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(b Wynnstay, Denbigh [now Clwyd], April 19, 1749; d Wynnstay, July 29, 1789).

Welsh landowner and patron . He began his Grand Tour in June 1768. In Rome he commissioned Pompeo Batoni to paint a portrait of himself with his travelling companions (1768–72; Cardiff, N. Mus.), as well as a picture of Bacchus and Ariadne (1774; Italy, priv. col., see 1982 exh. cat., p. 19, fig.). In Naples he visited the excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii and purchased the Baron d’Hancarville’s two volumes illustrating the vase collection from William Hamilton (i). Returning through Rome, Sir Watkin commissioned a terracotta bust of himself from Christopher Hewetson (1769; Dublin, N.G.). He reached London in February 1769. Reynolds’s portrait of Sir Watkin with his mother (London, N.G.), begun in 1768, was completed about this time. Another portrait by Reynolds (Sir W. Williams-Wynn priv. col.) was commissioned after Sir Watkin’s marriage to Lady Henrietta Somerset in April 1769 and shows the couple in van Dyck costume. For his bride, Sir Watkin ordered a silver-gilt toilet service from the London goldsmith ...

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Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

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John Christian

(b ?London, 1790; d ?London, 1867).

English patron . He belonged to a long-established family firm of coachmakers; he was also a director of Globe Insurance and patented a medicine for children called ‘Godfrey’s Cordial’. He began to collect watercolours by J. M. W. Turner about 1820 and by the late 1830s had amassed some two hundred, including the largest single group of the Picturesque Views in England and Wales series. John Ruskin knew the collection well, describing it as ‘for me, the means of writing Modern Painters’; and it was at Windus’s house on Tottenham Green, London, that Turner first thanked Ruskin for his defence. Windus’s library, lined with elaborately framed Turner watercolours, was painted by John Scarlett Davis (1835; London, BM).

Windus’s large and miscellaneous collection of English paintings and drawings also included works by Henry Fuseli, William Etty, Richard Parkes Bonington, Thomas Girtin, Daniel Maclise and John Frederick Lewis, important groups of drawings by ...

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Winston  

Diane Tepfer

American collectors. Lydia Winston [née Kahn] (b Detroit, MI, 13 Nov 1897; d New York, 14 Oct 1989), ceramicist and daughter of Albert Kahn, and her husband Harry Lewis Winston (d 1965) became the major collectors of Italian Futurist art outside Italy. Lydia Winston studied ceramics at the Cranbrook Academy of Art and for a short while designed ceramics for the Saarinen partnership. She began collecting in the late 1930s, supported enthusiastically by Harry Winston. In addition to the Futurists, she acquired (sometimes directly from the artists) major works by Léger (Seated Woman, 1912), Miró (the Brothers Fratellini, 1927), Brancusi (the Blonde Negress, 1933), Jackson Pollock (Moon Vessel, 1945) and Mondrian (Composition in Black and White with Blue Square, 1935), and a large body of work by Karel Appel and other Cobra artists. Several dealers and specialists guided her. Alfred Stieglitz instilled in her the concept of responsibility; she never sold or traded in art. Rose Fried, who ran the Pinacoteca Gallery in New York, first suggested in ...

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Matico Josephson

American photography gallery. The first commercially successful photography gallery in New York, founded in 1969 by Lee D. Witkin, and originally located at 237 East 60th Street. Witkin was briefly the only specialized photography dealer in New York. Although this monopoly came to an end in 1971, the gallery played an important role in developing the market for photographic prints in the 1970s and 1980s.

The Witkin Gallery showed a broad range of work by photographers Ansel Adams, Edward Steichen, Berenice Abbott, Margaret Bourke-White, Imogen Cunningham, Harry Callahan, André Kertész, Brassaï, and Jacques-Henri Lartigue, whom Lee Witkin sought out in the United States and in Europe. Witkin did not confine his efforts to the older generation, nor to any single genre. The gallery soon hosted encounters between photographers, collectors, and museum curators. By the mid-1970s, Witkin had also shown the work of avant-garde photographers Duane Michals, Les Krims, Jerry Uelsmann, and Lee Friedlander, photojournalistic work by W. Eugene Smith, Marion Palfi (...

