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Malcolm Thurlby

(bapt Exeter, Dec 25, 1822; d Montreal, April 23, 1857).

English architect active in North America. He was employed as a young man in Exeter by the architect John Hayward (1808–91), during which time he worked for the Anglican priest John Medley (1804–92), designing a Gothic canopied tomb in St Thomas’s, Exeter, and the chapel of St Andrew (1841–2), Exwick. He also illustrated Medley’s essay on Exeter Cathedral in Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society (1843) with his office colleague, Henry Dudley (1813–94). In 1845 Medley was appointed Anglican Bishop of Fredericton, New Brunswick, and commissioned Wills to design a cathedral for the city. Wills moved to Canada that year. His initial design for Christ Church Cathedral was modelled on St Mary’s, Snettisham, Norfolk, where Wills had done some restoration work. This exemplar did not satisfy the influential British periodical, The Ecclesiologist (1846), which criticized the design for being more appropriate to a parish church than a cathedral: ‘No cathedral would have a choir and transept lower than the nave. Nor is the singular clerestory, in which the alternate windows are circular, at all suited for a cathedral.’ Unusually, construction started at the west end with the nave and aisles (...


Francis R. Kowsky

(b Shepton Mallet, Somerset, Feb 4, 1828; d New York, Jan 1, 1901).

English architect, active in the USA . Following architectural training in Dorchester and London (where he worked with Thomas Henry Wyatt and David Brandon), he emigrated to the USA in 1852 at the invitation of the landscape architect A. J. Downing. At Downing’s office in Newburgh, NY, Withers worked with Calvert Vaux, another English immigrant architect. Downing died soon after, but Withers stayed in Newburgh, first in partnership with Vaux and then working on his own. There he designed a number of Gothic Revival houses and churches, including the David Clarkson House (1856), the Frederick Deming House (1859; gutted; library installed New York, Met.) and First Presbyterian Church (1859; now Calvary Presbyterian Church). A number of houses on which Withers had assisted Downing and Vaux appeared in Vaux’s book Villas and Cottages (New York, 1857).

After brief service as an engineer in the Union army during the Civil War, Withers moved to New York in ...


Jean van Cleven

(b Roermond, the Netherlands, March 17, 1793; d Ghent, April 21, 1859).

Belgian engineer and architect . A member of an aristocratic family from Limburg, he started his career in tax administration under French rule and, during a stay in Paris c. 1810, attended classes at the Ecole Polytechnique. During a period in the service of the Dutch government he was among those who worked on the fortifications from ’s Hertogenbosch to Maastricht in 1820–21 and on the Ghent–Terneuzen canal in 1825–8. After 1830 he joined the Belgian government department responsible for bridges and roads and in 1837 was appointed Chief Engineer for Eastern Flanders. A recognized authority on hydrography, he was responsible for many important hydraulic works in Flanders.

As an architect Wolters is especially interesting for his contribution to the early Gothic Revival in Belgium. The episcopal palace in Ghent, built by him in 1841–5, was among the first monumental buildings in that style in the country; it combines a symmetrical exterior with details copied from the adjacent cathedral, with an interior decoration with rich Gothic Revival stuccowork apparently inspired by English models. Mostly in the same free Gothic Revival manner, which was often characterized by the use of stucco and cast iron, he designed churches at Viane (...


Anthony Quiney

(b Guildford, Surrey, 1816; d Padworth, Berks, Aug 10, 1896).

English architect . From a wealthy family, he was educated at Eton College and at Merton College, Oxford. In the 1840s he may have met A. W. N. Pugin, whose influence upon him is notable. He lived at the same address as William Butterfield at The Adelphi, near the Embankment, Westminster, and seems to have assisted him briefly in 1844, sharing his vigorous attitude to architecture. By 1845 he was designing churches in an assured ‘Middle Pointed’ (Decorated) style, and in 1849–51 built Holy Innocents, Highnam, Glos, for his school friend Thomas Gambier-Parry, who decorated its interior with murals. He then moved to Guildford, and in 1852 to Grafham, Surrey, where he built Grafham Grange (begun 1854; altered 1893–1906), for himself, and his most characteristic church, St Andrew’s (1860–61), as a memorial to his wife. Although his style did not develop widely, his spiky, tight detailing shows ingenuity, typically in peculiar dormer-windows, traceried screens, and integrated arrangements of reredos, east window and roof. The naturalistic foliage of his corbels, capitals and reredoses foreshadows the designs of the Arts and Crafts Movement. He was never a member of any professional bodies....


