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Hans Vlieghe


(b Ypres, Feb 5, 1617; d Vienna, Sept 6, 1673).

Flemish painter and engraver. In 1639–40 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke. Shortly after Rubens’s death in 1640, Thomas worked on paintings—either retouching or copying—in Rubens’s house, so it is probable that before becoming a master he had worked in Rubens’s studio. He was active as a painter in Antwerp, possibly until the mid-1650s. In 1658 or before (?1656) he went to Vienna, where he worked for the rest of his career in the service of Archduke Leopold William and Emperor Leopold I. They commissioned portraits from him as well as religious and secular history pieces; Thomas also received commissions from other patrons in the Habsburg territories. He painted a number of large-scale religious compositions in a restrained but somewhat sentimental Baroque style. His most interesting works, however, are his landscapes with mythological or pastoral elements; these are close to Rubens’s later landscape compositions. As an engraver, Thomas made mezzotints (e.g. ...


(b ’s Hertogenbosch, bapt Aug 9, 1606; d ’s Hertogenbosch, bur July 12, 1669).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver. Although not an artist of the stature of van Dyck or Rubens (by whom he was considerably influenced), he was a painter of talent, whose chief merit is to have played an important role in introducing a more Flemish style of painting to the northern Netherlands.

He came from a middle-class Roman Catholic family from Oirschot. Doubtless attracted by the reputation of Antwerp’s painters’ workshops, he moved there and entered the studio of the portrait painter Abraham van Blyenberch; he is mentioned as a master on the lists of the Antwerp painters’ guild in 1626. Although some scholars have claimed that he was a pupil of Rubens at this time and that he worked on the Medici Gallery commission, van Thulden’s presence in Rubens’s workshop c. 1625 has never been proved and is contradicted by the style of his early works (e.g. two pendant Allegories...



Cecil Gould

[Vecellio, Tiziano ]

(b Pieve di Cadore, c. ?1485–90; d Venice, Aug 27, 1576).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker (see fig.). The most important artist of the Vecellio family family, he was immensely successful in his lifetime and since his death has always been considered the greatest painter of the Venetian school. He was equally pre-eminent in all the branches of painting practised in the 16th century: religious subjects, portraits, allegories and scenes from Classical mythology and history. His work illuminates more clearly than that of any other painter the fundamental transition from the 15th-century tradition (characterized by meticulous finish and the use of bright local colours) to that of the 16th century, when painters adopted a broader technique, with less defined outlines and with mutually related colours.

Titian was based in Venice throughout his professional life, but his many commissions for royal and noble patrons outside Venice and Italy, notably for Philip II of Spain, contributed considerably to the spread of his fame. His work was a vital formative influence on the major European painters of the 17th century, including Rubens and Velázquez....


Eckhart Knab

(bapt Zell unter Welsberg, South Tyrol [now Monguelfo, Italy], Oct 30, 1698; d Vienna, July 20, 1762).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. Through his fresco-work and his draughtsmanship, which adapt a vast range of Italian influences, as well as his teaching, he is one of the foremost figures of 18th-century Austrian art.

He was the son of a village tailor and sexton and was first taught by Matthias Durchner (1675–1741), a local painter. When young he entered the service of Freiherr Franz Alphons von Firmian, who recommended him to Giuseppe Alberti (1640–1716), a Venetian-trained painter in Cavalese, and, after Alberti’s death in 1716, to a Count Giovanelli in Venice. Through the latter Troger studied with Silvestro Maniago (1670–1734), Giovanni Battista Piazzetta and his circle and Federico Bencovich, absorbing their feeling for chiaroscuro realism. But the contemporary Venetian taste for lighter colours, shown by Sebastiano Ricci, Antonio Pellegrini, Giovanni Battista Pittoni and in particular by Gaspare Diziani (1689–1767), also influenced him. Diziani’s smoothly propelled draughtsmanship was close to Troger’s youthful style. Troger also came into occasional contact with Giambattista Tiepolo, who combined both trends, as a draughtsman and etcher of mythological capriccios and landscapes. The more sombre influences show in Troger’s first independent altarpiece, the ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Florence; fl Venice, 1503 fl Florence, 1557).

