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(b London, April 23, 1775; d Chelsea [now in London], Dec 19, 1851).

British painter and printmaker (see fig.) He dominated British landscape painting throughout the first half of the 19th century. He established a reputation in the Royal Academy, London, first as a topographical watercolourist and then within a few years as a painter of Sublime and historical landscapes.

Turner’s ambition was to confirm the status of landscape as a serious art form, in the wake of Richard Wilson, and he always perceived his position as being in direct line from the 17th-century classicists Poussin and, especially, Claude. His later exploration of effects of light in the pursuit of new demonstrations of sublimity has led to his purposes being confounded with those of the Impressionists; but in reality he remained true to earlier conceptions of great art, as formulated by such theorists as Jonathan Richardson and, above all, Joshua Reynolds, never attempting spontaneity or informality on the scale of exhibition pieces as did his contemporary John Constable. The large body of his sketches and studies in oil and watercolour, however, which, after wrangles over his will, was given to the British nation in ...


(b Paris, July 6, 1782; d Paris, May 15, 1859).

French painter, lithographer and collector. Born into a distinguished military family, he inherited from his father a talent for painting, which was encouraged by the Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, who sent him to Switzerland (1802–3) and then to Italy (1807–8). Turpin de Crissé exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1806, showing René’s Farewell (sold London, Sotheby’s, 25 Nov 1981), a romantic subject taken from Chateaubriand’s René, and a View of the Temple of Minerva at Athens (untraced), which had probably been commissioned by Choiseul-Gouffier. He was welcomed into Napoleon’s court as the protégé of Queen Hortense and later of the Empress Josephine, to whom he became chamberlain in 1809. He accompanied her to Switzerland and Savoy in 1810, returning with an album of 33 sepia drawings (Malmaison, Château N.) that express a delightful ‘troubadour’ feeling for nature.

His landscapes were highly prized—the View taken from Civita Castellana...


Efrem Gisella Calingaert

(b Florence, Sept 3, 1822; d Florence, July 11, 1901).

Italian painter. He received his formal training at the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1837–50, expelled 1838–40) under Tommaso Gazzarini (1790–1853), Pietro Benvenuti and Giuseppe Bezzuoli. In 1854 he won a scholarship to study in Rome and for several years worked on the large-scale painting that established his reputation, the Expulsion of the Duke of Athens from Florence (1860; Florence, Pitti). This major example of the new realistic tendency in Romantic history painting was acclaimed for its subject—a 14th-century event that alluded to the expulsion in 1859 of Grand Duke Leopold II (1797–1870), in the course of Italian unification—and for the modernity of its realistic representation. It shows the influence of Paul Delaroche and Domenico Morelli, particularly in its dramatic groupings, vivid characterizations and violent colours. In December 1860 Ussi was appointed professor at the Accademia. He favoured historical and literary themes, executed with a realistic academic vocabulary, and portraits. His more private works, such as the portrait of his wife ...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Paris, Dec 19, 1777; d Paris, 1837).

French painter. A pupil of Jean-Baptiste Regnault, he exhibited regularly in the Salon between 1800 and 1831. He executed a number of unremarkable academic works on Classical subjects, for example Electra (1804; exh. Salon 1814) and Orestes Sleeping (1819; both Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). Vafflard gained more success with his Troubadour pictures, which he began to paint in the early 19th century, at the outset of this fashion. They are remarkable for their absence of colour, their theatrical quality and contrasted lighting effects. One of his earliest Troubadour scenes was Emma and Eginhard (exh. Salon 1804; Evreux, Mus. Evreux), based on an episode in the history of Charlemagne’s court and painted at a time when the Holy Roman Empire was in fashion in official French circles. In this sentimental painting Vafflard demonstrated his historicizing intentions by emphasizing medieval costume and Gothic architecture and seeking to create an atmosphere similar to the ...


Norbert Suhr

(b Berlin, Feb 13, 1793; d Mainz, Dec 18, 1877).

