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(b Giovinazzo, 1613; d Bitonto, Sept 12, 1678).

Italian painter and architect. He was the son of a painter, Massenzio Rosa. He moved to Bitonto in his early years, and it seems likely that he trained there with an artist working in a late Mannerist style. He was encouraged by the Bishop of Bitonto, Fabrizio Carafa, to move to Naples, where he spent the years 1636–41 in the workshop of Massimo Stanzione (de Dominici). He may also have visited Rome in this period: his luminous and painterly surfaces suggest a response to the art of Guercino. His only documented work in Naples is the Christ Healing the Epileptic, painted for the convent of S Maria della Sapienza, where the abbess was Isabella, another member of the noble Carafa family. This simple composition, with the figures arranged in a clearly defined space parallel to the picture plane, remains tied to late 16th-century religious art in Naples. It has a Counter-Reformation clarity and directness, although enriched by a more characteristically Baroque brilliance of colour and dramatic contrast of light and shade. De Dominici also ascribes to Rosa three paintings in SS Apostoli, Naples, attributions that Wiedmann (see ...


Gil R. Smith

Italian family of architects. Several members of the family, which originated in the vicinity of Bergamo, northern Italy, were active in Baroque Rome, most notably (1) Giovanni Antonio de Rossi, the son of a stonecutter who had moved to Rome soon after 1600. Giovanni Antonio’s brother-in-law (and possibly a blood relation) Marcantonio de Rossi (b nr Bergamo, 1607; d Rome, 20 May 1661) also moved to Rome and worked as a civil and military architect under three popes. His sons (2) Mattia de Rossi, who became Bernini’s principal assistant, and the much younger Domenico de Rossi (b Rome, 10 Jan 1659; d Rome, 18 Aug 1703) were also architects, although the latter achieved little more than the façade of S Silvestro in Capite in Rome before he was killed in a construction accident at St Peter’s.

(b Rome, 1616; d Rome, Oct 9, 1695)....


Günter Passavant

(b Fano, nr Rimini; fl 1689–1708).

Italian painter, architect and urban planner. His training and early works are obscure, but Rossi once referred to himself as an ‘engineer from Bologna’. Since he recruited a number of collaborators from Bologna, particularly stuccoists and fresco painters, it is likely that he was trained as a quadratura painter there. In 1689 Rossi painted frescoes in four rooms of Schloss Liechtenstein at Feldsberg, Lower Austria. In 1690 Prince John Adam of Liechtenstein paid him 300 guilders for drawings, and this very high fee can be related to a series of architectural designs that Rossi produced for the Liechtenstein Summer Palace in Vienna, some of which survive (Vienna, Akad. Bild. Kst., Kupferstichkab., and Budapest, Memorial Office). Rossi probably also worked in the late 1680s for Enea Silvio of Caprara, field marshall and imperial councillor: the latter’s palace (1687–8) in the Wallnerstrasse, Vienna, can be attributed to Rossi on stylistic grounds, and Rossi’s contact with the Bolognese owner is clearly documented in a letter written by the artist in the early 1690s. Silvio may have brought Rossi with him from Bologna to Vienna and helped him to obtain other commissions through his connections at the imperial court....


Massimiliano David


Massimiliano David

Situated at the end of the Esquiline Hill and formerly known as S Maria ad Praesepem, S Maria Maggiore was traditionally founded by Pope Liberius (reg 352–66) and financed by Johannes, a rich citizen, after a miraculous summer snowfall. It is more likely, however, that it was founded in the early 5th century by Sixtus III, whose name appears in the mosaics of the triumphal arch in front of the apse. The church had a nave and aisles, the nave more than twice as wide as the aisles, and there was a single apse. Monolithic Ionic columns supporting a continuous entablature divided the nave from the aisles; above these, clerestory windows corresponded to the intercolumniations below. The windows were flanked by Corinthian pilasters aligned over the Ionic columns of the colonnade, and these were inset with a double tier of stucco colonnettes with fluting that spiralled right and left. Beneath each window was an aedicule encasing a mosaic panel....


(b Nancy, June 30, 1658; d Nancy, Jan 10, 1738).

French medallist and architect. He trained under his father, Claude Urbain (1628–98), a medallist and engraver. He went to Munich in 1671, then to Bologna, where he was an engraver at the mint (1673–83), and finally to Rome, where from 1683 to 1703 he was engraver and architect to Innocent XI, Alexander VIII and Innocent XII. While in Rome he married Elisabeth Mantenois (d 1743), a flower and fruit painter. One of their daughters, Marie-Anne de Saint-Urbain (c. 1711–89), established a reputation as a medallist and wax modeller in Vienna.