Italian printmaker. In Venice between 1503 and 1526 he engraved numerous woodcut book illustrations: his monogram, known in 17 variations, appears in c. 60 different volumes, printed in Venice. Among his most famous works is the edition (c. 1517) in nine blocks of Titian’s woodcut Triumph of Christ. Uberti’s return to Florence c. 1550 is suggested by the presence of wood-engravings in the Venetian fashion in certain Florentine texts, such as the Historia di S Antonio di Padova (1557). Apart from his woodcuts, seven engravings (and a dubious eighth) are attributed to him (e.g. b. 1, 2 [390] and Patellani, pp. 48–55), which, in a graphic language that is still late 15th century, are inspired by works by Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, Marcantonio Raimondi and Dürer.

Bolaffi G. Patellani: ‘Lucantonio degli Uberti’, Quaderni del conoscitore di stampe, 20 (1974), pp. 46–55 M. Zucker: Early Italian Masters...


Christiane Andersson

(b Frankfurt am Main, bapt Jan 15, 1566; bur; Frankfurt am Main, April 6, 1636).

German painter, engraver, etcher and cartographer. He was the most renowned painter in Frankfurt c. 1600, but little of his work has been preserved or studied. He is most often cited as the teacher of Adam Elsheimer and for his reports to Joachim von Sandrart about Grünewald. He had inherited a volume of Grünewald’s drawings from Adam Grimmer (d Mainz, c. 1598), believed to be the son of Grünewald’s only known pupil, Johann Grimmer; these drawings were sold in 1639 by Uffenbach’s widow to the collector Abraham Schelkens (1606–48). Uffenbach’s work is typical of the German painters of the so-called Dürer-Renaissance, who took a renewed interest in the work of their early 16th-century forebears.

Sandrart said that Uffenbach was trained by Adam Grimmer. By 1592 he had returned to Frankfurt, where he took over the workshop of the painter Elias Hoffmann and married his daughter. He only became a citizen in ...


(fl Udine and Gorizia, c. 1540–60).

Italian etcher, painter and gilder. He was formerly identified as Sebastiano d’Ul because of a misreading of the signature ‘sebastiano d’.vl’ that appears in one of his prints. His etchings are in certain aspects akin to the contemporary graphic art of Paolo Farinati and Battista del Moro (1514–74) in Verona, but with obvious northern European influences, perhaps from the Danube school. Only three of his works are known: the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (see exh. cat., 1983, no. 45) and Prometheus (1558; see exh. cat., 1983, no. 46), both of which are signed, and the recently discovered large print of the Turkish Army (1558; London, BM).

Bolaffi H. Zerner, ed.: Italian Artists of the Sixteenth Century School of Fontainebleau, 32–33 (1979) of The Illustrated Bartsch, ed. W. Strauss (New York, 1978–) V. Rossitti: Dizionario degli incisori friulani (Udine, 1981), pp. 85–7 D. Landau: ‘Printmaking in Venice and the Veneto’, ...


M. Newcome

(b Genoa, c. 1620; d Milan, c. 1664–72).

Italian painter and etcher. He was from a wealthy family and received a good education before starting his training as an artist with the Flemish painter Vincent Malo (in Genoa in 1634; d Venice, 1649). Despite his rather brief artistic career, his oeuvre is comparatively large. Most of his pictures exhibit the same figure style, brownish colour scheme and technique, and, judging from the dates of SS Francis, Clare, Agnes and Catherine (1648; Genoa, Gal. Pal. Bianco) and the Martyrdom of Marcello Mastrilli (1664, formerly read as 1637; ex-convent of Carignano; see Belloni, 1978), Vassallo remained active for a number of years. He is best known for his skill in painting rustic pastorals and mythological subjects loaded with still-life elements and animals. His expertise in this genre was partly due to his study under Malo and was further stimulated by the presence of many northern artists in Genoa who pursued this speciality, among them the de Wael brothers, Jan Roos (...