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Dieter J. Weiss, Gregor M. Lechner, Doris Kutschbach, Jeffrey Chipps Smith, Josef Strasser, Andrea M. Kluxen, Jürgen Zimmer, Martina Sitt, Ingrid Sattel Bernardini, Hans Ottomeyer and Eberhard Ruhmer

Dynasty of German rulers, patrons, and collectors. The Bavarian branch of the family (see §I below) was helped in its rise to power by an alliance with the House of Hohenstaufen. The acquisition by marriage of the Rhineland Palatinate in the early 13th century brought division of the inheritance (see §II below). However, the division gave rise to cultural diversity by scattering a number of residences throughout the country. In 1329 the dynastic treaty of Pavia with the Palatinate branch provided for reciprocal inheritance and (until 1356) the alternation of the electorship between the lines. Following a decree on primogeniture (1506) by Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria (reg 1463–1508), Bavaria remained undivided. The Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld branch (see §III below) was a collateral line. On the extinction of the Bavarian and Palatinate branches in the 18th century, however, the Zweibrücken house provided the last kings of Bavaria....

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Maurice Howard

(b Ipswich, c. 1473; d Leicester, Nov 29, 1530).

English prelate, statesman, patron and collector . Said to have been the son of a butcher, in 1497 he was a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. By 1507 he was chaplain to Henry VII and by 1511 Privy Councillor to Henry VIII. In 1514 he became Archbishop of York and in 1515 he was created a cardinal. From this time until his fall from favour in 1529 he was the most powerful man in England. The outward manifestation of that power through buildings and their contents was the constant wonder and scandal of his political enemies; attacks upon him included those by the poet John Skelton (especially in ‘Why come ye not to Court?’, 1522) and Polydore Vergil (in Historiae Anglicae, 1534–55, xxvi).

Wolsey’s three major domestic buildings all later became royal properties; thus he helped set the pattern for the scale and ambition of Henry VIII’s palaces. In 1514...

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Catherine King and Dianne Sachko Macleod

Women have been influential in shaping the development of the visual arts as patrons and collectors throughout Western and non-Western cultural history. The early modern time span has been more extensively studied with reference to Western European traditions, so it has been possible to make some generalizations concerning patterns of gendered behaviour. By the beginning of the 16th century, the importance of female convent patronage waned, as did the influence of women considered to be candidates for canonization. In the years that followed, the scope of ruling women also shifted as sovereign government was curbed by constitutional power. In the 18th and 19th centuries, aristocratic female patrons were outnumbered by women whose fortunes stemmed from industry and commerce. Expected to adhere to their socially constructed roles as submissive helpmates of men, women were charged with beautifying the home and bolstering the family’s social status. Initially women focused on acquiring decorative arts—furniture, tapestries, porcelain, glassware and delicate objets d’art–which they displayed throughout the home, rather than in separate purpose-built cabinets or galleries favoured by male collectors who were consciously creating an art collection. As women gained confidence in their role as cultural consumers, they ventured further afield, visiting exhibitions, galleries, dealers and showrooms, and participating in arts organizations. Changes in the law granted women more control over their inheritance and income, as well as the right to divorce, resulting in their increased independence. Greater access to education eventually led to women becoming professional earners, commissioning works of art and founding museums, female colleges and universities. Empowered by their engagement with art, women patrons enriched the cultural and social life of their communities....

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Harley Preston

(b 1780; d 1853).

English dealer and collector . He was assisted at his premises at 112 St Martin’s Lane, London, by his brothers Allen Woodburn, Henry Woodburn and, more actively, by William Woodburn. His reputation for expert judgement and professional integrity was universal, and he was instrumental in creating several important public and private collections in Britain and on the Continent, including those of Thomas Dimsdale, Mark Sykes and Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton. Early sources state that he assisted Richard Fitzwilliam, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam, who is said to have bequeathed him an annuity of £100. English institutions he supplied included the British Museum and the National Gallery, London, for which he made major purchases (e.g. Cephalus Carried off by Aurora in her Chariot, c.. 1600; Woman Borne off by a Sea God, both by Agostino Carracci, London, N.G.); he sold some more modest paintings to John Bowes, founder of the Bowes Museum, Co. Durham. He brought to London the collections of drawings of ...