German painter. The stepson, from 1804, of Friedrich von Schlegel, he studied (1808–11) at the Akademie in Dresden under Friedrich Matthäi (1777–1845) and Caspar David Friedrich. He showed talent in drawing but, on moving to Vienna in 1811, had difficulties with painting in oil, and turned to watercolour. Through Schlegel, Veit came to know many of the leading Romantics in Vienna, such as the poet and novelist Joseph von Eichendorff. In 1813–14 Veit took part in the campaign against Napoleon and returned briefly to Berlin. In 1815 he completed a votive picture, the Virgin with Christ and St John, for the church of St James in Heiligenstadt, Vienna (in situ), inspired by the work of Pietro Perugino and Raphael. In 1815 Veit left for Italy where he stayed until 1830. In Rome he joined the circle around Friedrich Overbeck and Peter Cornelius, becoming a leading ...


Elisabeth Cederstrøm


(b Ringsted, May 12, 1823; d Copenhagen, Jan 10, 1910).

Danish painter. He trained from 1844 at the Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in Copenhagen, where he was taught by C. W. Eckersberg. At the same time he also took lessons with the painter Jørgen Pedersen Roed, whom he had known since childhood. With artists such as Julius Exner (1825–1910) and Christian Dalsgaard (1824–1907), Vermehren was part of the National Romanticism movement of the mid-19th century, which was influenced by the Danish art historian N. L. Høyen. Artists were encouraged to go into the countryside to study the peasantry, and Vermehren went to Jutland where he painted Jutland Shepherd on the Moors (1855; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst.). The painting typifies his interest in depicting man in close contact with nature, particularly the more picturesque side of peasant life.

In 1855 Vermehren travelled to Italy, painting in the Sabine mountains like many other Danish artists of the ‘Golden Age’, for example ...


G. Jansen

(b Amsterdam, June 11, 1812; d Vorden, July 4, 1874).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and lithographer. The son of an Amsterdam jeweller, he learnt to paint from, among others, the landscape and cattle painters Pieter Gerardus van Os and Cornelis Steffelaar (1797–1861). His talent was noted at an early age: his competition entries in 1831 and 1832 at the Felix Meritis Society in Amsterdam won gold medals. In 1833 he was appointed a member of the Akademie voor Beeldende Kunsten and of the Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut in Amsterdam. In 1839 he joined the artists’ society, Arti et Amicitiae. He worked in Amsterdam from 1846 to 1857 and 1869 to 1874, residing also in The Hague, Doorn (1842), Brussels (1867) and Haarlem (1858–68).

Verschuur specialized in stable interiors and landscapes; his beach views are also particularly striking. However, his favourite subject was the horse, which he was able to depict in a particularly convincing manner (e.g. ...


Ye. I. Kirichenko

( Lavrent’yevitch )

(b St Petersburg, 1787; d St Petersburg, 1855).

Russian painter and architect. He studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts (1802–7) under Grigory Ugryumov, for whom he later worked as an assistant (1807–12). His work, which shows his teacher’s influence, explores biblical, mythological and historical themes, as in the Killing of Patriarch Germogen the St Peter Released from Prison, for which he was made an academician (1815). His landscapes and particularly his portraits are in the Romantic style. In 1813, inspired by a competition to build a church in Moscow to commemorate Russia’s deliverance from the French invasion, he retrained as an architect and submitted the winning entry. Work on Vitberg’s design for the church of Christ the Redeemer (Khram Khrista Spasitelya) began in 1825, but was abandoned the following year. The victim of an intrigue, he was disgraced and exiled to Vyatka. His work in the town includes the monumental gates (...


Christina Steinhoff

(b Zurich, July 10, 1788; d Zurich, Aug 20, 1879).

