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Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


Kim Hongnam

[Chou Liang-kung]

(b Nanjing, 1612; d 1672). Chinese patron, collector and writer. Zhou’s devotion to the art of his own time rather than to that of the past was unique in traditional China. His huge collection of contemporary paintings was unrivalled in his day, and his extensive influence within the art world led artists to seek his endorsement. His book Duhua lu (‘Record of researches into painting’; c. 1673), also known as Du hua lou hua ren zhuan (‘Biographies of painters from researches into painting’), a collection of biographical notes on 77 painters, became and has remained the authoritative source on 17th-century Chinese painters. Also well known is Zhou’s 18-leaf collective album with facing inscriptions (Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.), which groups together the works of various contemporary artists.

Zhou was a man of classical culture and taste. In his aesthetic outlook he maintained a view typical of the Chinese literati (Chin. ...


V. S. Turchin

( Andreyevich )

(b nr Tula, Jan 26, 1783; d March 12, 1852).

Russian critic and poet . Well known for his ballads ‘Lyudmila’ and ‘Svetlana’ and his translations of Homer and Schiller, he edited the journal Vestnik Yevropy (1808–14), was on friendly terms with many Russian poets and painters, and himself studied drawing. He visited Germany for the first time shortly before 1820 and became a friend of the artist Caspar David Friedrich. Their surviving correspondence shows that their aim was to combine painting with poetry. Although few of Zhukovsky’s articles on literature and art theory were published, his manuscripts and letters were circulated by hand and many people in St Petersburg and Moscow knew his work, which exerted considerable influence as a result. A typical article is ‘Raphael’s Madonna’, published in 1824 in the journal Polyarnaya zvezda, which offers another romantic interpretation of the Sistine Madonna (Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister). The author saw in the painting a ‘mystery’, a ‘sense of infinity’, ‘a vision’. In another article, ‘On the Fine Arts’, he stated that ‘art is poetry in various forms’ and its aim is ‘to get closer to God, to the truth’. He attempted to raise the level of criticism in Russia, stating that there were as few good critics in Russia as there were good artists. His theoretical views embraced romantic historicism, the need for artistic freedom, the affirmation of the variety of forms of art, an awareness of higher forms of existence, and reverie...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...


Deborah Nash

[Feng Tzu-K’ai; Feng Tse-kai]

(b Shimenwan, near Changde, Zhejiang Province, Nov 9, 1898; d Shanghai, Sept 15, 1975).

Chinese cartoonist, teacher, translator and writer. He is best known for the lyrical cartoons he created from the 1920s to the 1960s, which explored themes of Buddhist philosophy and the innocence of childhood through humorous observations of daily life. He trained as a teacher at the First Teacher Training College in Hangzhou, where he was taught by Li Shutong, a Buddhist monk who was to prove influential in Feng’s conversion to Buddhism in 1927 and in the development of his artistic career.

In 1921 Feng left Shanghai, where he had founded a teacher training college, and went to study Western art in Japan. However, as he later acknowledged in his book The Art of the Cartoon, he became fascinated by the popular Japanese manga (Chin. manhua; cartoon). On his return to China ten months later he joined the editorial staff of the Kaiming Book Company and began to publish his cartoons in the journal ...


Mary F. Linda

(b Greifswald, Dec 6, 1890; d New York, March 20, 1943).

German art historian. He was trained in Sanskrit philology and comparative linguistics at the University of Berlin, graduating in 1913, and his interests embraced Hindu mythology and philosophy in both literary and visual forms. He taught at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität, Greifswald (1920–24), and he held the Chair of Indian philology at Heidelberg (1924–38), from which he was dismissed in 1938 for his anti-Nazi convictions. In 1942, after briefly teaching at Balliol College (1939–40), Oxford, Zimmer became Visiting Lecturer in Philosophy at Columbia University (1942–3) in New York, where he died a year later. Many of his most important writings were edited and published posthumously by Joseph Campbell.

Following the Romantic and transcendental traditions of Indian scholarship, Zimmer sought to interpret the contributions of India in philosophy, medicine, art and the history of religion to the development of human civilization, and to assimilate the ‘truths’ found therein with Western thought. His observations were based on Puranic and Tantric texts, sources which until that time were underutilized in Indic studies. His ...


