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Hervé Paindaveine

(b Ghent, Jan 20, 1877; d Brussels, March 17, 1935).

Belgian architect. He came from a modest background and at first worked in a number of trades and crafts; for example, he was a painter and decorator, cabinetmaker, mason and glassworker between 1896 and 1912. His artistic horizons were greatly extended through his membership of the Kunst en Kennis circle (1895–1904), whose members sought to stimulate locally a spirit similar to that of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England among building craftsmen. His interest in the botanical work of Julius Mac Léod (1857–1919), a departmental head at the Rijksuniversiteit of Ghent, also stimulated his studies of ornament in the context of Art Nouveau, the style of the Viennese Secession and Art Deco. He received no formal architectural training but established himself as an architect and built several private town houses in Ghent. From 1912 to 1920 he was artistic director of Céline Dangotte, a furnishing company in Brussels. He then embarked on his major work, the Basilique Nationale du Sacré Coeur in Koekelberg, Brussels, a national monument begun in ...


J. P. Filedt Kok

[Aert Claessoon; Aernt Claesz.]

(b Leiden, 1498; d Leiden, 1564).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and designer of stained glass. Van Mander’s extensive biographical account forms the basis of knowledge of the life and work of this otherwise elusive artist. According to him, Aertgen was the son of a Leiden ‘fuller’ or cloth finisher, but in 1516 he chose to become a painter and apprenticed himself to Cornelis Engebrechtsz. Van Mander describes the uneven quality and vast stylistic changes within Aertgen’s work: at first he painted in the style of his master, then he was influenced by Jan van Scorel and later by Maarten van Heemskerck. Van Mander further reports that Aertgen’s paintings represented mainly biblical stories from the Old and New Testament and that they were often beautifully composed, though painted in a ‘loose and unpleasant manner’. Leiden city records confirm that a painter called Aert Claesz. was working in Leiden between 1521 and 1564 and living, as van Mander states, on the Zijdegracht (at least in ...


Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...



[Theodoricus Iacobi]

(b ?Amsterdam, c. 1480–85; d Antwerp, after Dec 30, 1547).

South Netherlandish stained-glass designer, printmaker and glasspainter. Guicciardini referred to him as one of the three leading glass painters in Flanders, along with Aerdt Ortkens and Theodore Stas. Until 1901, when Glück identified him with the Monogrammist DV, he appeared in the literature as ‘Dirk van Staren’. Glück associated a woodcut device of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, signed with this monogram and dated 1526, with a reference in the guild records stating that Vellert executed a device for the guild the second year he was dean (1526).

Vellert is probably the glazier ‘Theodoricus Iacobi Amstelredamus’ mentioned by Gerardus Geldenhauer in his journal of 1522. It has been suggested that his father was a priest living in Amsterdam named Jacob Vellert. However, Jacob Vellert was apparently dead by 1460, too early to be Dirk’s father, although it is possible that the artist was related to him. It has also been claimed that Dirk Vellert received his early training in Mechelen ...


Fernando Marías

Spanish family of artists. Arnao de Vergara (c. 1490–1557) was master sculptor and glass painter for Burgos Cathedral from 1521 to 1525, then in Seville until 1538 and in Granada until 1557. Of his brothers, Arnao de Flandes (b c. 1490), a glass painter, worked with him in Seville Cathedral from 1534, and Nicolás de Vergara de Flandes (fl 1500–52), a sculptor and mason, worked at Burgos Cathedral. Arnao de Vergara had a son, (1) Nicolás de Vergara (i), who had two sons, (2) Nicolás de Vergara (ii) and Juan de Vergara (d 1588), who became a glass painter.

(b ?Toledo, c. 1517; d Toledo, Aug 11, 1574).

Sculptor, painter and architect. He worked first as a sculptor and glass painter and was a master of both these crafts for Toledo Cathedral from 1542 until his death. From 1555 he worked with ...


(b Brussels, Aug 31, 1847; d Brussels, Sept 11, 1917).

Belgian architect, designer, engineer, writer and politician. After graduating as an engineer at the University of Ghent in 1870, he established himself in Charleroi before settling in Ghent on his marriage in 1872. Under the influence of Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune, he worked in the Belgian Gothic Revival style on architecture, furniture and wall paintings and in stained glass, gold, iron and embroidery. From 1875 to 1895 he directed the workshop for stained glass founded by Bethune. Verhaegen’s most important building is the new Beguinage (1873) of Sint Amandsberg near Ghent, which conforms to the severe Gothic Revival ideals of Bethune and anticipates some of the features of garden-city designs. His churches and conventual buildings at Ghent (Poortakker, 1874; St Macharius, 1880–82), Hekelgem (abbey, 1880; church destr.), Paris (Oeuvre des Flamands Church, c. 1875) and Rome (Everlasting Adoration, 1885–6) and châteaux at Watermaal-Bosvoorde (1880–81) and Merelbeke (...