Priscilla Metcalf

( Locke )

(b Salford, Lancs, April 11, 1826; d Alderley Edge, Ches, Nov 9, 1909).

English architect . His career paralleled and contributed to the development of Victorian Manchester. The design for his best-known work, the Manchester Albert Memorial with its canopied statue, was published in 1862; it was apparently earlier than George Gilbert Scott’s conception for the Albert Memorial in Kensington, which nevertheless seems to have been designed independently.

Worthington was articled to the firm of Bowman & Crowther in Manchester. His subsequent career was technologically distinguished, in keeping with the dissenting, reforming zeal of the Industrial Revolution’s birthplace. One socially advanced building was his Leaf Street Baths (1854), Hulme, Ches, which translated Italian Gothic to new technology. He corresponded with Florence Nightingale about hospital design, and his Chorlton Union Workhouse (1865; now part of Withington Hospital) was a pioneering example of her pavilion planning. As early as 1870 he made self-contained workmen’s flats (Greengate, Salford, destr.). Merchant clients also commissioned Unitarian churches around Manchester, such as his boldly Early English Brookfield Church (...


Paul Larmour

Irish architectural partnership formed in 1870 in Belfast by Robert Young (b Belfast, 22 Feb 1822; d Belfast, 21 Jan 1917) and his pupil John Mackenzie (b Belfast, 1844; d Belfast, 1917). Young’s son Robert Magill Young (b Belfast, 1851; d Belfast, 1925) joined the partnership in 1880. The founder of the firm, Robert Young, trained with Charles Lanyon in Belfast in the 1840s and became his chief assistant, with responsibility for railway engineering works and road bridges. He then worked briefly in the south of Ireland as an engineer for the railway contractor William Dargan, before setting up on his own in Belfast as an architect and civil engineer in the early 1850s. The partnership of Young & Mackenzie became the leading designer of Presbyterian churches in Ulster, working usually in Gothic Revival style (e.g. Fitzroy Presbyterian Church, 1872–4), but sometimes in Romanesque Revival style (e.g. Townsend Street Presbyterian Church, ...


(b Lidköping, Nov 21, 1831; d Stockholm, 1907).

Swedish architect and restorer . After gaining early experience as a builder, he studied at the Academy of Arts from 1853 to 1859 and then worked for his former teacher F. W. Scholander. In 1860 Zettervall was appointed cathedral architect at Lund, where he remained in charge of the restoration works for the following 20 years. The restoration of the Romanesque cathedral at Lund necessitated the structural rebuilding of large parts of the edifice, especially the west front, with its twin towers. Zettervall followed the fashion of the time in valuing stylistic accuracy and uniformity above archaeological considerations. From a historical perspective his work was destructive, but as architecture Lund Cathedral is a tour de force. In the 1880s and 1890s the Gothic cathedrals of Skara and Uppsala were restored along the same lines, the interiors being particularly successful. Despite his involvement in these projects, Zettervall was not a true ecclesiologist so much as a gifted and versatile architect. While he was working at Lund, for example, he also designed a series of new or rebuilt churches and public buildings. For the complete rebuilding of Malmö Town Hall (...


Izabel Freifrau von Weitershausen

(b Jakobswalde, Upper Silesia, Feb 28, 1802; d Cologne, Sept 22, 1861).

German architect . He trained at the Kunst- und Bauschule in Breslau (1819–21) and at the Bauakademie in Berlin (1824–8), becoming an official in the Prussian building administration in 1828 under Schinkel. From the start of his career he was an eclectic, one of his first buildings (completed 1834) being for the university in Halle, built in a Neo-classical style. In 1829 he directed the rebuilding in the Gothic Revival style of the Rathaus in Kolberg according to plans by Schinkel.

Zwirner was sent to Cologne by Schinkel in 1833 to consolidate the fabric of the unfinished Gothic cathedral. With the help of Sulpiz Boisserée , he was able to enlist the enthusiastic support of the Crown Prince of Prussia (later King Frederick William IV) for a proposal to complete the building. The decision to do so was taken in 1842 and the foundation-stone was laid that September. However, as the medieval plans did not exactly match the existing structure, Zwirner took the opportunity to prove his abilities and the general impression of the cathedral as it stands today is largely his work, particularly the transepts, the iron roof framework, the former ridge turret (destr. ...