After his return to Nancy in 1703, Saint-Urbain was appointed architect and engraver to Duke Leopold of Lorraine (1707). Among his works are a series of portraits of the Dukes and Duchesses of Lorraine, 17 medals for a series of papal portraits (from St Peter to Clement XI), seven medals commemorating the regency of the Duke of Orléans, and coinage for the mints of Bologna, Rome and Nancy. His medals for private patrons include portraits of ...


Jarl Kremeier

(b ?Danzig, Prussia [now Gdańsk, Poland], ?1659; d St Petersburg, 1714).

German architect and sculptor, active also in Poland and Russia. He was the most important sculptor–architect working in north-eastern Europe around 1700. His art, is, however, difficult to evaluate, as few of his buildings have survived and most of his sculpture is either fragmented or not placed in the architecturally defined space for which it was created.

Schlüter, whose life is poorly documented, may have trained in the workshop of Christoph Sapovius (d 1710) in Danzig. He probably worked on garlands and keystones for the façade of the Royal Chapel of St John (1676–81) in Danzig. This commission from John Sobieski, King of Poland, provides a link to his later work for the Polish court. A statuarius from Danzig is documented in Warsaw in 1681 and 1682, and this may refer to Schlüter, who is first mentioned by name around 1689–94. In Warsaw, Schlüter worked on two important building projects: the royal villa at Wilanów, near Warsaw (...


Jiří Kroupa

[Ger. Austerlitz]

Czech town, c. 20 km east of Brno in southern Moravia, renowned for its palace. It was settled at the beginning of the 13th century by an order of German knights who built a fortress on the site of the present palace; parts of the earlier structure are still visible in the grounds. The order remained until 1411, when there was a change of ownership. At the beginning of the 16th century the fortress was purchased by the noble Kounic family (subsequently the counts and princes of the Kaunitz-Rietburg dynasty), who converted it into a Renaissance palace at the end of the century. By the end of the 17th century Count Dominik Andreas Kaunitz (1655–1705) was intent on further renovation. The first plans for this purpose were prepared c. 1688 by Enrico Zuccalli, an architect at the Bavarian court, who intended to leave parts of the Renaissance palace almost unchanged, creating a new east wing modelled on Gianlorenzo Bernini’s façade of the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi, Rome. Zuccalli’s plan remained unrealized, however, and in ...


Andor Gomme

(bapt Tettenhall, Staffs, Jan 4, 1672; d Warwick, bur April 9, 1738).

English architect, builder and mason. He was the youngest son of Francis Smith, a builder of Tettenhall, near Wolverhampton. He trained as a mason and worked in the family business in Staffordshire until c. 1695, when he moved to Warwick with his brother William (1661–1724). In the aftermath of the fire that destroyed much of the town in 1694, they rebuilt the parish church (1697–1704) to the designs of Sir William Wilson (1641–1710) and much of High Street and Sheep Street (now Northgate). William returned to Staffordshire in 1704, but Francis stayed and established himself as the leading master builder in the Midlands and one of the most successful in English history, with authenticated work in no fewer than 19 counties. His reputation and fortune were made among the Midlands aristocracy and gentry, and it is as a country-house architect that he is chiefly remembered: he was involved in the building or reconstruction of at least 60 country houses, as well as churches, public buildings and numerous lesser works. Smith owned a marble yard in Warwick where much of his detailed masonry was produced, including large, Baroque monumental tablets, well made and stylish though rarely inventive....


Peter Fidler

(b Verna, nr Lugano, 1576; d Salzburg, April 10, 1646).

Italian architect and sculptor, active in Austria. He may have been the son of the sculptor Cristoforo Solari (fl c. 1570–85) of Genoa. In 1600 Santino worked as a mason in Graz and Seckau under Sebastian Carlone (fl 1589–1614). Possibly he lived in Rome before 1612, but from that year until his death Solari was in the service of the archbishops of Salzburg, working as an architect, engineer, builder of fortifications and designer. Although the foundations of the new, Baroque city of Salzburg had already been laid before Solari’s arrival, his buildings established the Italianate character of the city in the 17th century. His most important works were Hellbrunn, Schloss (1613–19), just outside the city, and Salzburg Cathedral (1614–28). His other early work in Salzburg included extending the parish church of St Leonard at Hüttau (1613), the Karl-Borromäus Chapel in the Franciscan church of Unsere Liebe Frau, the Markuskirche (...


Edward J. Olszewski

(b Rome, 1668; d Rome, Nov 16, 1729).