Swiss painter. He served an apprenticeship as a pastry-cook, simultaneously training as an artist under Samuel Scheurmann (1770–1844) and Johann Pfenninger (1765–1825) in Aarau (1802–3) and from 1804 with Henry Fuseli and Konrad Gessner in Zurich. In 1807 he set out on a study tour in Switzerland, visiting the Bernese Oberland, the Valais and Ticino: the subsequent exhibition was so successful that he was able to give up baking and devote himself entirely to painting. In 1808 he went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where he studied under Lorenz Schönberger (1768–1847). With his friends Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr he was a founder-member of the Lukasbund ( see Nazarenes ), a student group whose formation was precipitated by the temporary closure of the Akademie early in 1809. The group looked back to early German and Italian Renaissance painting in its search for artistic sincerity, and when in ...


Fransje Kuyvenhoven

(b Amsterdam, bapt July 10, 1768; d Rome, Sept 4, 1839).

Dutch painter and printmaker, active in Italy. He studied from 1783 at the Stadstekenakademie in Amsterdam and subsequently with the wallpaper painter Jurriaan Andriessen. The financial aid of the Amsterdam art collector D. Versteegh (1751–1822) enabled him to depart in 1788 for Rome to obtain further training in landscape painting. Voogd’s works from his first Roman years are primarily drawings with coloured wash in the typical late 18th-century linear style; an expressive example is River Landscape near Narni (1789; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.). Owing to the absence of Dutch colleagues in Rome, Voogd spent much of his time with the Franco-Flemish and German artists’ colonies there. Internationally famous landscape painters, such as Nicolas-Didier Boguet, Johann Christian Reinhart and Johann Martin von Rohden, were among his close friends, and the work of the last, in particular, is often mistaken for that of Voogd. It is apparent, from one of the infrequent letters that Voogd sent to Versteegh in the Netherlands, that he made numerous drawings of Rome and its environs (Tivoli, Lake Albano, Castel Gandolfo, Lake Nemi etc). Some of these drawings, executed mostly in pencil and black chalk, consist of motifs taken directly from nature, such as trees and rocks; others portray views. Both categories are represented in Amsterdam (Hist. Mus. and Rijksmus.). Voogd claimed that his great exemplar, in addition to nature, was Claude Lorrain; from shortly after ...


Robert E. McVaugh

(Heinrich )

(b Berlin, July 13, 1773; d Berlin, Feb 13, 1798).

German writer. He was trained in law but devoted most of his time to music, poetry and the visual arts. In these pursuits he received guidance and support from Karl Philipp Moritz, Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814), Erduin Julius Koch (1764–1834) and, above all, Ludwig Tieck, with whom he travelled to Wörlitz, Dessau, Halle, Leipzig, Meissen and Dresden in the autumn of 1792. The following spring Tieck and Wackenroder both entered the university at Erlangen, from where they explored Nuremberg, Banz, Bamberg and the pilgrimage church of Vierzehnheiligen. Later in 1793 they transferred to the Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen, where Wackenroder was introduced to art history by Johann Dominicus Fiorillo. While at Göttingen the friends planned a trip to Italy, where Tieck intended to pursue his poetry and Wackenroder his music. The trip was never realized, however, and in the autumn of 1794 Wackenroder was called back to legal work in Berlin by his father. In ...


(b Hedemora, Dalecarlia, April 17, 1870; d 1952).

Swedish architect. He studied under Isak Gustaf Clason at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (Royal Institute of Technology) in Stockholm (1889–93) and in Clason’s studio. With him he designed Hjularöd (1895), a romantic brick castle in Scania. His personal style was developed from the influence of the British Arts and Crafts Movement, the work of M. H. Baillie Scott and Jugendstil. He became a leading exponent of National Romanticism. Manorial and villa projects dominate his early work. Tjolöholm Castle (1897–1906) is a baronial country house in granite, with exquisite interiors. For his own home, Villa Tallom (1904) at Stocksund, he developed the jointed log-timber style of his native province, Dalecarlia. With the winning entry for Engelbrekt Church (1906) in Stockholm, however, he entered the field of ecclesiastical architecture, which was his main concern thereafter.

