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M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Eibar, Guipúzcoa, July 26, 1870; d Madrid, Oct 31, 1945).

Spanish Basque painter . He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly coloured images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1911/13; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906; both Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.

Zuloaga began to enjoy considerable international success in ...

Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Vienna, March 15, 1883; d Vienna, Feb 26, 1963).

Austrian designer and painter . He studied design at the Allgemeine Zeichenschule (1901–2) and at the Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (1902–3) in Vienna and was briefly a guest attendant at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. Thereafter he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule until 1906 and in 1908 he joined the Vienna Secession. He was able to take an extended journey through western Europe in 1912 through receiving a travel scholarship from John II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1840–1929). He was in military service from 1915 to 1919 and was also a prisoner of war in Italy. He was a teacher at the Schleiss ceramic workshops in Gmunden between 1920 and 1922. From 1922 onwards he lived alternately in Vienna and Upper Austria and took many trips abroad. In 1949 he began teaching at the Kunstschule in Linz.

Zülow’s art was influenced by the ideals of the Vienna Secession and the Wiener Werkstätte. He was active in many areas of the applied arts and made picture books, calendar pages, graphic cycles and also wall paintings and tapestries (e.g. cartoon for the tapestry ...

Article

R. W. Lightbown

( Giulio )

(b Syracuse, 1656; d Paris, Dec 22, 1701).

Italian sculptor, active also in France . He was born of a noble family named Zummo (he changed the spelling to Zumbo in Paris) and educated for the church. Zumbo was a wax sculptor and anatomical modeller and, like many late 16th- and 17th-century amateurs who practised the art of wax modelling, was probably self-taught, although he may have learnt something of the technique in Sicily, where wax imagery was popular. Before 1691 he went to Naples and visited Rome and other cities in Italy. He was an enthusiastic collector of Old Master drawings and engravings. In Naples he may have invented a new method of colouring wax for sculpture ( see Wax §II 1., (i) ), which attracted sufficient notice for him to be summoned to Florence in 1691 by Cosimo de’ Medici III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who paid him a monthly pension. As a sample of his skill he may have brought with him a scene with wax figures, the ...

Article

Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Herzebrock, Westphalia, Nov 23, 1830; d Rimsting, nr Prien am Chiemsee, Sept 27, 1915).

German sculptor . He studied sculpture at the Polytechnische Schule in Munich, under Johann von Halbig (1814–82) whom he accompanied on a study tour to Milan in 1849. After setting up independently in 1852 and successfully fulfilling his first portrait commissions, he went to Rome (1857–8) to study Classical sculpture. He travelled to Italy again in 1867, this time accompanied by his pupil Adolf von Hildebrand. Zumbusch’s early works are tentative in approach. Flora (1859; ex-Städt. Gal., Hannover) reveals the pervasive influence of Ludwig von Schwanthaler and also borrows features from Bertel Thorvaldsen’s Venus (1813–16; Copenhagen, Thorvaldsens Mus.) while anticipating Zumbusch’s later, more distinctive style in its sweeping movement and energetic forms. On the other hand, his religious works from the same period such as the carved altar to SS Benno and Corbinian (1860; Munich, Frauenkirche) assimilated both Nazarene and Romantic styles. The diversity of style of the 19th century is thus mirrored in Zumbusch’s work. In the works commissioned in the 1860s and 1870s by the King of Bavaria, ...

Article

Franz Zelger

(b Lucerne, May 3, 1827; d Lucerne, Jan 15, 1909).

Swiss painter . He trained with Jakob Schwegler (1793–1866) and Joseph Zelger (1812–85), whom he accompanied on a study visit to the Engadine. Zelger encouraged him to go to Geneva in 1848. There he was a pupil first of François Diday and then of Alexandre Calame, who influenced his early work. However, while Calame painted dramatic mountain scenes, Zünd preferred the idyllic, tranquil region of the Alpine foothills. In 1851 he moved to Munich, where he met the Swiss painter Rudolf Koller, who remained a close friend. From 1852 he often stayed in Paris. He studied paintings by 17th-century Dutch and French artists in the Louvre and became acquainted with Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, Louis Français, Louis Cabat, Frank Buchser and Albert Anker.

In 1860 Zünd travelled to Dresden to copy Dutch landscapes in the Gemäldegalerie. In 1863 he settled in the outskirts of Lucerne and looked for subject-matter principally in the landscape around the city. However detailed his scrutiny, he never lost sight of magnitude and breadth, as in ...

Article

Ilse O’Dell-Franke

(b ?1498; d Nuremberg, Feb 25, 1572).