Italian architect, urban planner and engraver. He studied architecture in the studio of Carlo Fontana and assisted in the construction of Fontana’s chapel of St Fabian (c. 1706) in S Sebastiano fuori le Mura in Rome. From at least 1684 he produced sets of architectural engravings. Many of these were published by Giovanni Giacomo de’ Rossi and his son Domenico de’ Rossi (fl 1684–1721), including 52 engravings for Quarto libro del nuovo teatro di palazzi di Roma (Rome, 1699; see fig.); some of the original plates are housed in the Calcografia Nazionale in Rome. Domenico de’ Rossi’s Studio d’architettura civile (1702–21) provides an architectural record of the city of Rome in 286 plates engraved by Specchi.

Specchi became a member of the congregation of the Virtuosi al Pantheon in 1702 and entered the Accademia di S Luca in 1711, only to be expelled and readmitted nine years later. By ...


Bernd Euler-Rolle and Gerhard Schmidt

Augustinian abbey near Linz, Austria. The present Baroque monastic complex was begun in 1686 with the rebuilding of the Gothic collegiate church and early Baroque buildings (1628–32) and was completed in the mid-18th century. The original abbey was built in the 9th century on the site of St Florian’s grave and became an Augustinian foundation in 1071.

Bernd Euler-Rolle

The complex is clearly articulated, with a regular system of closed courtyards, and the church is situated in the traditional location at the northern edge. On the south side of the church is the simple, rectangular conventual courtyard, which was divided into two by the insertion of a theatre in 1731; adjoining this to the south is the large, square prelatial courtyard. The Leopoldine wing between the two was retained from the early Baroque structure.

A presentation sketch of the whole complex by the first architect of the rebuilding project, ...


Jarl Kremeier

(b c. 1640; d Dresden, Dec 5, 1695).

German architect. He was trained as a military engineer and is first mentioned at Dresden in 1663. He was appointed senior architect to the Office of Works in 1672, and then became Director of Building (1691) with responsibility for the supervision of all civilian buildings. He also rose to the rank of colonel. He visited Italy (1663) and Prague (1671) and made a long journey to Belgium and probably France (1672–Sept 1673). Although Starcke built some town houses at Dresden and perhaps provided designs for the Alte Börse at Leipzig (executed by Christian Richter I after 1678), most of his activity is connected with the Dresden court. At the Schloss he added two portals connecting interior courtyards (1682) and two staircases: a circular one (1682–3; destr. 1945) in the south-east corner of the courtyard and another, with straight flights, in the south-east corner of the Schloss itself (...


Friedrich Polleross

(b nr Salzburg, c. 1644; d Vienna, April 18, 1727).

Austrian sculptor, architect and designer. His earliest works, which were inspired by engravings, suggest that he was trained in Austria as an artist and craftsman. He may also have received training as a sculptor in the Netherlands and Prague (Schemper-Sparholz); his earliest surviving sculpture is thought to be an ivory statuette of Triton (c. 1670–75; London, V&A). Steinl is first authentically documented as a sculptor at the Cistercian monastery at Leubus (now Lubiąż) in Silesia. There he took over the workshop of the sculptor Matthias Knote (d ?1675), whose widow he married in 1677. For the monastery church the workshop produced the high altar (to a design by Michael Willmann), as well as nine side altars, the pulpit and the choir stalls (largely destr. after World War II; remains in Lubiąż, Legnica, Wrocław and Stezya). Several of the sculptures were Steinl’s own work. Steinl remained at the head of the workshop at least until ...


António Filipe Pimentel

Benedictine abbey near Braga (province of Minho), Portugal. In the 16th century, under Abbot Frei Pedro de Chaves (reg 1569–79), the abbey of S Martinho, set in remote countryside at Tibães, became the mother house of the Benedictine Order in Portugal and in Brazil. The original monastery, destroyed by the Moors, had been rebuilt in the 11th century. The systematic rebuilding and replacement of medieval buildings began in the 16th century and continued until the 18th. On the suppression of the religious orders in Portugal in 1834 the contents of Tibães were looted, and the buildings gradually deteriorated, although some restoration was carried out in the last decades of the 20th century.

The church (1628–61) was built under Frei Leão de Tomás by the architect Manuel Alvares, with a heavy masonry barrel-vaulted ceiling. Also from this first phase are the fine upper choir-stalls (1666–8). The beautiful sacristy (...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Cuenca, c. 1600; d Madrid, Nov 20, 1667).

Spanish retable designer and architect. Although his career as an architect was of minor importance, he was one of the major innovators in retable design. He decisively developed the retable from the classical to the full Baroque style. He unified the components of retables, occasionally with a giant order or Salomonic columns; he broke the monotony of entablatures by creating sharp set-backs and projections. For decoration he used swirling masses of vegetation, which produced a naturalistic and succulent appearance. He also adapted the niche to give his retables greater depth and a theatrical appearance, for example by using a hidden light source. Several of his retables are now lost, such as those in the church of Nuestra Señora de las Maravillas (1624) and the church of the Hospital del Buen Suceso (1633), both in Madrid, and in the parish churches of Pinto (1637), Tolosa (...