Margarita Estella

(b Pelayos, Salamanca, c. 1510; d Llerena, Badajoz, June 12, 1588).

Spanish sculptor and engraver. The elegant Mannerism and refinement of his works, and the anatomical correctness of the figures, indicate that he may have trained in Italy. He had a workshop in Ávila until 1554, when he settled in Toledo. While there he executed carvings for the cathedral and worked on the wooden altarpiece of the parish church of Almonacid de Zorita (1554–6; partly destr. 1936; remains, Torrelaguna, collegiate church, and Oropesa, convent of the Oblates) and on that of S Maria la Blanca, Toledo (1556), among others.

In 1561 Vázquez was called to Seville to complete an altarpiece started by Isidro Villoldo for the Cartuja de las Cuevas, Seville. He was also asked to complete the altarpiece started by Nufro Ortega (1516–75) in 1559 in the church of the Asunción, Carmona, but this was not finished until 1569. Among the many works Vázquez executed in Seville were the wooden ...


[Theodoricus Iacobi]

(b ?Amsterdam, c. 1480–85; d Antwerp, after Dec 30, 1547).

South Netherlandish stained-glass designer, printmaker and glasspainter. Guicciardini referred to him as one of the three leading glass painters in Flanders, along with Aerdt Ortkens and Theodore Stas. Until 1901, when Glück identified him with the Monogrammist DV, he appeared in the literature as ‘Dirk van Staren’. Glück associated a woodcut device of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, signed with this monogram and dated 1526, with a reference in the guild records stating that Vellert executed a device for the guild the second year he was dean (1526).

Vellert is probably the glazier ‘Theodoricus Iacobi Amstelredamus’ mentioned by Gerardus Geldenhauer in his journal of 1522. It has been suggested that his father was a priest living in Amsterdam named Jacob Vellert. However, Jacob Vellert was apparently dead by 1460, too early to be Dirk’s father, although it is possible that the artist was related to him. It has also been claimed that Dirk Vellert received his early training in Mechelen ...


(b Venice, 1525; d Venice, 1600).

Italian printmaker, draughtsman and writer. He is mainly remembered for his friendship with Titian, who, in 1556, introduced him to Vasari. After the death in that year of Pietro Aretino, he probably became Titian’s secretary. According to Ridolfi, Verdizotti specialized in painting small scenes of landscapes with tiny figures, but no painted work can be attributed with certainty to him. The most secure work in his rather obscure oeuvre is the signed drawing of Cephalus and Procris (pen and ink; Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.), which shows an intelligent adherence to Titian’s graphic style as seen in the master’s preparatory drawings (Berlin, Kupferstichkab.; Frankfurt am Main, Städel. Kstinst. & Städt. Gal.) for the Resurrection polyptych (1521–2; Brescia, SS Nazaro e Celso).

Verdizotti probably also executed the drawing of a Bear Devouring a Rabbit in a Landscape (pen and ink and wash; Florence, Uffizi), which carries the motto naturam ars vincit...


[Mayo, Juan de]

(b Beverwijk, c. 1500; d Brussels, c. 1559).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher and tapestry designer, active in Flanders and Spain. His early paintings show links with the work of Jan van Scorel, Jan Gossart and Bernard van Orley; it is thus assumed that he trained in the northern Netherlands, probably together with van Scorel in the workshop of Cornelis Willemsz. (fl 1481–?1552) in Haarlem or Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen in Amsterdam. Vermeyen could also have worked briefly with Gossart after the latter had moved to the Utrecht area in 1517 and perhaps also with van Orley in Brussels before he started his own workshop in 1525. In that year he entered the service of Margaret of Austria in Mechelen. He travelled with her to Augsburg and Innsbruck, where he painted nineteen portraits of the imperial family, only one of which survives, that of Cardinal Erard de La Marck (c. 1528–9; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.); there are only workshop copies of the rest. Vermeyen’s figures are rather stocky and swollen, and the influence of van Scorel and Gossart is clear. The most striking feature of these early portraits is the aggressively gesticulating hands with outstretched fingers....


