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Alice Dugdale

(b Naples, May 14, 1718; d Naples, March 8, 1785).

Italian architect and theorist. He began his training in 1732 with the architect Martino Buoncore, whose style he later dismissed as ‘Gothic’. However, Buoncore had a good architectural library, in which Gioffredo studied the writings of Palladio, Vitruvius and Vincenzo Scamozzi. During the same period he studied with the painter Francesco Solimena, believing an understanding of the human body to be an essential part of architecture.

Gioffredo qualified as an architect in 1741, after being examined by Giovanni Antonio Medrano (b 1703), one of the kingdom’s engineers. Unfortunately his technical education was somewhat neglected, and he earned for himself the sobriquet ‘l’imprudente architetto napoletano’ after Luigi Vanvitelli was called in to work on his Villa Campolieto (1762), Resina, and the Palazzo Casacalenda (c. 1766), Naples, both of which were in danger of collapse.

Gioffredo’s architectural knowledge was largely acquired from books and from the direct study of ancient buildings. In the preface to his ...


Guido Zucconi

(b Rome, Jan 1, 1873; d Rome, July 15, 1947).

Italian architect, urban planner, writer and architectural historian. After graduating in civil engineering from the University of Rome (1895), he took a diploma in public hygiene, before studying art and architectural history in Rome under Adolfo Venturi. In 1899 he was appointed assistant under Guglielmo Calderini in the Engineering School and in 1905 was appointed professor of general architecture. A strong technical as well as art-historical background took him into the conservation field and thus into major projects for urban redevelopment. In 1910 he became president of the Associazione Artistica tra i Cultori dell’ Architettura (AACA), founded in Rome in 1890 with the aim of extending the awareness of the historic and artistic heritage and to promote conservation initiatives. This aspect of his career is reflected in such early schemes as that for the Caprera quarter of Rome (1907–11), which overlapped with his work for the Peroni brewery, a factory (...


Françoise Hamon

(b c. 1630; d 1708).

French architect and writer. He was the son of a Parisian master mason, Thomas Gobert (d c. 1644), who built houses on the Ile Saint-Louis (destr.), the Rue Saint-Paul (1641) and the Rue de la Bucherie. The younger Thomas Gobert was related by marriage to the Mansart family. It is not clear, however, if he was related to the painter Pierre Gobert. From 1660 to 1664 he was in the service of Louis II, Prince de Condé, and in 1662 qualified as Architecte des Bâtiments du Roi, building some houses near the Palais-Royal: 61, Rue de Richelieu (1668); 53, Rue Sainte-Anne; and 7, Rue du Mail. In the same district he worked on the library wing of the monastery of the Petits-Pères. In 1670 he collaborated with Antoine Le Pautre on the building of the château of Saint-Cloud (destr.), near Paris. He became Contrôleur Alternatif des Bâtiments du Roi in ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Chaumont, Haute-Marne, Jan 21, 1881; d Paris, July 31, 1965).

French archaeologist and art historian, active in Iran. Godard qualified as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1910 became involved with the urban planning of Baghdad. At this time, he began to develop an interest in the archaeology and art of the Middle East. He visited Egypt and Syria and, in 1923, went to Afghanistan to research Buddhist remains. In 1928 he settled in Iran, where he lived until 1960, except for the years 1953–6. During his years in Iran he directed the College of Fine Arts, Tehran, and the Department of Antiquities, founded the Archaeological (Iran Bastan) Museum and drew up plans for the museums of Mashhad and Abadan. He also initiated the documentation and restoration of many ancient monuments and archaeological remains and gained access to sites previously forbidden to non-Muslims. He published many of the principal monuments of Iran in such learned journals as ...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, May 15, 1786; d Paris, Feb 16, 1857).

