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Jenifer P. Borum

(b Ash Grove, MO, Feb 20, 1890; d Chicago, IL, Dec 25, 1972).

American painter of African, Cherokee, Creek, and European ancestry. Although Yoakum claimed to have been born on a Navajo reservation in 1888, his birthplace and childhood home has been established as Ash Grove, MO. His aunt was adopted by a Navajo family, and although the artist drew great inspiration from the Navajo, his connection to them was imaginary. Yoakum’s life was indeed one of adventure and travel—he toured with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, the Ringling Bros. Circus, and also traveled around the world as stow-away and later as a soldier in World War I. Yet the line between fact and fantasy will always be blurred when contending with his lyrical landscapes that ostensibly offer a record of his far-ranging adventures to exotic locales.

While Yoakum began to draw by the 1950s, he did not devote himself to this calling until he had retired in the early 1960s. Settling in Chicago in ...


Yoshikazu Iwasaki

(b Mito, Sept 18, 1868; d Tokyo, Feb 26, 1958).

Japanese painter . He graduated in 1893 from the painting department of the Tokyo School of Fine Arts. In 1898 Yokoyama participated in the formation of the Japan Art Institute in Tokyo and received theoretical instruction from Tenshin Okakura. He experimented resolutely and aimed to create a modern Japanese style (Nihonga; see Japan §VI 5., (iii) ), broadening the limits of expression in such works as Eight Views of the Xiaoxiang (1912; Tokyo, N. Mus.). The Japan Art Institute was closed temporarily in 1900, but Yokoyama was among its most prominent members after its revival in 1914, and he went on to produce such important works as Lively Perpetual Motion (1923; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.). His works range from a fluent, expressive style, in which line was subordinated to a predominant interest in colour, to a sublime style in which the use of black dominates. In 1937...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Wŏnchŏng, Ch’ŏnsimchukche]

(b Seoul, 1860; d Shanghai, 1914).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was active at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and was a nephew of Queen Myŏngsŏng, a member of the Min clan and wife of King Kojong (reg 1864–1907); under the Queen’s protection he played a central role among the conservatives from the age of 19 but abandoned politics to take up painting and calligraphy. In 1895, when the Queen was assassinated by the Japanese, he fled to Shanghai in China, where he spent his days as a calligrapher and painter, earning fame for his ink-orchids and ink-bamboo. Basing himself on the painting style of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, he achieved a level of excellence in his work characterized by strong, sharp brushstrokes. Idiosyncratic features in his paintings of orchids were the blunt tips and right-angled bend in the middle of the orchid leaves. Such paintings were highly regarded, even in the calligraphy and painting world of Shanghai. Fine examples of his work are two ink paintings, ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Kuryongsanin]

(b Seoul, 1878; d Seoul, 1968).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was born into a highly influential family at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and enjoyed a successful civil service career until the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, after which he concentrated on calligraphy and painting. As a child he had studied with the calligrapher and painter, Chi Un-su, and in his thirties and forties he was a prolific painter of bamboos and orchids in the style of Min Yŏng-ik. As a result of his association with the Chinese painter Fang Luo, who visited Korea in 1926, he came into contact with the style of the Shanghai school and began to paint sensuous flowering plants in a light palette. After Korean independence from Japan in 1945, his calligraphy was even more acclaimed, and he became actively involved in the Kukchŏn (National Art Exhibition; see Korea, §IV, 3) as a judge and an adviser in the calligraphy section. In calligraphy he was particularly brilliant at semicursive script reminiscent of the standard and clerical scripts of Yan Zhenqing....


Paul Larmour

Irish architectural partnership formed in 1870 in Belfast by Robert Young (b Belfast, 22 Feb 1822; d Belfast, 21 Jan 1917) and his pupil John Mackenzie (b Belfast, 1844; d Belfast, 1917). Young’s son Robert Magill Young (b Belfast, 1851; d Belfast, 1925) joined the partnership in 1880. The founder of the firm, Robert Young, trained with Charles Lanyon in Belfast in the 1840s and became his chief assistant, with responsibility for railway engineering works and road bridges. He then worked briefly in the south of Ireland as an engineer for the railway contractor William Dargan, before setting up on his own in Belfast as an architect and civil engineer in the early 1850s. The partnership of Young & Mackenzie became the leading designer of Presbyterian churches in Ulster, working usually in Gothic Revival style (e.g. Fitzroy Presbyterian Church, 1872–4), but sometimes in Romanesque Revival style (e.g. Townsend Street Presbyterian Church, ...


Julia Robinson

(b Bern, ID, Oct 13, 1935).

American composer. Young was an exponent of experimental “drone” music and an originator of Minimalism (whose diverse practitioners include Terry Riley, Steve Reich and Philip Glass). Educated at the University of California, Los Angeles (1957–8), he completed his graduate studies in composition at the University of California, Berkeley. An avid and talented jazz musician, Young performed with legendary figures Ornette Coleman and Don Cherry. In 1959, he attended Summer Courses at Darmstadt, the center of New Music, taking advanced composition with Karlheinz Stockhausen. There he discovered the work of John Cage and met Cage’s great interpreter David Tudor, who put Young in contact with Cage. Back in California, Young presented Cage’s work, adopting some of his radical strategies in his own music. A landmark Young composition of this period is Poem for Tables, Chairs, Benches, etc. (1960), a piece of indeterminate duration.