(b Vicenza; fl c. 1540–c. 1550).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He signed five chiaroscuro woodcuts, each after a different artist and all undated. Probably the earliest is a two-block woodcut of Hercules and the Lion (b. 119, 17) after Giulio Romano. Cloelia (b. 96, 5) after Maturino (d ?1528) or Giulio Romano, in three blocks, is still rather crudely cut and registered, and probably the next chronologically. A very cursive, elegant line manifests itself in subsequent works, such as Ajax and Agamemnon (b. 99,9) after Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Sacra Conversazione with St Catherine (b. 64, 23) after a design attributed to Camillo Boccaccino and Christ Healing the Lepers (b. 39, 15) after Parmigianino. An unsigned Adoration of the Magi (b. 30, 3) and The Cardinal and the Doctor (b. 144,6) can also reasonably be ascribed to him.

Vicentino’s hand is doubtless one of several discernible in a large group of anonymous chiaroscuros based on designs by ...


C. Höper

(b Parma, Jan 29, 1523; d Ferrara, Aug 18, 1567).

Italian engraver. He trained in Parma and by 1541 was in Rome, where he became a pupil of Tommaso Barlacchi (fl 1527–42). In 1541–2, in collaboration with Barlacchi, he produced his first work, a series of 24 engravings with grotesque decorations in imitation of antique paintings (b. 467–90). In Rome, Vico was also influenced by the printmakers Agostino dei Musi, Antonio Salamanca and, above all, Marcantonio Raimondi. Vasari recorded that in 1546, following a short period in Florence, where he made engravings for Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici after works by Michelangelo, Vico applied to live in Venice. He remained there until 1563, when he was summoned to the court of Alfonso II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, where he lived until his death.

About 500 prints by Vico are recorded. Notable among his single engravings are those based on Michelangelo’s Leda and the Swan (b...


(b Lisbon, Oct 4, 1699; d Lisbon, Aug 13, 1783).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the leading painter of the 18th century in Portugal. His mature work is in the 17th-century Italian late Baroque manner, which he had absorbed during his studies in Rome and transmitted into the late 18th century in Portugal. He readily found patronage from John V, who was developing closer cultural and political links with Rome and profiting from the newly discovered Brazilian gold.

Vieira Lusitano first went to Rome in 1712 as the protégé of Rodrigo Aires de Sá e Meneses, Marquês de Fontes e Abrantes, the Portuguese Ambassador Extraordinary to the Holy See. He studied under Benedetto Luti (1666–1724), a follower of Carlo Maratti, and the more Rococo Francesco Trevisani. It was in Rome that he acquired his nickname ‘Lusitano’. After his return to Lisbon in 1719, he became a member of the Irmandade de S Lucas (Brotherhood of St Luke) and received commissions from ...


Joshua Drapkin

(b Montpellier, June 18, 1716; d Paris, March 27, 1809).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably Jacques-Louis David, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul (1738–1805), and Joseph-Marie Vien fils (1762–1848) were artists: Marie-Thérèse exhibited at the Salon in 1757–67; Joseph-Marie fils earned his living as a portrait painter and engraver.

After spending his youth in various forms of employment, including work as a painter of faience and as an assistant to the artist Jacques Giral, Vien travelled to Paris and entered the studio of Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1740. Three years later he won the Prix de Rome and in 1744 went to the Académie de France in Rome. His participation in the energetic reappraisal of form, technique and purpose taking place in French art from the mid-1740s onwards is well demonstrated by paintings executed before and during his time in Italy. These include the ...