French architect, writer and engraver. He was a pupil of Jean-Antoine Alavoine and Jean-Nicolas Huyot at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and began his career as a vérificateur (1811–15) in the Direction des Travaux Publics from its creation in 1811, subsequently becoming Chef de la Révision (1815–19). He was sous-inspecteur for the restoration (1819–20) of the Porte St Martin, Paris, and then inspecteur of the Bourse (1821–6) and architect of the reserve granary (1827–31). At the same time he worked (1819–33) for the Conseil des Bâtiments Civils, serving as its secretary from 1824 to 1831. In 1835 he was involved in important work on several cathedrals on behalf of the Ministère des Cultes, including the choir at Nantes and rebuilding the nave roof at Chartres, following a fire in 1836. Gourlier was also an engraver and exhibited at the Salon many architectural designs, which were published in ...


Sjettie Bruins

(b Oudenbosch, Oct 13, 1883; d Wassenaar, Feb 13, 1972).

Dutch architect, urban planner, theorist and teacher. He received his training (1902–8) at the Technische Hogeschool, Delft. He is best known for his part in designing Vreewijk (1913–21), an urban extension of Rotterdam based on garden-city principles, and for his leading role in the Delft school (see Delft school). Although usually considered a traditionalist, there is little evidence of conservatism in either his writings or his designs. Granpré Molière was the first to investigate the possibility of urban renewal on the basis of garden-city principles on a large scale. The project at Vreewijk, which brought him international fame, was always intended as the urban expression of Ebenezer Howard’s essentially anti-urban ideology of the garden city and was intended from the first to be an extension of Rotterdam. In the first phase, based on the street plan (1913) by H. P. Berlage, Granpré Molière developed a housing typology based on the relationship between urbanism, architecture and planning. This resulted in the second phase of Vreewijk, the extension plan (...


Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, May 25, 1841; d Paris, Oct 23, 1917).

French illustrator, decorative artist and printmaker of Swiss birth. Before arriving in Paris in the autumn of 1871, Grasset had been apprenticed to an architect, attended the Polytechnic in Zurich and travelled to Egypt. In Paris he found employment as a fabric designer and graphic ornamentalist, which culminated in his first important project, the illustrations for Histoire des quatre fils Aymon (1883). Grasset worked in collaboration with Charles Gillot, the inventor of photo-relief printing and an influential collector of Oriental and decorative arts, in the production of this major work of Art Nouveau book design and of colour photomechanical illustration. Grasset used a combination of medieval and Near Eastern decorative motifs to frame and embellish his illustrations, but most importantly he integrated text and imagery in an innovative manner which has had a lasting influence on book illustration.

In 1881 he was commissioned by Rodolphe Salis to design furnishing in a medieval style for the latter’s new Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre. This project brought him in direct contact with Montmartre avant-garde artists such as Adolphe Willette, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Henri Rivière and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Grasset’s numerous posters include ...


Alessandro Brogi

[il Mascacotta]

(b Naples, 1663; d Nola, nr Naples, May 2, 1714).

Italian painter. He started his career as a painter of ornament, but after studying Andrea Pozzo’s treatise Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (Rome, 1693–1700) he began to produce easel paintings of imaginary views (vedute ideate), referred to by his biographer de Dominici as ‘crumbling architectural ruins … magnificent buildings … marvellous underground places … and wonderful bizarre prisons’. He may also have created temporary decorations for religious celebrations. The sources claim that he worked as a specialist in perspective with decorative artists such as Francesco Solimena and Paolo De Matteis. He is thought to have created the gilded surrounds of De Matteis’s frescoes (1696–8) in S Francesco Saverio (now known as S Ferdinando) in Naples. Voss rediscovered Greco when he found his signature on an architectural view that, with its pendant, came on to the Berlin art market in 1923. To these Voss added two canvases that appeared in London, attributed to ...


(b Novara, Aug 10, 1927).