Jean-Pierre Leduc-Adine

(b Paris, April 2, 1840; d Paris, Sept 29, 1902).

French writer and critic . He was brought up in Aix-en-Provence, and arrived in Paris in 1858, where he frequented painters’ studios and visited the salons. Cézanne was a childhood friend to whom Zola dedicated his first article of art criticism, which appeared in L’Evénement in 1866. He later recreated his passionate discussions with other artists in his novel L’Oeuvre (Paris, 1886), in which he debated all the aesthetic problems of the second half of the 19th century. Zola’s aesthetic analysis of painting was based on rules close to those of the Naturalist novel ( see Naturalism ), which he defined in 1864 as ‘a corner of creation seen through a temperament’ (Correspondance, Paris and Montreal, 1978, p. 375). This definition was not solely concerned with reproducing reality; in Zola’s view the artist’s personality alone enabled him to produce a work of art. He thus vigorously defended certain painters such as Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Gustave Moreau, although their work was far from Naturalist, because of the seductive effect of their frescoes and canvases on him....


Wanda Kemp-Welch

(b Oct 2, 1898; d Kraków, Nov 24, 1967).

Polish architect, teacher and theorist . He studied architecture at Warsaw Technical University (1920–27) and taught architectural design there (1928–39). One of the best-known architects in Poland in the 1930s, he was influenced by the work of Le Corbusier and his buildings made use of the latest modern building technology. He built many luxury blocks of flats in Warsaw in the International Style, consistently applying Le Corbusier’s ‘five points of a new architecture’, including the use of columns to allow flexible internal planning, continuous horizontal bands of windows and flat roofs designed for recreation. The disciplined rhythm of windows contrasted with the curved forms of entrance halls and caretakers’ flats he designed at ground level beneath his buildings. Examples of this work include blocks at 3 Przyjaciół Avenue (1937) and 34–36 Mickiewicza Street (1937–9), both in Warsaw. In his Wedel House (1936–7...


Mary Boyce

Religion based on the teachings of Zarathushtra, known in the West as Zoroaster. It originated in eastern Iran, possibly as early as the mid- to late 2nd millennium bc, and still has adherents in many countries.

The recorded history of Zoroastrianism began with the Achaemenids who ruled in ancient Iran as the first Persian empire (538–331 bc). The Persian priests, the magi, later became known in the West as typical Zoroastrian priests. The Achaemenid Persians spread Zoroaster’s teachings far and wide in the Ancient Near East. After Alexander the Great’s conquest (330 bc) and a period of Hellenistic rule, Iranian sovereignty was restored by the Parthians from north-west Iran (reg 250 bcc. ad 224), who upheld Zoroastrianism. They were overthrown by their co-religionists, the Sasanians (c. ad 224–651), who founded the second Persian empire and established a centralized, authoritative Zoroastrian Church, which combated heresy and around the 5th century ...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[ Chao Tso ; zi Wendu ]

(b ?Songjiang [in modern Shanghai Municipality], c. 1570; d ?Tangxi, West Lake region of Hangzhou, c. 1633).

Chinese painter and theorist . Zhao studied painting under the landscape painter and calligrapher Song Xu and became the founder of the Yunjian school, one of two groups active in the Songjian region, near Shanghai, during the early 17th century (the other, the Huating school, was led by Dong Qichang , the founder and theorist of the Orthodox school of painting). Zhao wrote a short text called Lun hua (‘Discussion of painting’), the first surviving text on landscape painting since the Xie shanshui jue (‘Secrets of describing landscape’), written by Huang Gongwang about three centuries earlier. The essay adheres to Huang’s concerns with dynamic force (shi), natural order (li) and the organization of mountain masses in long, continuous movements within the composition. Zhao Zuo’s text lacks the stern intellectual tone of Dong Qichang’s writing. It offers practical advice for the artist, such as how to sketch houses, trees and bridges in dry brushwork before developing the forms with wet ink, and includes advice on depicting figures, villages and temples, anecdotal elements not often found in Dong’s painting. Indeed, Yunjian school painting in general, and Zhao’s work in particular, is more representational, more relaxed and executed with softer brushstrokes and less dramatic tonal contrast than comparable Huating school works....