In 1960 Young moved to New York and galvanized a receptive circle of Cage-inspired artists and composers. Young’s most significant contribution to this milieu were his ...


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b Naples, March 12, 1851; d Naples, 1929).

British urban planner, architect and designer, active in Italy . His wealthy Scottish parents moved from India to Naples before his birth. He was educated first in Switzerland and then in Britain. Between 1872 and 1888 he devised several ambitious schemes for the city of Naples, none of which was realized. These included the construction of an underground railway (it would have been the third such system in the world after those in New York and London), which, as a public transport system, would have been integrated with the horse-drawn tramways; the redevelopment of the areas of the city struck by the cholera epidemic of 1884, a plan that would have involved raising the standard of the existing housing, constructing a new sewer system and installing sanitation in each house; the demolition of the overcrowded quarters of the city and the redistribution of the population; and finally, a scheme for the establishment of a new quarter on reclaimed land along the coast at Posillipo to be called Rione Venezia. He conceived this ...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Dec 6, 1879; d Buenos Aires, March 4, 1950).

Argentine sculptor. He enrolled at the Escuela de la Sociedad Estímulo de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, in 1898 and soon afterwards joined the studio of the sculptor Lucio Correa Morales (1852–1923). In 1899 he won a scholarship to study in Europe. In Paris he attended the studio of the sculptor Jules-Félix Coutan, at the same time studying drawing at the Académie Colarossi; he made studies of corpses in the morgue and acquired a great mastery of human anatomy. At the Salon in Paris in 1903 he exhibited The Sinners (see Prins), a major group of six female figures, influenced by Rodin’s Burghers of Calais in its rhythmic arabesques, open treatment of line and soft modelling. In 1904 it was shown again at the World’s Fair in St Louis, MO, where it was awarded a major prize, but he renounced both the prize and associated commission because of a controversy about his youth....


Marian Burleigh-Motley

( Fyodorovich )

(b Moscow, Oct 24, 1875; d Moscow, April 11, 1958).

Russian painter and writer . Yuon attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1894 to 1898, studying under Konstantin Korovin and others. From 1899 to 1900 he was in the workshop of Valentin Serov. In 1899 he also travelled extensively abroad. In 1900, together with Ivan Dudin (1867–1924), he opened an art school in Moscow, where many of the future avant-garde studied, including Lyubov’ Popova, Varvara Stepanova and Nadezhda Udal’tsova. Yuon painted the Russian landscape and views of old Russian churches and monasteries as had Apollinary Vasnetsov before him. Trinity Monastery: Winter (1910; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), with its light-filled atmosphere, is typical of his work. The landscape March Sun (1915; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) betrays the influence of the Impressionist style of his teacher Korovin in its portrayal of sunlight casting blue shadows on the snow, an effect that is repeated in End of Winter: Midday...


[ Christian ]

(b Rønne, March 31, 1843; d Frederiksberg, June 22, 1917).

Danish painter . He studied in Copenhagen at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in 1864–8 under Wilhelm Marstrand, Jørgen Roed, Niels Simonsen (1807–1885) and Frederik Vermehren. He worked as a teacher and as Head of the Kunstnernes Studieskoler (Free Arts Schools) in Copenhagen from 1885 to 1908. His works can be divided roughly into history and genre paintings. From the outset he was attracted to the great figures of 17th-century Danish history, especially Princess Eleanor Christine, whose autobiography Jammers-Minde [Memory of woe], first published in 1869 (Eng. trans. as The Memoirs of Leonora Christina, London, 1872), provided Zahrtmann with subject-matter for 18 large paintings (1870–1916). The Princess fell from grace because of her husband’s alleged high treason and was imprisoned for 22 years. In Eleanor Christine is Undressed and Searched by the Servants of Queen Sofie Amalie (3 versions: 1884–6, Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst; ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


Silvia Lucchesi

(b Venice, June 2, 1841; d Paris, Dec 30, 1917).

Italian painter . His father Pietro and grandfather Luigi tried to interest him in the plastic arts, but from a very early age he showed a stronger inclination for painting. Zandomeneghi soon rebelled against their teachings, and by 1856 he was attending the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under the painters Michelangelo Grigoletti (1801–70) and Pompeo Molmenti (1819–94). As a Venetian he was born an Austrian subject, and, to escape conscription, he fled his city in 1859 and went to Pavia, where he enrolled at the university. In the following year he followed Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousand; afterwards, having been convicted of desertion and therefore unable to return to Venice, he went to Florence, where he remained from 1862 to 1866. This period was essential for his artistic development. In Tuscany he frequented the Florentine painters known as the Macchiaioli, with some of whom he took part in the Third Italian War of Independence (...


Roman Prahl

(b Prague, May 25, 1849; d Prague, Nov 15, 1916).