Gordon Campbell

( Roemer )

(b Amsterdam, ?2 Feb 1583; d Alkmaar, Dec 6, 1651).

Dutch poet and glass-engraver. Daughter of the poet Roemer (Pietersz.) Visscher (1547–1620), she and her sister Maria Tesselschade (Roemer) Visscher (b 25 March 1594; d 20 June 1649) were both well known for their poetry, but both also decorated Römers with naturalistic flowers and with inscriptions in Latin and Greek as well as Dutch. Anna Visscher’s surviving glasses include one engraved as a gift for the poet Constantijn Huygens (...


John Steer

Italian family of painters. Descended from a family of glassworkers active in Murano, (1) Antonio Vivarini became prominent in Venetian painting c. 1440, producing many joint works with his brother-in-law Giovanni d’Alemagna . Antonio also often collaborated with his younger brother (2) Bartolomeo Vivarini, and the family dynasty remained important until the death of Antonio’s son (3) Alvise Vivarini.

Giovanni d’Alemagna must, as his various signatures show, have been of German origin, but he was completely integrated into the family workshop, and attempts by earlier art historians to attribute to him supposedly German elements in his joint works with Antonio seem misjudged. The question of northern influence on the works is not resolved. Giovanni’s name often appears before that of Antonio in documents and signatures and his role in the workshop was surely an important one.

A major part of the workshop’s production was of tiered polyptychs in elaborately carved Gothic frames made by a number of different wood-carvers but of similar design. Developed by Antonio and Giovanni, these were, in the 1440s, very fashionable in Venice, but the market for them continued in various provincial centres under Venetian influence—the Marches, Puglia and to a lesser extent Istria—until the 1470s, and in these areas the Vivarini workshop enjoyed a virtual monopoly, producing a large number of works, many of low quality and probably entirely by studio assistants. In the late 1480s and the 1490s ...


George S. Keyes

(b Rotterdam, c. 1600–01; d Weesp, March 1653).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher and stained-glass designer. He was one of the leading marine and landscape artists of the Dutch school and decisively influenced the direction of Dutch marine art during the 1630s and 1640s. His late works anticipated the shift from the monochrome or tonal phase of Dutch marine art to the more classical style of Jan van de Cappelle and Willem van de Velde the younger ( see Marine painting ). Although de Vlieger’s reputation rests chiefly on his marine paintings, he was also a notable draughtsman and etcher.

De Vlieger moved from his native Rotterdam, where he married Anna Gerridts van Willige on 10 January 1627, to Delft in early 1634 and became a member of the Guild of St Luke there on 18 October that same year. In December 1637 he bought a house in Rotterdam from the painter Cryn Hendricksz. Volmaryn (1604–45) for 900 guilders; as part of this transaction, de Vlieger agreed to deliver each month for a stipulated period paintings with a total value of 31 guilders. He was still living in Delft on ...


(b Lucerne, Aug 16, 1586; d c. 1656).

Swiss stained-glass maker. He probably trained with his father, the painter and stained-glass artist Hans Heinrich Wägmann (1557–c. 1628), who had moved to Lucerne from Zurich in 1582. Jakob Wägmann worked mainly for the Lucerne town council, producing numerous stained-glass pictures, mainly church windows but also such secular works as discs as collector’s items for private individuals. His first known work is a disc (1610) with the coat of arms of Ritter W. Am Ryn. His other works included a cycle of glass panels for Rathausen monastery (after 1612; two in Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.), a sequence of 29 scenes from the Life of the Virgin and the Passion for the convent of St Anna in Bruch (1619–24; now Gerlisberg, Convent of St Anna) and a series of 19 stained-glass pictures (1654–5; Lucerne, Hofkirche St Leodegard) for the pilgrimage chapel in the Hergiswald. Wägmann is regarded as Lucerne’s last great representative of the art of stained glass....


Gordon Campbell

(b 1920).

German glassmaker. He worked in the industrial glass industry until 1975, when, at the age of 55, he established a studio in Darmstadt to produce art glass. He produced lamp-blown glass, which is characterized by bold shapes and bright colours, often in coloured cane.

Glas vor der Lampe geblasen (Darmstadt, 1980)...


Gordon Campbell


Leif Østby

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 7, 1859; d Lillehammer, Feb 10, 1927).

Norwegian painter . He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway c. 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–81) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a pupil of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a pupil of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–9 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882; Oslo, N.G.), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local colour, as in the ...


Peter Cormack

( Whitworth )

(b Thurning, Northants, April 16, 1849; d London, Dec 23, 1924).

