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Dario Succi

(b Nervesa, Treviso, Sept 24, 1700; d Venice, May 20, 1778).

Italian painter and engraver . He studied when very young with Nicolò Bambini (1651–1736), and later became a follower of Sebastiano Ricci. Before 1733 he executed a series of frescoes for S Nicolò da Tolentino, Venice, which included the Four Evangelists on the pendentives, Old Testament scenes on the drum, and, in the dome, the Holy Trinity. Of another early fresco cycle, in the church of the Servi at Gradisca, near Gorizia, only the vault fresco, the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin in Glory, survives. Zompini’s most considerable work as a history painter was a series of eight dramatic canvases, in a style reminiscent of Ricci and Giambattista Tiepolo, of scenes from Homer and Virgil, and seven monochrome overdoors representing Olympian deities, on a gold background, painted for the Palazzo Zinelli, Venice (all 1736; Moschen Castle, near Kujau, Silesia, Tiele-Winckler priv. col.)

In 1737 Zompini made drawings for the illustrations for ...


Marina Lambraki-Plaka

(b Athens, 1903; d Psychiko, Greece, May 11, 2004).

Greek sculptor . He studied sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens, in Paris with the French sculptor Marcel Gimond (b 1894), and in Italy. His work first began to attract attention in 1937, when he designed the war memorial at Piraeus. His monumental work was still traditional in style in the mid-1950s, when he designed the monument to The Fallen (h. 3 m, 1956) in the Athens suburb of Nikaia. This is an austere composition, inspired by the ‘Rondanini’ Pietà of Michelangelo and Etruscan bronzes. His figurative sculpture bordered on abstraction in the imposing stone composition of the Zalonga monument (12.5×17.6 m, 1954–61) in Epiros, which rises up at the mouth of an abyss and is visible from miles around. It depicts the dance of the heroines of the Greek War of Independence. Zongolopoulos finally turned to a joyful, uplifting abstraction in 1958 and thereafter worked almost exclusively in metal. A frequently used technique was to weld together bronze sheets of various shapes and sizes and to organize them into compositions that played with light and shade and that had a rhythmic interplay between voids and fullnesses. This is vividly shown in the monumental, abstract composition (h. 18 m) that was erected in ...


Jane Shoaf Turner

(b Amsterdam, 1641; d Amsterdam, May 18, 1724

Dutch collector, dealer and artist . He was trained by Pieter Janssen as a glass-engraver and was active as a dealer in glass until 1687, when he became one of Amsterdam’s most important saleroom brokers and appraisers and began to deal in other forms of art. By 1690 he had become one of the leading dealers in paintings, drawings and prints, counting not only Dutch collectors but also foreigners among his clientele, for instance Prince Eugene of Savoy. Long before this, from c. 1660, however, he had himself begun to collect drawings, prints and books. He owned drawings by mostly Dutch artists, such as Gerrit Berckheyde, Cornelis Bega, Jan Both, Pieter van Laer, Jan Noordt and Jacob Backer, and no less than seven volumes of drawings by Rembrandt. He seems to have applied his mark, a cartouche printed in black with the initials I.P.Z. (see Lugt), to drawings that passed through his hands as well as into his own collection. He also generally inscribed the name of the artist on each sheet, though at times he was deliberately optimistic with his attributions, especially with drawings said to be by Italian artists. He often bought prints and drawings already assembled in albums, which he then broke up and reconstituted into new ‘series’ that included individual items that were more difficult to sell. His print collection was more wide-ranging, with examples by Dutch, Flemish, Italian, French and German artists. Again, however, ...