German goldsmith, etcher and draughtsman . He was documented in Nuremberg in 1554, when he applied for citizenship, but was probably there earlier, as his main ornamental work, Novum opus craterographicum (a series of 31 etchings of vessels, attributed to him on stylistic grounds), was printed there in 1551. The ornamental details (such as castings from nature) in these prints suggest a goldsmith’s training. A smaller series of 22 etchings also contains models for brooches, daggers etc. The separate scrollwork title page bears the date 1553 and his full name.

In 1559 Zündt was recorded as an assistant of Wenzel Jamnitzer, who sent him to Prague to work on a table fountain, noting in a letter to Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol (1529–95) that Zündt was industrious but used foul language. Nothing is known of Zündt’s work for Ferdinand, nor of any other goldsmith’s work by him, though in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Zurich  

Martin Albers, Sigmund Widmer and H. Bobbink-de Wilde

[Ger. Zürich ]

Swiss city and cantonal capital in the hills on the River Limmat where it flows out of Lake Zurich. It is the largest town in German-speaking Switzerland, with a population (1992) of 363,000.

Martin Albers

The area has been settled at least intermittently since the late 5th millennium bc. The river crossing was a natural intersection for trade routes, protected by the steep hill on the west bank of the Limmat. By 15 bc at the latest a Roman military camp was established as a stronghold near the frontier on top of the hill on the site of the present Lindenhof. Later there was a customs post for the Province of Gaul, and the Limmat was bridged. The small settlement of Turicum grew up around the bridge, centred on a small harbour, which, although filled in during the Middle Ages, survives as the Weinplatz.

In the 5th to 7th centuries ...

Article

Jeffrey Chipps Smith

German family of sculptors. They were among the most important and productive families of sculptors in southern Germany in the 17th century. Hans Zürn the elder (1555/60–after 1631) had six sons, all of whom became sculptors. No documented work of his has survived, but on the basis of his presumed contribution to the high altar in Überlingen Minster (see §1 below), an attractive Crucifix (Wangen, Kapelle am Isnyer Tor) and a bust of St Jacob (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) have been attributed to him. These wooden figures, with their slender, elongated bodies and gaunt, introspective faces, have a precious yet frail quality when compared with the work of his sons, with whom he frequently collaborated. The most prominent of these, all of whom started their careers in the Bodensee region, was (1) Jörg Zürn of Überlingen, whose masterpiece was the five-storey Mannerist high altar in Überlingen Minster. ...

Article

Jeremy Howard and Sergey Kuznetsov

( Nikolayevna )

(b Nov 30, 1864; d Aug 22, 1921).

Russian art school founder and painter . Her main significance lay in her creation of the most progressive art school in pre-1917 Russia, a forming ground of many of the leading representatives of the Russian avant-garde. Having studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1885–8), and at Il’ya Repin’s and Pavel Chistyakov’s studios in the St Petersburg Academy of Arts (1889–96), she enrolled (1897) at the private studios of Rodolphe Julian and of Filippo Colarossi in Paris. In 1899 she opened her own art school in Moscow, where the artists Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and Nikolay Ul’yanov taught. This she moved to St Petersburg in 1906, where, with the help of her close friend Konstantin Somov, it was established as the Zvantseva School of Drawing and Painting; it was also known as the Bakst and Dobuzhinsky School (1906–10) and as the Dobuzhinsky and Petrov-Vodkin School (...

Article

D. O. Shvidkovsky

Russian town 53 km west of Moscow, on the left bank of the River Moskva. It was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky (reg 1149–57) and was the centre of the independent Zvenigorod principality in the 13th and 14th centuries; it became part of the Muscovite state in 1432. The 12th-century kremlin (the Gorodok or ‘Little Town’) has tall, earthen ramparts. The cathedral of the Dormition was built on the Gorodok by the ruling Prince Yury (d 1434). It represents a link between the late 12th-century architecture of the Vladimir–Suzdal’ kingdom (e.g. Vladimir, cathedral of St Demetrius) and the new Muscovite style of the late 14th century and the early 15th. It is square in plan with three apses, three entrances on axis and a single, helmet-shaped dome, which may originally have been surrounded by a complex system of zakomary. Other decorative details include a corbel-table over the apse, a frieze at middle height, ogee arches over the portals and west windows, and engaged columns on the façades and doorways. The last two elements indicate some familiarity with Gothic architecture. The interior of the cathedral was painted by ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

( Timofeyevich )

(b Moscow, Nov 3, 1931; d Moscow, Dec 12, 1986).

