son of King Sejong . His talents in poetry, painting and calligraphy earned him the title of ‘three excellences’. He sponsored many gatherings of scholars, poets and artists in his studio and became the major patron of An Kyŏn , who painted the famous Dream Visit to the Peach Blossom Land (1447; Tenri, Cent. Lib.) based on a dream that Yi Yŏng had related to him. Prince Anp’yŏng’s collection of Korean and Chinese paintings must have served as inspiration for many contemporary painters. Its contents are known thanks to the Hwagi (‘Notes on painting’) section of the statesman Sin Suk-ju’s Pohanjae chip (‘Collected writings of Pohanjae [Sin Suk-ju]’). This is a valuable record, unique in that no other catalogue of painting collections of the Chosŏn period is known. The Hwagi lists 189 paintings and 33 items of calligraphy, mainly by Chinese painters and calligraphers of the Song (...


Carol Michaelson

Chinese dynasty founded by the Mongols, dating from 1279 to 1368. After the division of the Southern Song period (1127–1279), Kublai Khan (reg 1260–94) reunited all of China under Mongol rule, incorporating it in a huge empire that extended westwards as far as modern Hungary and Poland. The Mongols were not great patrons of the arts, although they admired craftsmen. Nevertheless, by reuniting China, thus bringing together the differing traditions of north and south, and by not imposing stylistic demands, they allowed artists to use and develop a variety of influences. Indeed, there were significant innovations in both painting and the applied arts of porcelain and lacquer. The Silk Route was reopened, and European interest in China, both diplomatic and missionary, developed. Franciscans and other Europeans, arriving for the first time, reported on what they had seen. The Venetian merchant Marco Polo allegedly spent the years 1275–92...


Oxana Cleminson

Russian family of collectors , of Tatar royal descent. In 1556 the Yusupov family ancestors, the sons of Yusuf (who had been killed by his own brother), were sent to the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible, and their descendants were baptized in the last years of Tsar Alexis (Aleksey Mikhaylovich; reg 1645–76). From the end of the 17th century the male members adopted the title Prince (Knyaz’) Yusupov. The most important member of the family was (1) Prince Nikolay (Borisovich) Yusupov the elder, the instigator of the collection. His son, Prince Boris (Nikolayevich) Yusupov (b 1794; d 1849), bought, rebuilt and decorated the house on the Moyka River in St Petersburg (now the Yusupov Palace, Moyka Embankment 94), to which he transferred much of his father’s collection from Moscow and from the country estate at Arkhangel’skoye. In 1839 he published the catalogue of his gallery in French. His son, Prince ...


Kedrun Laurie

German dynasty of rulers and patrons . From the 10th century the House of Zähringen held a leading position in Breisgau, and in 1112 Hermann of Zähringen (d 1130) was granted the title Margrave of Baden. Christopher I, Margrave of Baden (reg 1475–1527), who unified the family territories, was portrayed twice by Hans Baldung, alone (1513–15; Munich, Alte Pin.) and with his family (Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle). One of his sons, Ernest, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (reg 1527–53), founded the Protestant line of the family, with its seat at Pforzheim, Durlach (from 1565), and Karlsruhe (from 1715). The Roman Catholic line, which descended through another of Christopher’s sons, Bernard II, Margrave of Baden-Baden (reg 1527–36), had its seat first at Baden-Baden and from 1715 at Rastatt. In the early 18th century (1) Frances Sibyl Augusta, Margravine of Baden-Baden, wife of Ludwig-William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (...


Adam Zamoyski and Wojciech Włodarczyk

Polish family of statesmen, soldiers and patrons . They were prominent in public life in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

(b Skokówka, nr Chełm, March 19, 1542; d Zamość, June 3, 1605).

He received one of the finest educations available in Europe during the Renaissance, attending the Sorbonne and the Collège de France (both in Paris) and the Academy of Johann Sturm (1507–89) in Strasbourg, followed by a period at the University of Padua (Italy), of which he became Rector in 1562. On his return to Poland in 1565, Zamoyski embarked on an outstanding career during which he was appointed Grand Chancellor and Hetman (commander-in-chief). As a statesman, he exerted a strong influence on the form of the Polish constitution and played a decisive part in the elections of three successive monarchs. As a soldier, he fought victorious campaigns against the Habsburgs, the Tatars, Sweden and Muscovy. At the same time he succeeded in building up one of the greatest private fortunes in Europe....