Heidrun Zinnkann and Gordon Campbell

German term for a Neo-classical style that emerged c. 1770, corresponding to the French Louis XVI style. The term means ‘pig-tail style’, an allusion to the ancien régime. In the Zopfstil, early Neo-classical phase, traditional furniture continued to be made but with some updating of ornament. In the secrétaire, for example, serpentine Rococo forms were replaced by rectangular, more architectural designs, while marquetry decoration became confined to the centre of a drawer, door panel or fall-front. The new repertory of ornament used by cabinetmakers such as David Roentgen included such motifs as festoons, floral bands, paterae vases, metopes and triglyphs. The trend towards simplicity was firmly established by the end of the century. A favourite Zopfstil design type was the roll-top desk, which had been developed in France and eventually replaced the writing-cabinet or secrétaire. The desk cover, in the form of a quarter cylinder, retracted when the writing compartment was opened. The principled simplicity of the ...


Thomas Tolley

[ Marco di Ruggero ; Lo Zoppo ]

(b Cento, nr Bologna, ?1432; d Venice, ?1478).

Italian painter .

The earliest dated notice of Zoppo is an agreement of 24 May 1455 concerning his legal adoption by the Paduan painter Francesco Squarcione. The document indicates that at the time it was drawn up Zoppo had been living in Squarcione’s house for about two years and at 23 years old was already recognized as a painter of considerable ability. According to the agreement, Squarcione, who was childless and had recently become a widower, acknowledged Zoppo as his sole heir in return for Zoppo’s work in painting.

The contract, however, was short-lived. By October of the same year, Zoppo had left Squarcione and was living in Venice. Two documents record the terms by which the adoption agreement was to be annulled and the arrangements drawn up not only to compensate Zoppo for work he had executed for which Squarcione had received payment, but also to cover Squarcione’s costs for having provided Zoppo with lodging and artists’ materials. Clearly Zoppo quickly discovered that the conditions placed on him by Squarcione were not to his advantage. Like other young artists who came into contact with Squarcione, most notably Andrea Mantegna, who had a similar experience in the late 1440s, Zoppo soon realized that his success as an artist rested on gaining his freedom, even though this could be achieved only by relinquishing his rights to Squarcione’s substantial estate....


Wanda Kemp-Welch

(b Oct 2, 1898; d Kraków, Nov 24, 1967).

Polish architect, teacher and theorist . He studied architecture at Warsaw Technical University (1920–27) and taught architectural design there (1928–39). One of the best-known architects in Poland in the 1930s, he was influenced by the work of Le Corbusier and his buildings made use of the latest modern building technology. He built many luxury blocks of flats in Warsaw in the International Style, consistently applying Le Corbusier’s ‘five points of a new architecture’, including the use of columns to allow flexible internal planning, continuous horizontal bands of windows and flat roofs designed for recreation. The disciplined rhythm of windows contrasted with the curved forms of entrance halls and caretakers’ flats he designed at ground level beneath his buildings. Examples of this work include blocks at 3 Przyjaciół Avenue (1937) and 34–36 Mickiewicza Street (1937–9), both in Warsaw. In his Wedel House (1936–7...


Matthew Gale

(b Andorno Micca, nr Biella, Piedmont, Sept 21, 1944).

Italian sculptor, performance artist and conceptual artist . He studied painting and sculpture at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Turin (1963–70) and held his first one-man show at the Galleria Sperone, Turin, in 1967. Use of such non-artistic materials as the scaffolding and foam of Chair (1967; New York, Sonnabend Gal.) ensured his inclusion in Arte Povera (1968; Bologna, Gal. de Foscherari) and performance at Arte Povera—azioni povere (1968; Amalfi, Arsenale). Zorio’s characteristic pieces rejected sculptural weight and solidity by use of cantilevers or suspension and reactions over time or with the environment. Several incorporated light; Phosphorescent Fist (1971; Paris, Pompidou) was lit and plunged into darkness, alternatively absorbing and emitting and absorbing energy, being lit and then unlit.

In common with his friend Giovanni Anselmo, Zorio raised linguistic problems, as in Odio (‘Hatred’), axed into a wall at Documenta 5, Kassel (1972), but his concern with energy led to experiments with both chemical and physical instability. He initiated gradual chemical reactions in his materials, which continued beyond the period of making, and used Olympic javelins to provide cantilevers; when combined with fragile, glass vessels or with the emblematic form of the five-pointed star (e.g. ...


