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David Aradeon


(b Ibadan, Sept 10, 1951).

Nigerian architect. He was one of the 17 foundation students admitted to the two-tier architecture degree programme of the new School of Environmental Design at the University of Lagos in 1971 under John S. Myers and David Aradeon. After graduating with the BES (pre-architecture, 1974) and MED (architecture) degree in 1977, he served four years of apprenticeship in the Ilorin architectural offices of Niger Consultants. In the period 1981–5, he served as the Project Manager of the Economic and Technical Services Limited on the Agbara Estate project, the residential and industrial estate on the Badagry Expressway. Since 1985, when he opened his architectural office, the Siji Dosekun Partnership has been responsible for various projects. In Grailland, the sanctuary for the Grail followers in the Iju Hills (1985), his use of red bricks on the Gate House and fence walls, in conjunction with the green foliage and tall trees on the undulating landscape, achieves a spiritually uplifting ambience at the entry gates. Dosekun was a leading member of the generation of young Nigerians educated completely within the country in the 1970s, and his houses and residential projects continually question the basic assumptions expressed in Nigerian domestic architecture of the 1950s–1970s. By completely separating the dining- from the living-room in the four-storey apartment building constructed for the ...


Lauren Taylor

Arts organization in Douala, Cameroon. In 1991 Marilyn Douala-Bell and Didier Schaub founded Doual’art, a non-governmental organization established to support artistic inquiry into urban life. By organizing and funding artworks, exhibitions, lectures, workshops, symposiums, artist residencies, and other programmes, Doual’art has initiated and supported creative engagements with issues of space, history, and identity in Douala.

During its earliest years, Doual’art coordinated the creation of artworks and performances in public spaces throughout Douala, although the organization had not yet constructed its physical headquarters. Espace Doual’art, a building that includes a public resource centre, meeting-rooms, a garden, a cafeteria, and a gallery space, was established in 1995. Beyond its gallery walls, Doual’art continued to organize artistic interventions in various public spaces throughout the city. To this end, Doual’art initiated Le Salon Urbain de Douala (SUD), a triennial festival of public art. The first SUD occurred in 2007, featuring artworks that related broadly to issues of urban space. SUD ...



M’Hamed Fantar

[anc. Thugga.]

Site of one of the best-preserved Roman towns in Africa, built on a plateau overlooking the valley of Oued Khalled in north-western Tunisia. A fine collection of archaeological material has been found there. Dougga dates back to the earliest phase of Libyan antiquity and certainly belonged to the kingdom of Numidia long before the reign of Masinissa (d 148 bc); writing on the invasion of Agathalus at the end of the 4th century bc, Diodorus Siculus mentioned the king Ailymas, whose domain included the territory of ‘Tebagga’. During the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage (218–201 bc), Dougga was under the Carthaginians, but it was won back by Masinissa and retained by his successors until the death of Juba I in 46 bc. Of the Numidian town there remain the megalithic wall (4th century bc), the dolmens and the Mausoleum of Atban, one of the finest Libyo-Punic ...


dele jegede

(b Buguma, 1958).

Nigerian sculptor, painter, and film maker, active in England. Born in Nigeria, Douglas Camp grew up in England but continued to visit Nigeria regularly. She was educated at the California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, CA, (1979–80) and the Central School of Art and Design, London (1980–83), receiving a BA (Hons) in sculpture. From 1983 to 1986 she studied at the Royal College of Art in London, graduating with the MA degree in sculpture. She made her first steel sculpture, Church Ede, a rendering of a Kalabari funeral bed, after her father’s death in 1984. She then began to portray other elements of ritual life, such as masqueraders and their audiences, as in Kalabari Masquerader with Boat Headdress (1987). During the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s she worked almost exclusively in steel, often animating the pieces, as in Festival Boat (1985...


Hélène Bocard

(b Paris, Feb 8, 1822; d Baden-Baden, Feb 9, 1894).