Italian architect, urban planner, theorist, critic and teacher. He qualified at the architectural faculty of the Politecnico, Milan, in 1952 and a year later opened his first practice together with Lodovico Meneghetti (b 1926) and Giotto Stoppino. In the fervent architectural debates of the post-war period, he distanced himself from the prevailing theories and styles inherited from the Modern Movement and turned instead to local and regional cultures as a source of inspiration. In the block of workers’ dwellings (1956) for the Bossi Company in Cameri, the brick and cement detailing around the doors and windows and the small front-entrance courtyard created by the U-shaped plan both recall local vernacular building forms. His early projects are also characterized by the introduction of elements taken from diverse architectural sources, a practice that for many years earned him an inaccurate and limiting reputation as an exponent of eclecticism. In the Teatro Civico (...


(b Ovezande, July 21, 1917; d 1999).

Dutch architect and theorist. After graduating from polytechnical school in 1936, Groosman continued his studies and obtained a master’s degree in architecture in 1944. In 1948 he founded Groosman Partners in Rotterdam. In collaboration with Wilhelm van Tijen and Hugh Art Maaskant, Groosman was involved in the construction of council housing in the Zuidwijk district of Rotterdam; he was also part of a study group led by Jacob B. Bakema working on the development of the town of Nagele (from 1953) in the Noordoostpolder. These projects were, in fact, studies of how a housing programme designed by the Functionalist avant-garde of the 1930s could be executed using post-World War II technological achievements. Following discussions in Opbouw, De, an association of modernist architects in the Netherlands, Groosman is chiefly credited with the 1960s revival of the arguments associated with CIAM debates. Writing in professional journals, he expressed the need for far-reaching standardization and rationalization of the building process as a logical consequence of the technical revolution and increasing prosperity. During this time he designed many houses based on various building systems, including flats (...


Gilbert Herbert

(Adolf Georg)

(b Berlin, May 18, 1883; d Boston, MA, July 5, 1969).

American architect, industrial designer and teacher of German birth. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of the Modern Movement, whose contribution lay as much in his work as theoretician and teacher as it did in his innovative architecture. The important buildings and projects in Gropius’s career—the early factories, the Bauhaus complex at Dessau (1925–6), the Totaltheater project for Berlin, the housing estates and prefabricated dwellings—were all more than immediate answers to specific problems. Rather, they were a series of researches in which he sought prototypical solutions that would offer universal applicability. They were also didactic in purpose—concrete demonstrations, manifestos, of his theories and beliefs. His theories sought to integrate the individual and society, art and industry, form and function and the part with the whole. He left Germany for England in 1934; three years later he emigrated to the USA, where he continued to teach, write and design for the rest of his life....


Peter Stein

(b Modena, Jan 17, 1624; d Milan, March 6, 1683).

Italian architect, mathematician, astronomer, theorist, writer and priest. Together with Francesco Borromini, he is the most renowned exponent of the anti-classical, anti-Vitruvian trend that dominated Italian architecture after Michelangelo but increasingly lost ground from the late 17th century. His subtly designed buildings, crowned with daring and complex domes, were ignored in Italy outside Piedmont, but illustrations published in 1686 and again in Guarini’s treatise Architettura civile (1737) proved a fruitful source of inspiration in the development of south German and Austrian late Baroque and Rococo architecture.

Guarini came from a deeply religious family; he and his four brothers all joined the Theatine Order. At the age of 15 he became a novice and was sent to Rome (1639–48), where he was able to study High Baroque architecture, in particular the work of Borromini, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The details of Guarini’s architectural training are not known, but in the excellently equipped libraries of his Order he presumably studied such well-known treatises as those of Serlio and Jacopo Vignola. In ...


Kai Budde

(b Cologne; fl Strasbourg, 1590s).

German cabinetmaker, writer and engraver. He is recorded as a cabinetmaker and citizen of Strasbourg from 1596. He appears to have been a pupil of the architect Johann Schoch, who designed Schloss Gottesau, near Karlsruhe (c. 1587), and the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Schloss (c. 1601–7). Guckeisen, in collaboration with Veit Eck (fl Strasbourg, 1587), wrote a Kunstbüchlein (Strasbourg, 1596) dedicated to masons and cabinetmakers. He also wrote a similar work, Etlicher Architectischer Portalen, Epitapien, Caminen Und Schweyffen, published in the same year in Cologne. They were followed in 1599 by a series of engraved designs for six chests, also published in Cologne. In collaboration with the cabinetmaker and etcher Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Guckeisen also produced the Schränke (1598), Seilenbuch (1598), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Portalen Reisbetten Undt Epitaphien (1599) and Schweyfbuch (1599), the last dedicated to the cabinetmaker Jacob Riedel in Strasbourg. As a designer of ornament, Guckeisen was familiar with the whole repertory of Renaissance decoration, using it in varied combinations....