Completed in 1912, the church rises from a terraced rocky site as a cluster of brick volumes with high-pitched tiled roofs and a tall side tower terminated by an open-work wrought-iron crown. The broad nave with a high timber roof is crossed by vaulted transepts formed by sequences of parabolic arches; arches of this type also separate the nave and the crossing. Characteristic features are the linear chiselling of the granite on the lower walls, both externally and internally, and the similar rustic treatment of woodwork and painting. The small Gustavus Adolphus Chapel (...


Barbara Brus-Malinowska

(b Kalużyca, nr Minsk, Feb 14, 1799; d Paris, May 12, 1842).

Polish painter. He began his studies in 1818 at the Fine Arts Department of the University of Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania) under Jan Rustem (1762–1835), before studying (1825–9) under Vasily Shebuyev, Aleksey Yegorov (1776–1851) and Aleksandr Ivanov at the St Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a gold medal. Despite his training in the classicizing style of Rustem, Wańkowicz was more influenced by Romantic painting. In Vilna and St Petersburg he became acquainted with Aleksandr Pushkin and maintained close contact with the literary and artistic circle around the great Polish Romantic poet Adam Mickiewicz, whose portrait he painted in 1827–8 (oil on canvas; Warsaw, N. Mus.). This was exhibited at the Academy of Fine Arts in St Petersburg in 1828, and its exceptional popularity encouraged Wańkowicz to make several copies of it. From 1829 to 1840 Wańkowicz lived on his family’s estate in Slepianka, near Minsk. During this period he became a disciple of Andrzej Towiański, a theosophist and the founder of a mystical sect of Polish emigrés in France. His portraits of this period, for example of ...


(b Antwerp, Aug 23, 1803; d Paris, Dec 6, 1874).

Belgian painter and teacher. He studied at the Antwerp Academie under Mathieu Van Brée, from whom he gained a taste for large-scale history painting and an admiration of Peter Paul Rubens. His first subjects were strictly classical (e.g. Regulus, 1823) and, like Van Brée, he illustrated episodes from the life of the great Flemish painters (e.g. Van Dyck and his Model, 1827; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). He also painted a few portraits (e.g. Portrait of a Lady, 1828; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.). He exhibited his first work at the Salon of 1822 in Ghent. In 1824 he went to the Netherlands to look at works by the Old Masters, and from 1826 to 1829 he lived in Paris, during which time he ceased to exhibit at the Belgian Salons. In Paris he frequented the studios of such Romantic artists as Paul Delaroche and Horace Vernet but felt intimidated by the more audacious manner of Eugène Delacroix. When he reappeared at the Salon of ...


Edward J. Nygren

(b London, Oct 23, 1769; d Cheshunt, Herts, Nov 17, 1859).

English painter and engraver. He was the most important animal painter of his generation. Many of his dynamic compositions depict horses, dogs or wild animals in agitated emotional states, the sense of movement being reinforced by vigorous brushwork and strong colours. With their sweeping landscapes and dramatic skies, his canvases epitomize Romanticism. Not content to excel merely as an animal painter, Ward also produced portraits, landscapes and genre and history paintings of varying quality. A prolific artist, he was a frequent exhibitor at the British Institution and at the Royal Academy, London.

Ward was trained as an engraver by his brother William Ward (1766–1826) and John Raphael Smith and was in great demand as a mezzotinter at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th when he translated into prints works by William Beechey, John Hoppner, Thomas Lawrence and others. He began working in oil around ...


Leif Østby

( Theodor )

(b Vinger, Feb 11, 1855; d Oslo, Nov 23, 1938).

Norwegian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied in Christiania (later Kristiania, now Oslo) in 1873–5 under Julius Middelthun, who discovered his unusual gift for drawing, and then at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1876–9). Among his early paintings, Female Half-nude (1877; Bergen, Billedgal.) is typical in revealing an interest in individual personality and psychology even in a traditional academic subject. In 1878, while on a visit to Kristiania, Werenskiold met the collector and editor Peter Christien Asbjørnsen (1812–85) and was engaged as an illustrator for his new edition of Norwegian fairy tales (Kristiania, 1879). Together with Theodor Kittelsen, he continued to contribute illustrations to Absjørnsen’s publications. In his drawings for tales such as De Kongsdøtre i berget det blå (‘The three princesses in the mountain-in-the-blue’; Kristiania, 1887), he achieved a striking combination of realistic observation, fantasy and humour, his imaginary creatures being especially successful. During the 1880s Werenskiold was also active as a painter. He left Munich early in ...