Pontus Grate

( Leonard )

(b Mora, Feb 18, 1860; d Mora, Aug 22, 1920).

Swedish painter, etcher and sculptor . He was brought up by his grandparents at Mora. As he displayed a precocious talent for drawing he was admitted to the preparatory class of the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna, Stockholm, at the age of 15. Dissatisfied with the outdated teaching and discipline of the Academy and encouraged by his early success as a painter of watercolour portraits and genre scenes (e.g. Old Woman from Mora, 1879; Mora, Zornmus.) Zorn left the Academy in 1881 to try to establish an international career. He later resided mainly in London but also travelled extensively in Italy, France, Spain, Algeria and the Balkans and visited Constantinople. However, he continued to spend most of his summers in Sweden.

In 1887–8 Zorn more or less abandoned watercolour and turned to oil painting, and he settled in Paris, where he remained until 1896. Here he began to gain international recognition thanks partly to his portraits and partly to his pictures of nudes (e.g. ...


Lenka Bydžovská

(b Vadin, near Havlíčkův Brod, Nov 5, 1890; d Prague, Oct 12, 1977).

Czech painter and illustrator . He studied painting in Prague, first in private schools, then at the School of Applied Art (1907–9). In autumn 1907 he made his first, brief visit to Paris. Shortly after his return he succeeded for the first time in expressing his own inner world, infused with a new melancholy, in a small pastel Valley of Sadness (1907; painted version, 1908; both Prague, N.G.), which he looked upon as his talisman throughout his life. His early work ranged from flat and linear painting in the Gauguin tradition, via remarkable collages made from coloured foil, to rhapsodic Expressionism, as in Antichrist (1909; Prague, N.G.). Several self-portraits of 1908–9 bear witness to his quest for himself and to his penchant for self-stylization.

Zrzavý’s emphasis on the symbolic and psychic roots of his artistic work brought him into the Sursum group, which in 1910–12 attracted the second Symbolist generation in Bohemia, including ...


Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics factory. In 1851 the merchant Miklós Zsolnay the elder founded the factory in Pécs, southern Hungary, for his eldest son Ignác Zsolnay. Early wares comprised very simple, useful wares, including dishes, water pipes and terracotta garden ornaments, that satisfied local demands. In 1865 Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) took over the concern from his brother and added a range of decorative vessels including flower-pots, wash-bowls and jugs. Zsolnay used a high-firing cream body decorated with a glaze mixed with metallic oxides, which was known as ‘porcelain faience’. Production is characterized by various styles of decoration based on Bronze Age wares excavated in Transdanubia, called ‘Pannonia’ wares, and Renaissance, Japanese, Persian, Anatolian (Turkish) and Hungarian folk ceramics. In 1878 the factory exhibited a variety of ‘porcelain faience’ at the Exposition Universelle in Paris and was awarded the Grand Prix. In 1883, after numerous experiments with the chemists Lajos Petri and ...


Pilar Benito

(b Bilbao, May 21, 1887; d Madrid, July 12, 1970).

Spanish architect and urban planner . He studied architecture in Barcelona and Madrid, qualifying in 1912. After attending the International Congress on House Construction and Urban Planning held in London in 1920 he became interested in the problems of housing and urban development in major cities. Subsequently he was involved in plans for urban reform, such as the Inner Bilbao Road Reform Project (1921) and the Madrid Urban Planning Project (1930), executed in collaboration with the German architect Hermann Jansen. In 1925, when he attended the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris Zuazo encountered for the first time contemporary Dutch architecture, with its characteristic use of brick; the following year he travelled to the Netherlands and came into contact with the Amsterdam School and the architecture of W. M. Dudok. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–9) Zuazo lived mainly in Paris; subsequently he lived in Las Palmas before returning to Madrid in ...