Francisco Calvo Serraller

(b Vic, 1904; d 1985).

Spanish art historian. After studying architecture he devoted himself to art history, concentrating at first on the Catalan artistic tradition. His most important book was L’Art de la Catalogne; he also produced books on medieval Catalan painting, as well as specialized works on such Catalan Gothic painters as Jaime Huguet, Luís Borrasá and Bernardo Martorell, and on Catalan stained-glass windows. Gudiol i Ricart also studied medieval art from other regions in Spain, particularly Castilian and Navarrese artists, and produced a work on Spanish Gothic painting. He published monographs, including detailed catalogues, on Velázquez and Goya. His main contribution to art history has been to continue the work of Josep Gudiol i Cunill, Chandler R. Post and Manuel Gómez Moreno in establishing a scientific inventory of Spanish art.

L’Art de la Catalogne (Paris, 1937; Ger. trans., 1937) La pintura gótica a Catalunya (Barcelona, 1938) Pintura e imaginería románicas, A. Hisp., 6 (Madrid, 1954)...


(b London, 1808; d Paris, April 27, 1878).

French archaeologist and architectural historian. He came from a noble family of royalist, Catholic lawyers, and studied law himself before embarking on a career in the civil service. At the same time he followed courses at the Sorbonne and Bibliothèque Royale and pursued a career as a scholar and archaeologist. He submitted reports to the Comité des Arts et Monuments, which was drawing up an inventory of French monuments. In 1855 he was asked to record inscriptions in France dating after the 5th century ad, and he spent the rest of his life on this work, which was published from 1873. Guilhermy also published numerous articles dealing mainly with the iconography of medieval historical and literary figures; in other articles he discussed the dispersed collections of the old Musée des Monuments Français (Petits-Augustins).

Guilhermy was admitted to the Commission des Monuments Historiques only in 1860, but very soon he became associated with a number of major restoration workshops. At Saint-Denis Abbey he advised Eugène Viollet-le-Duc on the restoration of the crypts, having joined Charles Lenormant, Prosper Mérimée and Louis Vitet in deploring the anachronisms and incorrect restorations of François Debret. At the Sainte-Chapelle he collaborated with ...


Ted Ruddock

(b Shrewsbury, Nov 1713; d Worcester, Feb 27, 1786).

English architect and writer. In his first pamphlet, An Essay on Design (1749), he stated themes that he often repeated: he urged the establishment of a ‘public academy’ of art and lamented the lack of encouragement given to artists in England. With the draughtsman Samuel Wale, he published in 1749 a copy of Wren’s plan of 1666 for London, in 1755 a section of St Paul’s Cathedral, London, drawn from personal survey and ‘decorated according to the original intention of Sir Christopher Wren’, and in 1758 a plan with dimensions. He was briefly prominent in 1759–60 when his design for Blackfriars Bridge, London, gained public support in three letters by Dr Samuel Johnson to a newspaper. In his important book London & Westminster Improved … (1766) Gwynn urged that the cause of ‘public magnificence’, including broad, healthy streets on a regular plan and elegant public buildings, must not be frustrated by private interests and that all building be made to conform to a ‘general plan’, of which he gave a detailed draft. Many of his suggestions for London were carried out during the next century; but he himself had opportunities much sooner to direct improvements in street widths and layouts adjacent to the new bridge in Worcester and in Oxford as surveyor to the commissioners of the Oxford Paving Act. His largest commissions as an architect were for bridges at Shrewsbury (the English Bridge, ...