Adam Miłobędzki

(b Lugano; fl c. 1600; d Kraków, 1641–5).

Italian architect, active in Poland. He appeared in Poland c. 1600 and worked almost exclusively for the king and for the bishops of Kraków. From 1607 he was Master of the Royal Works and later (1613) became the king’s Surveyor. Between 1606–9 and 1613–19 Trevano supervised the construction, inspired by Il Gesù in Rome, of the Jesuit church of SS Peter and Paul, Kraków, which was begun in 1597 by Giuseppe Brizzio; according to a new design (after 1617) by Matteo Castelli, Trevano added features reminiscent of S Andrea della Valle. The famous ashlar façade (?after 1619) shows the influence of the later works of Carlo Maderno, designed in collaboration with Castelli; it surpasses even contemporary Roman church façades with the perfection of its proportions. However, it is not certain that this was the work of Trevano; on the other hand the two works commissioned by Bishop ...


Michael Ellul

Maltese family of silversmiths, architects and designers. The first recorded family member is Carlo Troisi (fl 1697–1736), followed by Andrea Troisi (fl 1750), Pietro Paolo Troisi (?1700–50) and Massimiliano Troisi (fl 1794). A silver sugar bowl (1775–97; London, Mus. Order St John) is attributed to Aloisio Troisi, probably a member of the same family. During the 17th and 18th centuries various members of the Troisi family filled the post of Master of the Mint of the Order of St John of the Knights Hospitaller. The Mint was established in Valletta, Malta, in 1566. The best-known Troisi silversmith is Pietro Paolo, who was also an architect. His best work is the Altar of Repose, which he designed for Mdina Cathedral, and which was constructed by the Maltese painter Francesco Vincenzo Zahra in 1750. It is a magnificent Baroque scenographic creation in wood executed in a masterful ...


Kerry Downes

(b London, bapt Jan 24, 1664; d London, March 26, 1726).

English architect and writer. He was the most important country-house designer in England at the beginning of the 18th century and, with Nicholas Hawksmoor and Christopher Wren, a leading figure in the English Baroque. Vanbrugh first emerged as a successful writer of comedies; taking up architecture in his thirties, he quickly made himself a professional in that field despite being self-taught, and in May 1702 he obtained the post of Comptroller of the Queen’s Works, the second office in royal building in England, a position he took seriously. Vanbrugh’s dramatic sense and his enthusiasm for large buildings, seen especially at Blenheim Palace and Eastbury, earned him a reputation for extravagance, even megalomania, but he understood and exploited the difference between size and scale in architecture. His work was not much to the taste of the mid-18th century, but it was praised by both Robert Adam and Joshua Reynolds, and he has come to be recognized as a figure of excellence in both comedy and architecture....


Jonathan Bober

Observant Franciscan foundation and pilgrimage site in Piedmont, Italy.

Situated in the diocese of Novara, the Sacro Monte occupies about 12 wooded ha on top of a spur rising c. 160 m above the town of Varallo. The monument’s primary feature is 44 chapels, in which scenes from or associated with the Life of Christ are rendered as life-size dioramas, consisting of groups of figures in various materials against painted background scenes. These chapels are either free-standing or grouped within secondary structures to suggest their scenes’ shared locations, are evenly distributed around the summit, and are connected in approximately chronological order of their events by a main path. Their sequence concludes at a central piazza and the monument’s secondary feature, a basilica dedicated to the Virgin of the Assumption. Reflecting a succession of conceptions and programmes, the whole combines a monastic retreat, a delightful park and a penitential vehicle.

The earliest architecture of the Sacro Monte was designed by Brother ...


Lucia Trigilia

( fl 1594; d Syracuse, Dec 1643).

Italian architect, of Spanish descent. He is known to have made substantial contributions to some of the most important buildings constructed in Syracuse during the period of renovation before the earthquake of 1693 ( see Syracuse §2 ). His best-known work is the Palazzo Vescovile (1618), notable for its harmonious proportions. The building’s lack of surface decoration also enhances the refinement of its rusticated ashlar facing, the grading of the cornices and the detailed rustication. These characteristics make the Palazzo typical of building in Syracuse in the period of transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque. Other buildings executed by Vermexio include the church of S Benedetto (1619) and the church of Monte Vergini (1622–5), both of which reflect a more conventional Renaissance taste. He was also consulted on many other projects, a reflection of the privileged position that he enjoyed in the sphere of civic patronage in Syracuse. He is also known to have collaborated on several projects with his son ...