Bernard Jacqué

French wallpaper manufacturing company established in 1790 in Mulhouse, Alsace. Originally the company was set up under the name of Nicolas Dolfus & Cie with Joseph-Louis Malaine (1745–1809), a designer from the Gobelins, as artistic director. In 1795 it changed its name to Hartmann, Risler & Cie, and in 1797 it moved to the commandery of Rixheim at the Mulhouse city gates. It was bought out in 1802 by Jean Zuber (1773–1852), the head of the marketing side of the business, whose name the company adopted and whose descendants remained in possession of the company until 1968.

Zuber was the driving-force behind the company. He ensured high-quality production by employing such excellent designers as Eugene Ehrmann (1804–96) and Georges Zipelius (1808–90), who designed ‘Décor chinois’ (1832; U. Manchester, Whitworth A.G.), and by perfecting new wallpaper manufacturing techniques: irisé or blended colourgrounds from ...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Heidelberg, 1556; d Tübingen, 1607).

German painter and woodcut designer . His training appears Swiss, but he is first documented in 1579 in Wildberg, in the duchy of Württemberg, painting an organ front. Shortly afterwards he was mentioned as the painter of epitaph pictures in Herrenberg (Stiftskirche) and in the vicinity of Tübingen (Derendingen). By 1583 at the latest he was connected with the court at Stuttgart. In 1586 he married the widow of the painter Hans Schickhardt (1512–85) in Tübingen, thereby acquiring a workshop and the rights and privileges of a painter. In Stuttgart he worked first as an illuminator, imaginatively creating richly decorated title pages for manuscripts, using ornamentation reminiscent of the decoration on Swiss painted glass. He was probably also employed in illustrating family record books, an art form that was flourishing in university towns at the time. Although he was not a salaried official of the court at Stuttgart, he was engaged for various specific tasks, mainly of a decorative nature. Between ...


G. Komelova and G. I. Vzdornov

Russian family of painters and graphic artists .

G. Komelova and G. I. Vzdornov

(b Solikamsk, c. 1615; d Moscow, Nov 3, 1689).

Painter . He worked at Veliky Ustyug and later at Yaroslavl’ and in the monastery of St Anthony Siysky at Sol’vychegodsk, sometimes with his brother Osip (b and d unknown). From 1662 he was in Moscow working with Simon Ushakov; after the latter’s death he took over as director of the imperial workshop of icon painters in the Armoury (Oruzhenaya Palata) in the Moscow kremlin. His work included icons, illuminated manuscripts, drawings for engravings, and wall paintings. He contributed to the iconostases in the cathedral of the Dormition (1653; Uspensky) in Moscow and in the church of the Prophet Elijah (1660) at Yaroslavl’. His most important icons are St John the Baptist in the Wilderness (c. 1650; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), St Andrew...


Sabine Heym

Italian–Swiss family of stuccoists, builders and architects active in Bavaria . The first important member of the family was Giovanni Battista Zuccalli (d 1678), a stuccoist recorded as working in Kempten (Allgäu) in 1661. His son-in-law Gaspare [Kaspar] Zuccalli (1629–78) and a cousin Domenico Christoforus Zuccalli ( fl 1651; d 1702) worked together (until c. 1666), designing and building churches and conventual buildings in Upper Bavaria and the Innviertel district. Gaspare, following his appointment (1668) as master mason to the Bavarian electoral court, brought (1) Enrico Zuccalli, son of Giovanni Battista, to Munich. Enrico, who had previously trained in Paris in the circle of Gianlorenzo Bernini, became the most important architect in the family and one of the most prominent architects in the circle of Italian-influenced builders from the Grisons. In later years he trained his young cousin Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli (...


Shearer West

(b Pitigliano, Umbria, Aug 15, 1702; d Florence, Dec 30, 1788).

Italian painter and draughtsman, active in England.