French photographer and writer. He was from a wealthy background, and he learnt calotype photography from Gustave Le Gray and Alexis de Lagrange. In 1849 he was sent by the Ministère de l’Instruction Publique on a mission to the Middle East to record the monuments and inscriptions. He undertook the trip (1849–51) with his friend the writer Gustave Flaubert, and during his travels he used a modified calotype process imparted to him by Alexis de Lagrange. He brought back c. 200 pictures from Egypt and some from Jerusalem and Baalbek. The album Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie: Dessins photographiques recueillis pendant les années 1849, 1850, 1851, accompagnés d’un texte explicatif et précédés d’une introduction was published by Gide and Baudry in 1852–4 (copy in Paris, Bib. Inst.; prints in Paris, Mus. d’Orsay; Paris, Bib. N.; Paris, Inst. Géog. N.). It contains 125 calotypes printed by Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and it was the first printed work in France to be illustrated with ...


Marilyn Martin

(b Dublin, 1852; d Bath, Jan 13, 1891).

Irish architect, active in South Africa. He was articled to the firm of Lanyon, Lynn and Lanyon of Dublin and Belfast at the age of 15, serving an apprenticeship for 5 years. The firm was dissolved in 1872 and Dudgeon joined William Henry Lynn as manager and chief assistant. He left towards the end of 1875, travelled for 12 months and arrived in Durban in January 1877. Only 6 of the 44 buildings designed or altered by him are extant. They encompass a variety of building types and styles. The major source of inspiration for the Standard Bank (1878–83) in Pietermaritzburg was Charles Lanyon’s Head Office of the Northern Bank (1851–2) in Belfast. The potential of the salmon-pink Pietermaritzburg brick is fully exploited in a stripped classical building with a central portico in antis.

Dudgeon won the competition for Durban Town Hall (1882–5). The building comprises a hexastyle Corinthian portico with flanking wings and a tower rising behind it. Although it was based on British prototypes, Dudgeon made concessions to the climate in the large size and convenience of areas, in the attention paid to ventilation and in the loggia protecting the north façade from the sun. For Maritzburg College (...


Cecile Johnson

(b Cape Town, 1953).

South African painter, draughtswoman and collagist, active in the Netherlands. She studied the fine arts at the University of Cape Town, South Africa (1972–5), and continued studying art at the Ateliers ’63, Haarlem, the Netherlands (1976–8). In 1979–80 she followed a general course in psychology at the Psychological Institute of the University of Amsterdam. Dumas became known for her portraits and figurative works (see fig.). Her exhibition The Private Versus the Public (Amsterdam, Gal. Paul Andriesse) presented a number of group and individual portraits based on Polaroid photographs taken either by herself or from magazines (e.g. the Turkish Schoolgirls, 1.60×2.00 m, 1987; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.). Her emotional involvement with the subjects coupled with her distortion of the original photographs created unnaturalistic renderings that had characteristically a haunting edge. Other significant works include the Particularity of Nakedness (1.40×3.00 m, 1987; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.). In the 1990s she produced such installation works as ...



Steven Sack

(Feni) [Zwelidumile Geelboi Mgxaji Mslaba Feni]

(b Worcester, Cape Province, May 21, 1939; d New York, Oct 16, 1991).

South African sculptor and printmaker, active in South Africa, London and New York. After his mother’s death when he was c. eight years old, he lived with relatives in Cape Town until the age of eleven. In the early 1950s he moved to Soweto under the care of his uncle. In 1963 and 1964, while undergoing treatment for tuberculosis, he was given some art materials and began his drawing career in earnest. Like many black South African artists from the late 1950s, Dumile had to negotiate the laws of apartheid that made his presence as a self-employed artist in the white city an offence. Dumile described himself as having never received any ‘real’ tuition and talked of artists learning from one another. Dumile was ‘discovered’ by Madame Haenggi, an art dealer who promoted his early work.

Before his departure from South Africa in 1968, Dumile had a number of successful exhibitions of drawings and sculptures comprising portrayals of tormented and anguished people, animals and township scenes. These early works were acquired by some of the major museums in South Africa. On arrival in London (...