Marloes Kleijn


(b Bandung, West Java, Oct 29, 1928).

Dutch architect and theorist. He came to the Netherlands in 1946 and studied architecture at the Technische Universiteit, Delft (1948–55). After two years in the Netherlands Air Force he returned to the university as an instructor (1958–60), and at the same time worked in the office of Johannes Berghoef. He practised independently (1960–62) and as a job captain for the office of Lucas & Niemeyer in Voorburg (1962–5). In 1961 he published De dragers en de mensen. In 1964 architects from ten offices in the Netherlands formed the Stichting Architecten Research (‘Architecture Research Foundation’; SAR); Habraken was their first director. In 1967 the foundation relocated in Eindhoven, as did Habraken. There he worked as chairman (1967–70) and as professor (1967–75) of the new architecture department at the Technische Universiteit. From 1975 he was professor and head of department in the architecture department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, although he retained close ties with SAR. He was the architect of a few individual buildings but most of his career was devoted to the development and promotion of the supports theory....


Roslyn F. Coleman


(b London, Feb 25, 1866; d Melbourne, May 16, 1929).

Australian architect, theorist and writer of English birth. He trained as an architect in London from 1881 and then worked in various architectural offices there. He emigrated to Australia in 1889 and worked in various states before settling in Melbourne in 1899. He designed a number of offices, residences, churches and other public buildings, often for other architects. Through this work and his teachings and writings, he influenced many Australian architects by his strong principles of originality and simplicity in design, harmony and balance in composition, and national sentiment. These principles were closely allied with those of English architects working in the Arts and Crafts Movement; however, his use of nature for inspiration and his relaxation of past rules of composition and decoration also place him within the Art Nouveau movement. Haddon’s designs were characterized by plain façades, the careful use of simple ornament and the positioning of elements to produce a distinctive and often delicately balanced composition. Examples of this work include his residence, Anselm (...


Marcus Whiffen

[Hoare, Michael]

(fl 1723–55).

English architect and writer. He was by trade a carpenter, and his surname and the fact that his first known design was for Holy Trinity Church, Leeds (1723; unbuilt) suggest that he was born in Yorkshire. In the later 1720s he was established at Richmond, Surrey, whence he moved to Bristol, probably c. 1730. The list of his known executed designs is a short one, comprising a horse barracks (1732) at Hillsborough, Co. Down, N. Ireland; the altar (1742) in Redland Chapel, Bristol; Coopers’ Hall (1743–4), Bristol; a monument to Mrs Ann Dash (d 1750) in Isleworth parish church, Middx; and a Chinese bridge (before 1754) at Croome Court, Hereford & Worcs. Of the buildings attributed to him, Upton House (1752), Tetbury, Glos, with a pedimented stone Palladian façade enriched with oeil-de-boeuf windows and rusticated pilaster strips, is the most distinguished survivor....


Roman Hollenstein

(b Solothurn, Oct 23, 1924).

Swiss architect, theorist, designer and teacher. He established an independent practice in Solothurn in 1949. His early work, including schools, service, industrial and residential buildings, was designed on the basis of a free geometrical grid. From the early 1960s he introduced his own version of a construction system of modular blocks. Notable examples are the Sparkasse (1963), Kriegstetter, and the Höhere Technische Lehranstalt, Windisch, which consist of cubic blocks of glass and steel, with careful proportioning and detailing that reflect his study of Mies van der Rohe. The three steel building systems developed by Haller, differentiated as Mini, Midi and Maxi, are employed in several houses in the form of crystalline prisms and in the SBB-Ausbildungszentrum (1979–82) in Murten, which consists of integrated units set in parkland. Haller was also active in the field of research, developing quasi-utopian urban projects and the highly regarded USM Haller system of office and domestic furniture, which reflected his unitary conception of the architect as a planner, designer and engineer. Haller’s position as an exponent of a school characterized by a cool, technical perfection, seemingly opposed to nature, made him an influential figure in post-war Swiss modernism. He was the leader of the independent ...