Zuccarelli’s training began in Florence, where he engraved the frescoes by Andrea del Sarto in SS Annunziata. He then studied in Rome under Paolo Anesi and learnt figure drawing from Giovanni Maria Morandi (1622–1717), although in this he never acquired any great skill. His earliest recorded paintings were Mary Magdalene and St Jerome (both untraced), which he contributed to the exhibition of the feast of St Luke in Florence in 1729. He also painted portraits. Around 1730 he moved to Venice and began painting landscapes exclusively. His interest in this field may have led to his becoming acquainted with the Welsh landscape painter Richard Wilson in 1750–51. Wilson painted a lively portrait of him (1751; London, Tate) in exchange for one of Zuccarelli’s landscapes. Zuccarelli avoided both the topographical type of Venetian view developed by Canaletto and the stormier landscapes of Marco Ricci, adopting instead a decorative landscape style of idealized Italian countryside. His subject-matter was usually unspecific rather than recognizably historical, biblical or mythological. For example, in the early 1740s he executed six paintings purporting to be scenes from the story of Jacob, but the paintings themselves bear few references to it (e.g. ...


Filippo Pedrocco

Italian family of artists . The family was based in Venice and is best known for engraving, although some members were also painters. Andrea Zucchi (b Venice, 9 Jan 1679; d Dresden, 1740), son of Giuseppe Zucchi who moved to Venice from Alano, near Bergamo, was an engraver, painter and stage designer. He studied painting with Pietro Vecchio and Andrea Celesti and engraving with Domenico Rossetti (1650–1736). In 1706 he moved to Pordenone, where he worked both as a painter and engraver, taking a leading part in the revival of engraving in the Veneto and being elected president of the Bottegha de Scultori e Stampatori in Rame di Venetia in 1719. In Pordenone he executed numerous portraits, views and costume designs, alternating between engraving, etching and mezzotint. In particular he contributed to the Gran Teatro di Venezia (Venice, 1720), published by Lovisa and, with his brother ...


S. J. Turner

(b Florence, c. 1540; d Rome, before April 3, 1596).

Italian painter and draughtsman . He was trained in the studio of Vasari, whom he assisted in the decoration of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, as early as 1557. He accompanied Vasari to Pisa in 1561, from when dates his earliest known drawing, Aesculapius (London, BM). Between 1563 and 1565 he was again in Florence and is documented working with Vasari, Joannes Stradanus and Giovan Battista Naldini on the ceiling of the Sala Grande (Salone dei Cinquecento) in the Palazzo Vecchio; a drawing of an Allegory of Pistoia (Florence, Uffizi) is related to the ceiling allegories of Tuscan cities. In 1564 Zucchi entered the Accademia del Disegno and contributed to the decorations erected for the funeral of Michelangelo. He travelled to Rome with Vasari and was his chief assistant on decorations in the Vatican in 1567 and 1572, where he executed frescoes of scenes from the Life of St Peter Martyr in the chaptel of S Pio V....


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Merseburg, Saxony, Feb 20, 1733; d Warsaw, Aug 11, 1807).

German architect and landscape gardener, active in Poland . He worked in Dresden from 1747 and was appointed Clerk of Works (Kondukteur) in the Saxon Office of Works. He probably travelled to Italy in 1755 and lived in Poland from 1756, where in 1772 he was appointed Court Architect to Frederick-Augustus III, Elector and later King of Saxony (reg 1763–1827). In 1772, for Duke Casimir Poniatowski, he laid out the park at Solec. This was the first of a series of landscape gardens influenced by English models, with picturesque buildings, grottoes and artificial ruins, which he created for the Polish aristocracy. They included Mokotów (1775) for Elżbieta Lubomirska and the important park at Arkadia (from 1780) for Princess Helena Radziwiłł (1749–1821), with such features as an aqueduct, a ‘House of the High Priest’ and a temple to Diana (1783). Zug’s most important work was the Lutheran church (...


M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Eibar, Guipúzcoa, July 26, 1870; d Madrid, Oct 31, 1945).

Spanish Basque painter . He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly coloured images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1911/13; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906; both Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.

Zuloaga began to enjoy considerable international success in ...