Russian painter . He was born to a working family. In 1954 he entered the In Memory of 1905 Moscow Regional Art College, from which he was soon expelled owing to his unconventional conduct. He developed as an artist independently and first came into contact with original works of Western abstract art at the 1957 Global Youth and Students’ Festival, Moscow. His acquaintance with George Costakis and the latter’s collection of Russian avant-garde art was also significant in his artistic development. Exhibitions in local salons and abroad (the first at Galerie Motte, Geneva, in 1965) displayed the stark originality of his temperamental, even tempestuous, style, which may be termed ‘figurative Tachism’. His oil, watercolour and gouache portraits, for example of George Costakis (1956; Athens, Costakis priv. col.) and D. Planvinsky (1976; Moscow, Rusanov priv. col.), landscapes, including the Church in Peredelkino (1960; Athens, Costakis, priv. col.), animal paintings and still-lifes always retain an underlying naturalism, which was transformed through impulsive and playful brushwork until it verges on the abstract. The rapture of his painting is shown in the sheer beauty of his colour palette and the graphic rhythm combined with a tragic expression of violent emotion. A confessional sincerity of artistic intonation, a mocking foolishness and the influence of the alcoholism from which he suffered is evident in his work, which can be seen as a link between the classic modern and the colourful, frenzied nature of the trans-avant-garde. His premature death may appear to symbolize the difficulties that faced exponents of unofficial art in the USSR....

Article

H. Soukupová

[Ger. Klingenberg]

Castle in the southern Czech Republic. It was the private seat of Vaclav I (reg 1230–53) and Přemysl Ottokar II. First mentioned in 1234, it was founded at a strategically important position above the confluence of the Vltava and Otava rivers. To the east and west the headland is protected by abrupt cliffs, with the Otava on the north side. The oldest part of the castle is the great square tower built of rusticated ashlar masonry typical of Hohenstaufen architecture. It faces the south end of the headland and is protected by a moat. On the ground floor it had a single rib-vaulted bay, the ribs descending to pyramidal consoles. The square wall-ribs and the vault webs are of brick with surviving impressions of the original wooden centering. The space was lit by two arrow-slits and was accessible through a passageway with two doorways with pointed arches. The living-room on the first floor had groin vaults supported by corbels on a string course. There were further rooms to the east and west of the tower. The south range retains its early form, with two rib-vaulted rooms on the ground floor and an asymmetrical wooden-roofed entrance hall leading from the courtyard, giving access to the ground floor of the tower and to two rooms of the palace. The resemblance of the tower vault mouldings to those in the Cistercian abbeys at Zwettl and Lilienfeld indicate that the first masons’ workshop in Zvíkov came from the Danube area of what is now Austria....

Article

Sjarel Ex

(b Zaandijk, May 28, 1885; d Wassenaar, Sept 27, 1977).

Dutch designer and typographer . After working in the tradition of the Arts and Crafts Movement, he came into contact in 1917 with De Stijl, which fundamentally changed the course of his work. Through Vilmos Huszár and Jan Wils, he met H. P. Berlage, for whom he worked as a draughtsman, and international artists working in typographic design, such as Kurt Schwitters, El Lissitsky and Jan Tschichold. His international importance is based on typographical works, such as those he made between 1923 and 1930 for NKF, the Dutch cable works, and for PTT, the Dutch postal service. His advertisements, inspired by Dada, often used a wide range of typography and could be read as messages, poems or advertising slogans, while being appreciated simply as designs. Zwart was also active as an interior designer; his most successful work in this field was the kitchen (1938) that he designed for the ...

Article

(b The Hague, May 16, 1862; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1931).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher . From 1877 to 1880 he studied drawing at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague and painting with Jacob Maris. His earliest work consisted mainly of still-lifes and figure studies, animal subjects and landscapes. From 1884 to 1886 he worked as a tile painter for the Rozenburg Delftware Factory in The Hague.

From 1885 to 1894—generally considered the period of his most important work—de Zwart painted and etched landscapes and townscapes (e.g. the Wagenbrug in The Hague, c. 1890; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.), figures (e.g. Seated Woman in White, c. 1890; The Hague, Gemeentemus.), portraits and still-lifes reminiscent of works associated with such 19th-century Amsterdam painters as George Hendrik Breitner; however, de Zwart’s palette was darker and his brushwork less broad. In 1891 he spent a brief period in Paris making townscapes, such as Porte Saint-Denis (1892; The Hague, Gemeentemus.). From 1892 until ...

Article

Nigel Vaux Halliday

[ Antonie ]

(b Haarlem, Feb 18, 1892; d Crowborough, E. Sussex, Jan 23, 1979).

Dutch bookseller, dealer and publisher, active in England . He worked in the book trade in Holland and then in London, where in 1916 he became manager of a foreign-language bookshop at 78 Charing Cross Road. After buying the business in 1923 he developed it into a specialist art bookshop, unique in London until the late 1930s. Zwemmer concentrated on European publications and was the sole British distributor of such magazines as Cahiers d’art, XXe siècle, Minotaure, Labyrinthe, Verve and, later, L’Oeil. He also stocked modern English literature. The bookshop, which was soon financially successful, was a focus for the London art world in the 1920s and 1930s, and Zwemmer became a friend and patron of such artists as Henry Moore, Wyndham Lewis, Jacob Epstein and Graham Sutherland. Through his regular visits to Paris he also came into contact with Picasso, Miró, Dalí and Paul Eluard. In 1929 Zwemmer opened the Zwemmer Gallery at 26 Litchfield Street, round the corner from his bookshop; it operated until ...