Dominique Vautier

( Joseph )

(b Dinant, Feb 22, 1806; d Brussels, June 18, 1865).

Belgian painter and sculptor . He was from very humble origins, but his talent for drawing was detected at an early age. He was sent to the Antwerp Academie, where he attended classes given by W. J. Herreyns (1743–1827) and Mathieu Ignace Van Brée. During a stay in Paris from 1829 to 1832 he came into contact with the Romantic painters, in particular Théodore Géricault, who fostered his admiration for Rubens. In 1832 he won the Belgian Prix de Rome and in 1834 left for Italy where the works of Raphael and, above all, Michelangelo made an overwhelming impression on him. In Rome he abandoned the landscapes and scenes from Roman life, for which he showed a certain talent, and embarked on a much more ambitious work, the Greeks and the Trojans Contesting the Body of Patroclus (1835; Brussels, Mus. Wiertz). The painting proved the turning-point in Wiertz’s career. Its frenzied composition and violently contorted figures excited considerable interest in Rome. Children fled from it with cries of horror, a fact that delighted the painter. Bertel Thorvaldsen commented, ‘This young man is a giant’—a somewhat hasty judgement, constantly repeated by later biographers, which nevertheless determined his subsequent development. In Antwerp and Liège Wiertz was at once acclaimed. He then sent the picture to Paris, expecting final consecration of his genius. However, it was badly hung in the Salon, went unnoticed by the public and was criticized by the press. Wiertz’s bitter disappointment was expressed in an undying hatred of Paris, which he never ceased to attack for its dissipation, stupidity and artistic incompetence. In ...


Hamish Miles

(b Cults, Fife, Nov 18, 1785; d off Malta, June 1, 1841, bur off Gibraltar).

Scottish painter .

Wilkie may have inherited his rectitude and tenacity, even his nervous inhibitions, from his father, the minister of his native parish. Though little responsive to schooling, he showed an early inclination towards mimicry that expressed itself in drawings, chiefly of human activity. In these he was influenced by a copy of Allan Ramsay’s pastoral comedy in verse, the Gentle Shepherd (1725), illustrated by David Allan in 1788. One of the few surviving examples of his early drawings represents a scene from it (c. 1797; Kirkcaldy, Fife, Mus. & A.G.). Wilkie cherished the demotic spirit of this book and its illustrations throughout his life.

By 1799 Wilkie had determined to become a painter, and in that year, despite parental misgivings, he entered the Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh. The curriculum devised by the Academy’s Master, John Graham (1754/5–1817), included exercises in history painting. Wilkie’s two suriving essays in this genre, ...


Rudolf M. Bisanz

(b Wallerstein, Oct 3, 1783; d Düsseldorf, Jan 25, 1867).

German painter . He studied from 1804 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, where he joined the group of artists around Friedrich Overbeck and in 1809 co-founded the Lukasbund ( see Nazarenes ). In the spring of 1811, Wintergerst joined this group in Rome, where he remained until 1813, painting subjects from the Old Testament and from history. His work was close in style to that of his friend, the painter Franz Pforr, and was characterized by its planar shapes and patterns as well as bright and flat colours in tapestry-like compositions. After leaving Rome in 1813, Wintergerst held posts as a teacher of drawing in Aarau, Switzerland, and in Ellwangen and Heidelberg, before settling in Düsseldorf in 1822. Two years later he became inspector at the Düsseldorf Kunstakademie.

Wintergerst’s most notable work comes from this period: the chivalric scene, Count of Habsburg and the Priest...


Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....