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Gerard Vaughan

(b Appuldurcombe, Isle of Wight, March 17, 1751; d Wroxall, Isle of Wight, Aug 8, 1805).

English collector . His seat was Appuldurcombe House (partly destr.) on the Isle of Wight, and he was variously MP for Newport and Newtown. After a notorious scandal involving his wife and Charles Henry Mordaunt, 5th Earl of Peterborough, Worsley chose to dedicate himself to collecting and travel, undertaking a long journey in the Levant, including Egypt and the Crimean peninsula, accompanied by Willey Reveley (d 1799) as draughtsman. He left Rome in February 1785, reaching Athens in May; he was in Asia Minor in the spring of 1786, returning to Rome in April 1787. Worsley collected many original Greek sculptures, principally reliefs, and in so doing he can be distinguished from most contemporary British collectors of antiquities. In Rome he was in touch with Thomas Jenkins and purchased gems from Sir William Hamilton (i). Worsley’s plan to publish a sumptuous illustrated catalogue of his collection was developed in Rome, where he employed ...

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David Rodgers

(b Boughton Malherbe, Kent, 1568; d Eton, Berks, Dec 1639).

English diplomat, collector and writer . He spent much of his life as English ambassador in Venice, where he helped many important collectors associated with the Stuart court to buy works of art. He later published the first book devoted to the theory of architecture to be written in English.

He was the fourth son of Thomas Wotton, a landed gentleman, and was educated at Winchester and at New and Queens Colleges, Oxford. In 1587 his father died, leaving him a miserly annuity that was to have adverse financial repercussions for the rest of his life. In the following year he left England and travelled abroad for seven years, latterly acting as an intelligence agent for Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. In 1595 he returned to England, where he was admitted to the Inner Temple and became a secretary to Essex. The following year he took over responsibility for the Earl’s intelligence network in Transylvania, Poland, Italy and Germany....

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Christopher Masters

(b 1895; d 1986)

American collector . He acquired an impressive collection of French decorative art and Old Master and Impressionist paintings that his wife Jayne (Larkin) Wrightsman continued to expand after her husband’s death. Wrightsman amassed his fortune through the Standard Oil company of Kansas, of which he was President between 1932 and 1953. With the dispersal of many European collections following World War II the Wrightsmans were able to decorate their houses in New York, Florida and London with works of the highest quality. These became the subject of a celebrated legal case in 1970, when Wrightsman attempted to have the US$8.9 million that he had spent on art declared an investment in order to qualify for tax allowances. He lost his case on the grounds that the Wrightsmans plainly took personal pleasure in their collection. Wrightsman’s private enjoyment of his art did not, however, prevent him from being a particularly important patron of the ...

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Johannes Zahlten

German dynasty of rulers and patrons. Although the family can be traced back to 1050, its extensive patronage began with Eberhard V (reg 1459–95), who was subsequently first Duke of Württemberg (reg 1495–6). He founded the university of Tübingen (1477) and donated to the Stiftskirche St Georg at Tübingen three stained-glass windows, the middle one of which shows the Life of the Virgin (c. 1478; in situ) by Peter Hemmel von Andlau and three other masters from Strasbourg, and to the Stiftskirche at Urach a richly decorated, Late Gothic prie-dieu (1472). Under Christopher, Duke of Württemberg (reg 1550–68), the Altes Schloss in Stuttgart was extended on a grand scale (see Stuttgart §3) and the conversion of the chancel of the Stiftskirche St Georg at Tübingen into a burial place for the ruling house, begun by Ulrich VI, Duke of Württemberg (...

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English family of patrons and collectors .

(b London, Aug 19, 1710; d London, Aug 21, 1763).