W. H. Peters

South African city in Natal, on the Indian Ocean coast. The chief seaport in South Africa, with a population of c. 800,000, it is noted for its variety of architectural styles and a subtropical exoticism that has inspired painters. It was founded in 1824 as Port Natal and renamed in 1835 after Sir Benjamin D’Urban, the Governor of Cape Colony. The warm climate, rich vegetation and sloping sites necessitated specific architectural features, including the verandahs typical for houses. Building materials were originally corrugated iron and timber stud walls; later, brick and tiles led to an architecture of large roofs and suspended floors. Durban’s civic centre consists of the first Town Hall (1882–5; now Post Office) by Philip Maurice Dudgeon, built in a Neo-classical style, the neo-Baroque City Hall (1909) by Woolacott, Scott & Hudson and the ‘free Renaissance’ railway station (1895–1904) by William Street-Wilson, who also designed the Gothic Revival Emmanuel Cathedral (...


Clinton Harrop-Allin

(b Pretoria, Oct 1902; d Pretoria, July 1966).

South African architect. He studied at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, under G. E. Pearse (Dip. Arch., 1928). His training and early experience was formative in leading him to base his work on historical themes and precedents. He was nevertheless versed in the tenets of the emergent International style and the confluence of these influences gave rise to a fusion of the contemporary and the traditional in his work. From the outset, in the mid-1930s, a feature of his architecture was its evocation of locality, deriving from his profound empathy for the landscape, climate, materials and crafts of Africa. He was able to synthesize and bring this to bear within the context of his own time and society, and to capture a regional ethos and a sense of belonging in nonetheless thoroughly modern designs. At a time when concrete, stucco and plate-glass were de rigueur, Eaton’s creativity focused largely upon traditional materials. His sensitive use of stone, wood, terracotta and above all brick showed that contemporary architecture could achieve richness and warmth without compromising its design principles....



Gordon Campbell



Eleni Vassilika

[anc. Egyp. Behdet or Djeba; Gr. Apollinopolis; now Idfū.]

Site in Upper Egypt. It is dominated by the Temple of Horus, the most completely preserved of all Egyptian temples, dating mainly to the Ptolemaic period (304–30 bc; see also Egypt, ancient, fig.). To the east of the temple are the ruins of a city (now covered by modern Idfū) dating back at least to the Old Kingdom (c. 2575–c. 2150 bc). The Temple of Horus was built and decorated by the Ptolemies, although the cult of the god Horus at Edfu is attested since the Middle Kingdom (c. 2008–c. 1630 bc). The remains at Edfu include part of a pylon of Ramesses III (reg c. 1187–c. 1156 bc). Blocks from the forecourt, excavated in the 1980s, date back to the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc), but they may have been dragged there from another site....



Jean M. Borgatti and Philip M. Peek

Groups of Edo-speaking peoples living in Nigeria’s Bendel state outside Benin City. While their languages are related, they are not all mutually intelligible. The Edo, however, all trace their origins to the Kingdom of Benin. Their ancestors migrated from Benin in a series of waves between the 9th and 18th centuries. These migrants intermixed with indigenous peoples and other settlers from neighbouring areas to form the groups whose art is discussed here. The arts of these peoples reflect a complex history of migration and cultural borrowing (see fig.).

The northern Edo comprise the independent village clusters generally known as the north-west Edo in Akoko-Edo as well as most of the communities in the Owan, Etsako and Ishan areas. The areas of Akoko-Edo, Etsako and Owan were disrupted in the late 19th century by the Islamicized Nupe who scattered some settlements, conquered others and brought about considerable social and cultural change. Since the turn of the century, the primary artistic forms in these areas have been masks and headdresses worn in masquerades performed at a variety of local festivals, although there are a number of other northern Edo arts....


Chika Okeke

(b Onitsha, Dec 25, 1931; d Aug 14, 1996).