Article

Susanne Kiefhaber

(b c. 1748; d Oberammergau, 1792).

German painter . His father, Johann Joseph Zwinck ( fl 1735–53), painted frescoes and executed decorations for the Oberammergau Passion plays, roles that Franz Seraph also undertook. An apprenticeship with Johann Jakob Zeiller and Martin Knoller has often been assumed: the influence of engravings of the Augsburg Akademie is evident in his earliest known fresco (1768), for the Echtler Haus, Oberammergau, depicting a Temptation of Christ adapted from Rubens.

Zwinck became well known as the ‘Lüftl’ or open-air painter of Oberammergau, frescoing the farmhouses of his homeland. His paintings (1780) on the Gasthaus zur Alpenrose in Mittenwald emphasize the vertical structure of the window axes by combining them with painted cartouches and figures. Beneath the gable, the sky opens and gives a clear view of the Coronation of the Virgin. This imaginary opening of the gable can already be observed in the Hornsteinhaus at Mittenwald, painted in ...

Article

Larry Warkentin

Swiss religious movement of the 16th century. Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1484–1531) was trained as a humanist scholar and was strongly influenced by Erasmus. In 1518 he became the people’s priest in the Grossmünster, Zurich, from which position he was able to shape that city’s Reformation. He taught that the Bible, particularly the teachings of Jesus, should be the ultimate authority in matters of faith and practice. His reading of scripture led him to believe that the Church’s doctrine of the saints, fostered by images, was wrong. An official disputation between Zwingli and the vicar-general of Constance on this issue was convened in January 1523. In the eyes of the city council Zwingli prevailed, and in June 1524 a decree was published defining an orderly pattern for the removal from the churches of all ‘images and idols’. Zwingli, two other priests, representatives of twelve guilds and the city constable entered every church in Zurich, removing and ceremonially destroying all works of art; the walls were whitewashed. Although Zwingli taught that music and the visual arts should be removed from churches, so that Christians could concentrate on the worship of God without the distraction of intermediate art forms, he continued to respect the creation of non-religious art and accepted religious representations outside the church building as long as they did not invite veneration. As a movement Zwinglianism was short-lived. Its leader was killed while serving as chaplain during a battle between Catholic and Reformed cantons. His ideas were carried forward by his successor, ...

Article

Izabel Freifrau von Weitershausen

(b Jakobswalde, Upper Silesia, Feb 28, 1802; d Cologne, Sept 22, 1861).

German architect . He trained at the Kunst- und Bauschule in Breslau (1819–21) and at the Bauakademie in Berlin (1824–8), becoming an official in the Prussian building administration in 1828 under Schinkel. From the start of his career he was an eclectic, one of his first buildings (completed 1834) being for the university in Halle, built in a Neo-classical style. In 1829 he directed the rebuilding in the Gothic Revival style of the Rathaus in Kolberg according to plans by Schinkel.

Zwirner was sent to Cologne by Schinkel in 1833 to consolidate the fabric of the unfinished Gothic cathedral. With the help of Sulpiz Boisserée , he was able to enlist the enthusiastic support of the Crown Prince of Prussia (later King Frederick William IV) for a proposal to complete the building. The decision to do so was taken in 1842 and the foundation-stone was laid that September. However, as the medieval plans did not exactly match the existing structure, Zwirner took the opportunity to prove his abilities and the general impression of the cathedral as it stands today is largely his work, particularly the transepts, the iron roof framework, the former ridge turret (destr. ...

Article

Franz Bischoff and Carola Wenzel

[Zwietzel ; Zwitzl ; Zwizel]

German family of architects and masons . (1) Jakob Zwitzel may have been related to Hans von Elchingen, who worked as a mason at Ulm Minster in 1471–2 and in 1479. Jakob was mainly active in Augsburg, where he was much influenced by the Late Gothic style of Burkhard Engelberg. Both his son (2) Bernhard Zwitzel and his grandson (3) Simon Zwitzel were also active in the Augsburg area.

N. Lieb: ‘Die Augsburger Familie Zwitzel’, Lebensbilder aus dem bayerischen Schwaben, 8 (1961), pp. 84–107

Franz Bischoff

(b ?Elchingen, nr Ulm, c. 1470; d Augsburg, 1540).

He settled at quite an early age in Augsburg, paying taxes there in 1497 and becoming a citizen in 1505. From 1502 to 1507 he lived in the same house as the sculptor Gregor Erhart, and in 1512 he moved into the house of the painter Hans Holbein the elder, before acquiring his own house in ...