English stained-glass artist and teacher . He received his artistic education at the Royal Academy Schools, London (1868–74), and later in Italy, where he made copies of 15th-century paintings. Returning to London in 1879 he was commissioned to design some stained-glass windows, but it was not until the late 1880s that he devoted himself almost exclusively to the craft. He worked for a time for the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons as a freelance designer while teaching himself the technical processes of stained glass and in 1887 set up his own studio–workshop near Dorking, Surrey. In 1890 the architect J. D. Sedding asked Whall to design and make a window for St Mary’s, Stamford, Lincs. It was the first of many collaborations with leading architects who, like Whall, were active in the Art Workers’ Guild and the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. In 1896 Whall was appointed the first teacher of stained glass at the newly founded Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, and later taught at the Royal College of Art, London. His teaching methods and aesthetic philosophy are contained in his influential book ...


Richard Apperly

(b London, Oct 12, 1882; d Sydney, Sept 20, 1973).

English architect and teacher, active in Australia . He was apprenticed in 1900 to C. E. Kempe, a stained-glass designer, and later that year to the architect J. S. Gibson. Wilkinson studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, from 1902 to 1906, winning the Academy’s Silver and Gold Medals and subsequently travelling in England, France, Italy and Spain. He joined the staff of the School of Architecture, University College, London, serving as an assistant professor from 1910 to 1918. He held a commission from 1914 to 1918 in the London University Officer Training Corps, and in 1918 he was appointed as Australia’s first Professor of Architecture, at the University of Sydney. Dean of the Faculty of Architecture there from 1920 to 1947, he was a witty, erudite and influential teacher, discouraging ‘fads’ and stressing the importance of correct orientation for buildings and rooms. He designed various buildings on the university campus, the Physics Building (...


Michelle Yun

[ James, Christopher Mallory ]

(b Vineburg, CA, June 11, 1943; d New York, NY, Nov 17, 1987).

American sculptor. Born Christopher Mallory James, Wilmarth moved to New York in 1960 to attend the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. He took a year off in 1962 after the suicide of his brother but returned, receiving a BA in 1965. There he met and later married fellow artist Susan Rabineau. Wilmarth worked briefly as a studio assistant for Tony Smith from 1967 to 1969. He was appointed an adjunct instructor of art at Cooper Union in 1969, where he taught until 1980.

Wilmarth’s Minimalist sculptures composed of glass and metal are meditations on light and space. A critical turning point occurred when he first introduced glass into his sculptures in 1967. These early constructions made from highly polished birch and sheets of tempered glass were inspired by his work as a cabinetmaker. The atmospheric translucence of glass achieved by etching the surface with hydrofluoric acid captivated the artist and by ...


Ellen Paul Denker

(b Hilspach [now Hilsbach], Germany, Feb 1696; d Philadelphia, PA, ?April 1752).

American glass manufacturer of German birth. He moved to Philadelphia in 1717 and learnt to make brass buttons, for which he quickly became famous and from which he earned an ample income. Wistar was the first person to make glass profitably in America. He bought 2000 acres of land on Alloways Creek in Salem Co., NJ, and brought four German glass blowers to his ‘Wistarburgh’ factory, which opened in 1739.

The major products of the factory were window glass, a wide variety of bottles and vials, and such scientific equipment as electrical tubes and globes used to generate static electricity in experiments in the 1740s and 1750s. Table wares in colourless, bottle-green and pale blue glass were produced regularly, though sparingly. Free-blown covered bowls, small buckets or baskets, tapersticks, candlesticks, mugs and tumblers, some made with part-size moulds, have been attributed to Wistar through historical association and through laboratory analysis. Decoration, using certain ...


Ilja M. Veldman

(b Ghent, c. 1503; d Ghent, after Feb 4, 1578).

Flemish painter and designer of stained glass and book illustrations. His dates can be deduced from several amendments to his will. Archives reveal that he was fined during the heretics’ trial of 1528 because of his Reformist sympathies. In 1538–9 he was paid for painting the blazon of the Ghent rhetoricians’ chamber ‘De Fonteyne’ for the rhetoricians’ festival of 1539. Van Mander called him a good painter, particularly skilled in the depiction of architecture and perspective, and he mentioned a painting of the Woman Taken in Adultery (untraced) and designs for windows in St Bavo’s, Ghent. De Witte’s work is now known only through his designs for book illustrations. The most important publication is Willem van Branteghem’s Iesu Christi vita (Antwerp, 1537) published by Matthias Crom, also in a Dutch and French version. The book contains a Latin acrostic on levinus de vvitte gandensis, written by Joris Cassander, which awards special praise to de Witte. It includes 186 woodcuts and numerous vignettes, in a highly characteristic style, full of picturesque and narrative detail. The woodcuts were reprinted and copied many times as illustrations to the Bible, and they also influenced the work of other artists such as Maarten van Heemskerck. De Witte also designed book illustrations for the Ghent printer ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1732; d 1798).

Dutch glass-engraver. He specialized in stipple-engraved portraits of public figures, using line-engraving for features such as hair. The term ‘Wolff glass’ is useful as a stylistic term, but his work was widely imitated and many attributions are no more than hopeful.

Two Masters of Stipple Engraved Glass: David Maude-Roxby-Montalto (1934–) and David Wolff (1732–1798)...