Bohemian painter . From 1863 to 1877 he studied at the Prague Academy of Visual Arts and the Vienna Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Eduard Engerth (1818–97), Josef Mathias von Trenkwald (1824–97) and Jan Swerts (1820–79). He assisted Trenkwald and Swerts on large-scale decorative schemes (Trenkwald’s wall paintings in the Votivskirche, Vienna, and Swerts’s Hôtel de Ville, Courtrai, Belgium), which launched his successful career as a mural painter. His most important commission was the decoration of the National Theatre in Prague (1880–83), on which he worked partly with Mikoláš Aleš. Ženíšek’s principal works were both the first curtain of the theatre and the main hall’s ceiling decoration.

Ženíšek’s work draws on the idea of a national style, originated by Josef Mánes. A capable draughtsman with a smooth and elegant manner, he was active in many branches of art and became one of the principal official Czech painters of his time. His paintings of subjects from early Bohemian history won great acclaim, and he was also an outstanding portrait painter (the ...


(b Lidköping, Nov 21, 1831; d Stockholm, 1907).

Swedish architect and restorer . After gaining early experience as a builder, he studied at the Academy of Arts from 1853 to 1859 and then worked for his former teacher F. W. Scholander. In 1860 Zettervall was appointed cathedral architect at Lund, where he remained in charge of the restoration works for the following 20 years. The restoration of the Romanesque cathedral at Lund necessitated the structural rebuilding of large parts of the edifice, especially the west front, with its twin towers. Zettervall followed the fashion of the time in valuing stylistic accuracy and uniformity above archaeological considerations. From a historical perspective his work was destructive, but as architecture Lund Cathedral is a tour de force. In the 1880s and 1890s the Gothic cathedrals of Skara and Uppsala were restored along the same lines, the interiors being particularly successful. Despite his involvement in these projects, Zettervall was not a true ecclesiologist so much as a gifted and versatile architect. While he was working at Lund, for example, he also designed a series of new or rebuilt churches and public buildings. For the complete rebuilding of Malmö Town Hall (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....


(b Beaune, Feb 21, 1821; d Paris, Feb 11, 1911).

French painter. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon until he was expelled in 1838 for unruly behaviour. In 1839 he left for Marseille, where he was Clerk of Works on the construction of the Marseille canal. In November 1839 he was noticed by Ferdinand Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, who accepted two watercolours that Ziem presented to him and commissioned a further six. This first success decided Ziem’s vocation, and he started a drawing class that was attended by Louis Auguste Laurent Aiguier (1819–65) and Adolphe Monticelli. During this period he also encountered the Provençal artists Emile Loubon (1809–63), Prosper Grésy (1804–74) and Gustave Ricard.

In 1842 Ziem left for Nice, where he came into contact with members of the European aristocracy, with whom, thanks to his talent and his charm, he was soon on familiar terms. During the following years he travelled widely. Sophie, the Grand Duchess of Baden, invited him to Baden in ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...


[ Philippe ]

(b The Hague, April 20, 1857; d Villefranche, Oct 3, 1930).

Dutch printmaker, painter and writer. He went to the drawing academy in The Hague, where he was taught by J. C. K. Klinkenberg (1852–1924) and Anton Mauve. He was a painter and draughtsman as well as an etcher, engraver and lithographer, and depicted landscapes, townscapes and still-lifes. He lived and worked mainly in The Hague, belonging to both the Amsterdam society Arti et Amicitiae and the Pulchri Studio there. As a graphic artist he achieved considerable fame, especially through his reproductive etchings of works by painters of the Hague school (J. Israëls, the Maris brothers and Weissenbruch) and 17th-century masters such as Vermeer.

In 1885 Zilcken was involved in setting up the Dutch Etching Club (Nederlandsche Etsclub). As an editor of Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift from 1896 to 1905, he became a well-known writer on art. With his etchings of exceptional quality and his publications about graphic art, he contributed towards the revival of Dutch etching. He also did much to publicize the Hague school, particularly in America, where he had many connections with collectors and museum officials. Zilcken had about ten pupils, among them his daughter ...


(b Radeburg, nr Dresden, Jan 10, 1858; d Berlin, Aug 9, 1929).

German draughtsman, printmaker, photographer and film maker. He attended evening classes at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, while serving a lithography apprenticeship (1872–5). He subsequently worked for an art printing company, where he learned the techniques of etching and aquatint. His first drawings were exhibited at the Berlin Secession in 1901, where he exhibited regularly thereafter. His work also appeared in Jugend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben and Lustige Blätter. Zille’s sympathetic depictions of impoverished workers, children and prostitutes in Berlin are in a humourous vein but with serious undertones, and carry captions in Berlin slang; his photographs of Berlin street scenes also provide rare documents of everyday life. In 1926 he made the film Die da Unten

Zille, Heinrich Kinder der Strasse (Berlin, 1908) L. Fischer: Heinrich Zille in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1979) W. G. Oschilewski: Heinrich Zille Bibliographie (Hannover, 1979)...