He was the son of Sir William Wyndham, 3rd Baronet, of Orchard Wyndham, Somerset, and Catherine, daughter of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662–1748), and the stepson of Lady Elizabeth Percy, heiress to the Percy estates. In 1740 he succeeded to his father’s baronetcy and in 1750 inherited estates in Cumberland and Sussex, including Petworth House, from his maternal uncle, Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset and 1st Earl of Egremont (1684–1750). In 1761 he was appointed Secretary of State with responsibility for foreign affairs. The celebrated group of portraits by van Dyck commissioned by Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland (e.g. Ann Carr, Countess of Bedford, c. 1635–40; Petworth House, W. Sussex, NT; see Percy family §(2) ), passed to him by descent, together with 17th-century Old Masters collected by his grandfather, the 6th Duke of Somerset. In ...

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Carol Michaelson

[Hsia]

Traditional but unverified first Chinese dynasty, supposed to date from the early 2nd millennium bc and to precede the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1050 bc). The Xia dynasty is said to have lasted about 439 years, beginning with the ruler Yu and ending with the degenerate Jie. Arguments about Xia culture generally stem from Zhou period (c. 1050–256 bc) texts, in which the Xia are described as having controlled an area in the middle Yellow River valley; some scholars contend that these texts are euhemerized histories. There are no contemporary writings corresponding to the Shang oracle bones ( see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i) ), nor have discoveries identified a corresponding archaeologically defined culture. The Xia’s supposed dates cover the early part of the bronze-producing Erlitou culture that existed in Henan Province, and the site of Erlitou in Yanshi County, Henan Province, may be Xia. Erlitou ceramics seem to have evolved from ...

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R. W. Lightbown

(b 1589; d 1647).

Aragonese antiquary, historian and collector . He was a learned ecclesiastic who formed a large library and museum, which held a number of antiquities formerly collected by Gaspar Galcerán de Gurrea Aragón y Pino. Like Gurrea and Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa, with both of whom he maintained close relations, he was intensely interested in numismatic studies, and his collections of Punic, Greek and Roman medals, into which he absorbed the collections of the Duque de Villahermosa (1526–81) and Gurrea, eventually numbered more than 6000. He devoted much attention to the interpretation of Iberian coins, a study that was pioneered by the circle of Aragonese 17th-century antiquaries. From 1630 he was the official chronicler of Aragón, and he compiled a number of manuscript works on the history of Aragón. He was in correspondence with François Filhol (d after 1662), a canon and antiquary of Toulouse, whose collections and library were much admired in Aragón....

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Yadava  

H. V. Trivedi

[Yādava ; Seuna]

Dynasty that ruled parts of the northern Deccan, India, from the 12th century to the 14th. The Yadavas of Devagiri were members of the last Hindu monarchy of the Deccan. They claimed descent from a mythical king, Yadu, but the first historical prince of the house was Dridhaprahara, who began as a vassal of the Rashtrakuta dynasty at Chandor, near Nasik, in the early 9th century. His son and successor, Seunachandra, is said to have named his dominions and subjects after himself. His fourth descendant, Billama II (reg c. 1000), transferred his allegiance to the Chalukyas of Kalyana ( see Chalukya §2 ), who subsequently supplanted the Rashtrakutas. A remote descendant, Billama V (reg c. 1185–93), later captured a major part of the territory of his Chalukya overlord Someshvara IV and proclaimed his independence, establishing his capital at Devagiri ( see Daulatabad ). He also led an aggressive campaign in the north against the ...

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Michelle Yun

[ Huei-Zu ]

(b Taipei, Taiwan, 1961; d New York, NY, Feb 8, 1997).

Taiwanese curator and art historian. Yang immigrated to the United States at age 15. She received a BA in Art History from Yale University in 1984 that included a six-month sabbatical to Jinan University in Guangzhou to study Chinese in 1982. Yang was exposed to art from a young age through her mother, Suhwa Chou Yang, who ran the Hunglin Art Gallery in Taipei in the 1970s. Upon graduation Yang held internships at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art , both in New York, before accepting a position as Assistant Curator at the New Museum, New York, in 1988. Notable exhibitions she curated during her time at the New Museum include 1+1+1: Works by Alfredo Jaar (1992); Skin Deep (1993); and The Final Frontier (1993). She left the New Museum in 1993 to work as an independent curator and critic while studying to earn a PhD from the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University. In early ...

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