S. J. Vernoit

Dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1750 to 1794. The Zand tribe, a pastoral people from the Zagros foothills, became the dominant power in Iran after the death of Nadir Shah in 1747. Under Muhammad Karim Khan (reg 1750–79), who proclaimed himself regent (Pers. vakīl) for the Safavid puppet king Isma‛il III, the Zands brought stability to southern Iran, and from 1765 Karim Khan encouraged art and architecture ( see Islamic art, §II, 7(ii)(b) ) to flourish at Shiraz , his adopted capital. His first consideration was defence, and he rebuilt the city walls in 1767. Many of his other buildings, such as the citadel, palace and mosque with adjacent bath and bazaar, were grouped around a maidan to the north of the old city. Zand architecture is notable for its revetments in carved marble and overglaze-painted tiles with flowers, animals and people. Some themes were consciously revived from nearby Achaemenid and Sasanian sites such as Persepolis and Naqsh-i Rustam. Painting also flourished under Karim Khan (...



Islamic dynasty which ruled in northern Iraq, south-east Anatolia and Syria from 1127 to 1222. In 1127 ‛Imad al-Din Zangi, the son of a Turkish commander in the Saljuq army, was appointed governor of Mosul for the Saljuq sultan and guardian (Turk. atabeg) for his sons. The semi-independent Zangi expanded his dominion north and west and was granted Aleppo in 1129. He fought against the crusaders, most notably at Edessa in 1144. Zangi was succeeded by two independent branches of the family in Mosul and Aleppo. His son Nur al-Din (reg in Aleppo 1146–74) conquered Damascus in 1154, opposed the crusaders and sent his generals Shirkuh and Salah al-Din to Egypt, where the latter founded the Ayyubid dynasty. The Ayyubids succeeded the Zangids in Aleppo in 1183 and in Damascus in 1186.

Nur al-Din, a staunch Sunni, built many religious institutions, and fortified Aleppo, Damascus and other key sites. During his reign there was a Classical Revival in Syrian architecture as well as a wholehearted adoption of symmetrical building plans and forms, such as the iwan, typical of Abbasid architecture in Iraq. In his hospital (...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Bertrand Jestaz

(b Venice, 1439; d Padua, May 8, 1501).

Italian cardinal and patron . He was the nephew of Pope Paul II, whose patronage, with that of his successors, assured Zen a brilliant ecclesiastical career. He was renowned for his haughtiness, wealth and munificence; his status is reflected in the buildings and furniture that he commissioned. In Rome he had a palace (destr. 19th century) built next to the portico of St Peter’s, and he furnished and decorated the ‘casino’ of Cardinal Bessarion. His episcopal palace in Vicenza was enriched by a double loggia (1494) built over the courtyard in an advanced style.

In his will, Zen left considerable sums for the rebuilding of the choir of Vicenza Cathedral and that of the church of S Fantin in Venice; for the construction of a commemorative chapel in the basilica of S Antonio (Il Santo), Padua; and for his funerary monument in S Marco, Venice. Zen, inspired by Donatello’s high altar in Il Santo, ordered an altar laden with bronze statues to be built in each of these churches, but only the directives concerning his tomb were fulfilled, and these not precisely. A chapel was adapted by ...


J. Krčálová

Bohemian family of patrons . Jan Žerotín (d 25 Feb 1583), chief justice of Moravia, visited France in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A member of the Czech Brethren, he established on his estate at Kralice the sect’s printing works, issuing some 70 publications, including a translation of the Bible. In the 1570s he transformed the castles at Náměšť nad Oslavou and Rosice in Renaissance style. Náměšť Castle, which was probably the work of Leonardo Garovo (d 1574), was completed as an enclosed four-wing block c. 1580, as was Rosice Castle c. 1600. His son (1) Karel Žerotín and his nephew (2) Ladislav Žerotín continued the renovation of the family’s castles and the tradition of humanist scholarship and patronage.

A. Prokop: Die Markgrafschaft Mähren in kunstgeschichtlicher Beziehung, 3 (Vienna, 1904), pp. 668, 685, 744, 748, 763, 808–17, 830, 847–50, 945 Z. Tobolka: Žerotínská knihovna...



Isabelle Monod-Fontaine

French collectors, writers and patrons. Christian Zervos (b Cephalonia, Greece, 1 Jan 1889; d Paris, 12 Sept 1970) was of Greek origin and worked briefly for the magazine L’Art d’aujourd’hui, before founding Cahiers d’art in 1926. Covering contemporary painting and sculpture, music, architecture, film and photography, this magazine was internationally acclaimed not only for its promotion of major modernist artists but also for its immaculate presentation and typography. Its authors included critics, historians and aestheticians (Zervos himself, Tériade, Maurice Raynal, Georges Duthuit, P. G. Bruguière, Dupin), lending each issue a balance of historical analysis and poetic sensibility. Zervos’s concern with the relationship of image to text also extended to confrontations between contemporary art and non-European or primitive sources, such as Cycladic, African, or Oceanic art.