Paola Pacht Bassani

(b Tours, May 19, 1593; d Paris, May 10, 1670).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator . Born into a prosperous family in Tours, he received his early training in Paris, probably in Jacob Bunel’s studio. In 1609–10 he travelled to Rome; although his presence there is recorded only in 1618–20, he was probably based there throughout that decade, becoming a member of the community of young French artists that included Simon Vouet and Valentin de Boullogne. They were all predominantly influenced by the art of Caravaggio and of his most direct follower Bartolomeo Manfredi. Vignon’s severe half-length figures (St Paul, Turin, Gal. Sabauda; Four Church Fathers, on loan to Cambridge, Fitzwilliam), executed possibly even earlier than 1615, are in a Caravaggesque style, as are his paintings of singers, musicians and drinkers (e.g. the Young Singer, Paris, Louvre), although the latter group owes more to the style of contemporary genre painting. However, Vignon was already showing an interest in new artistic experiments, the origins of which were northern, Venetian and Mannerist. His sensitivity to the splendid colouring of Venice and to the art of Jacques Bellange, Georges Lallemand and Jacques Callot is manifest in his ...


Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Alcolea de Calatrava, Cíudad Real, c. 1615; d Madrid, July 27, 1684).

Spanish printmaker and painter. About 1630–35 he probably trained as a painter in Madrid under Vicente Carducho. However, he began to favour engraving and may have studied it with Pedro Perret. As a painter he was of minor importance. Among his few surviving works are a portrait of Philip IV (c. 1657; Madrid, Prado) and the Holy Trinity Appearing to St Augustine (c. 1658; Pamplona, Agustinas Recoletas), both rendered somewhat stiffly. The altarpiece of the Canonization of St Thomas of Villanueva (c. 1660), painted for S Felipe el Real, Madrid, is no longer extant. In 1677, with Claudio Coello, he restored the Sala de Batallas at the Escorial. His engravings, more than 150 done between 1637 and 1684, have a very precise technique that was the result of a careful use of the burin. He made good use of his own compositions but also engraved works after such contemporaries as ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Assisi, 1564; d Rome, July 7, 1624).

Italian engraver. According to tradition, he was a pupil of Cornelis Cort, whose engravings he copied, and was associated in his youth with Agostino Carracci. He made few original engravings but reproduced designs of artists including Raphael, Paolo Veronese, Federico Barocci, Girolamo Muziano and Giulio Romano. His output also included frontispieces and book illustrations. Closely related to such northern late adherents of Mannerism as Hendrick Goltzius and Jacques Bellange, he employed an elegant and expressive calligraphic style with perfect control of the burin. In addition to religious and historical subjects, he executed portraits, notably a series of genre figures (Rome, Gab. N. Stampe). In 1594 he executed a series of engravings illustrating scenes from the Life of St Francis. His oeuvre comprised at least 100 plates.

K. Oberhuber: Renaissance in Italien. 16. Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1966), pp. 31, 208–10 A. Grelle: ‘Francesco Villamena’, Claude Mellan, gli anni romani (exh. cat., ed. ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Lyon, 1498; d ?France, c. 1552).

French printmaker. He was the son of a Lyonnais printer and an important illustrator and designer of engraved decoration. He was active throughout Spain from 1534, when his signature i. d. v. began to appear on woodcuts the style of which was still imbued with the Gothic tradition of Provence. In 1547 in Saragossa he signed a contract with the calligrapher and writer Juan de Iciar, for whom he illustrated the frontispieces of several works including Recopilación intitulada, orthographia practica (Saragossa, 1548), which contains a fine portrait of the author. They also collaborated on Arte subtilisima por la qual se enseña a escrivir perfectamente (Saragossa, 1550). From 1552 he was active in Pau in the south of France. His engravings for the borders of books, frontispieces and coats of arms were very popular and his work was widely disseminated and used in the mid–16th century. His style was Italianate rather than Germanic, but he made use of models by Holbein in his designs for initial letters....