In addition to his editorial work, Zervos published his own monograph on Henri Rousseau (1927) and then books by other authors on Frank Lloyd Wright (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


Carol Michaelson


Chinese dynasty dating to c. 1050–256 bc that succeeded the Shang dynasty. The Zhou established suzerainty as far south as the coastal districts on the eastern and northern edge of the Yangzi River basin and as far north as modern Beijing. The empire encompassed areas bordering on Central Asian and Mongol deserts to the west and north and the state of Chu in the south. However, for much of the period Zhou rule was not direct, but limited, devolved and often challenged. Chronologically, the Zhou is divided into the Western Zhou (c. 1050–771 bc ) and the Eastern Zhou (771–256 bc ). The Eastern Zhou period is further divided into a Spring and Autumn period (722–481 bc ), named after the chronology for the state of Lu, the Chunqiu (‘Spring and Autumn Annals’), and the Warring States period (403–221 bc ), a time of severe fragmentation. The exact dating of these periods is a matter of debate, however: many scholars date the Spring and Autumn period to ...


Kim Hongnam

[Chou Liang-kung]

(b Nanjing, 1612; d 1672). Chinese patron, collector and writer. Zhou’s devotion to the art of his own time rather than to that of the past was unique in traditional China. His huge collection of contemporary paintings was unrivalled in his day, and his extensive influence within the art world led artists to seek his endorsement. His book Duhua lu (‘Record of researches into painting’; c. 1673), also known as Du hua lou hua ren zhuan (‘Biographies of painters from researches into painting’), a collection of biographical notes on 77 painters, became and has remained the authoritative source on 17th-century Chinese painters. Also well known is Zhou’s 18-leaf collective album with facing inscriptions (Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.), which groups together the works of various contemporary artists.

Zhou was a man of classical culture and taste. In his aesthetic outlook he maintained a view typical of the Chinese literati (Chin. ...


S. J. Vernoit

Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of North Africa and Spain between ad 972 and 1152. The founder of the dynasty, Ziri ibn Manad (d 972), was a Sanhaja Berber in the service of the Fatimid caliphs, who ruled from Tunisia. In 936 Ziri founded Ashir, the family seat, in the Titeri Mountains 170 km south of Algiers. His son Buluggin (reg 972–84) was appointed governor of North Africa when the Fatimids left Kairouan for Cairo. Under Buluggin, his son al-Mansur (reg 984–96), and his grandson Badis (reg 996–1016), the Zirids greatly enlarged their territory, expanding into northern Morocco, where they came in conflict with the Umayyads of Spain. By 1015 the Zirid domain had become too large to be governed from Kairouan alone: the Zirids retained control of the eastern half, while the western portion was granted to Buluggin’s son Hammad (reg 1015–28), who established his capital at the Qal‛at Bani Hammad to the east of Ashir. In ...


Pilar Benito

(b Manila, Aug 27, 1924; d Rome, June 2, 1984).

Spanish painter, printmaker and collector of Philippine birth. He was born into a wealthy family and was never in financial need, which allowed him to devote himself to painting without suffering any kind of setback. He had a cosmopolitan education, graduating in philosophy and arts and completing his degree with a thesis on the theatre of Federico Garcia Lorca at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1949. While living there he met painters from the Boston area, notably Reed Champion Pfeufer and Hyman Bloom, and began to paint under the influence of their symbolic and romantic expressionism, which was superficially similar to Abstract Expressionism. At this time he tried out a variety of printmaking processes including etching, wood-engraving and woodcut.

In 1951 Zóbel returned to Manila, holding his first one-man exhibition there at the Philippine Art Gallery in 1952: the works he showed were representational paintings of Philippine customs. During 1954...


Jane Shoaf Turner

(b Amsterdam, 1641; d Amsterdam, May 18, 1724

Dutch collector, dealer and artist . He was trained by Pieter Janssen as a glass-engraver and was active as a dealer in glass until 1687, when he became one of Amsterdam’s most important saleroom brokers and appraisers and began to deal in other forms of art. By 1690 he had become one of the leading dealers in paintings, drawings and prints, counting not only Dutch collectors but also foreigners among his clientele, for instance Prince Eugene of Savoy. Long before this, from c. 1660, however, he had himself begun to collect drawings, prints and books. He owned drawings by mostly Dutch artists, such as Gerrit Berckheyde, Cornelis Bega, Jan Both, Pieter van Laer, Jan Noordt and Jacob Backer, and no less than seven volumes of drawings by Rembrandt. He seems to have applied his mark, a cartouche printed in black with the initials I.P.Z. (see Lugt), to drawings that passed through his hands as well as into his own collection. He also generally inscribed the name of the artist on each sheet, though at times he was deliberately optimistic with his attributions, especially with drawings said to be by Italian artists. He often bought prints and drawings already assembled in albums, which he then broke up and reconstituted into new ‘series’ that included individual items that were more difficult to sell. His print collection was more wide-ranging, with examples by Dutch, Flemish, Italian, French and German artists. Again, however, ...