Nigerian painter, printmaker and designer. He left Nigeria at the age of 14 and later studied at the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, London (1949–52). He received first prize for oil painting in the BBC Morning Show Art Competition, London (1970), a bronze medal for graphics (Brussels, 1971), the Cup of the City of Caserta, Italia 2000 (1972) and a medal in the 10th International Print Biennale, Krakow (1984). His early work was illustrative, but by the early 1960s his paintings became more schematic, as he adopted some of the design elements associated with uli (see Nigeria, Federal Republic of §V) as well as Igbo-Ugwu sculpture. These include bold, organic lines and broad, flat areas of colour, as well as decorative repeating patterns that give a unique graphic quality to his mature work.

Egonu began making prints in the early 1970s and created some of his best work in this medium. His subject-matter ranged from Igbo folktales and traditional themes, as in ...


Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

Civilization that flourished in the Nile Valley for three and a half thousand years, from c. 3000 bc to ad 395.

Helen M. Strudwick

The boundaries of ancient Egypt were formed by substantial natural barriers: to the south the 1st Nile cataract, to the north the Mediterranean and to the east and west the deserts ( see fig. ). There are only three basic components of the physical geography of Egypt: the Nile, flowing from south to north between fertile banks, and the two areas of desert on either side. In the north the Nile branches into many streams through the Delta and finally flows out into the Mediterranean.

The fertile plain through which the Nile runs is solely the result of the annual flooding of the Nile and the deposition of silt carried in suspension by the flood waters. The silt deposition is most noticeable in the areas closest to the river, and consequently the land there is slightly higher. The annual inundation of the Nile was a natural phenomenon caused by the large amounts of rain that normally fall in the summer months in the highlands to the south of Egypt and the ...


[Arab. Jumhūriyya Miṣr al-‛Arabiyya.]

Country in North Africa extending into Asia at the south-eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, with its capital at Cairo. It is bounded in the west by Libya, in the south by Sudan and in the east by the Gaza Strip, Israel, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Although its total area is over one million sq. km, this is largely desert; the cultivated and settled part, the Nile Valley and Delta and the oases, is only a quarter of the country’s area. (For a description of its geography see Egypt, ancient, §I, 1.) It is the most populous state in the Arab world, with more than 80 million people (2007 estimate). Traditionally the majority have been fellahin, peasant farmers; despite massive rural migration to the towns, about half the working population is still engaged on the land. The majority are Sunni Muslim and perhaps 10–15% are Copts, the largest Christian minority. Many Jews emigrated in the 1940s and 1950s. At the beginning of the 20th century there were over 100,000 Europeans, but many left in the 1960s....


John Wilton-Ely

Neo-classical style of architectural and interior design; as Egyptomania or Egyptiennerie it reached its peak during the late 18th century and early 19th. Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt (1798) coincided with emerging tastes both for monumental and for richly ornamental forms, enhanced by the literary and associational concerns of Romanticism. Unlike its Greek and Gothic counterparts, the Egyptian Revival never constituted a coherent movement with ethical or social implications. Indeed, since its earliest manifestations occurred in the later Roman Empire, the Revival itself can be seen as one in a series of sporadic waves of European taste in art and design (often linked to archaeological inquiry), acting as an exotic foil to the Classical tradition with which this taste was and remains closely involved (see fig.). On a broader plane of inquiry, the study of Egyptian art and architecture has continued to promote a keen awareness of abstraction in design and a decorative vocabulary of great sophistication. These are among the most enduring contributions of ancient Egypt to Western art and design. ...



Keith Nicklin

Bantu-speaking people, numbering c. 100,000, occupying the sparsely populated forest lands of the Nigeria–Cameroon border area to the north-east of Calabar, in the cultural area known as the Cross River region. The Ejagham are often referred to in the literature as ‘Ekoi’, a derogatory name used by the Efik, that has now largely been abandoned by scholars. The old designation ‘Ekoi’ is often extended to those of their neighbours—including the Yakö and Mbembe to the west, Bokyi to the north, Widekum to the north-east and Bangwa to the east—who have adopted aspects of Ejagham ritual and material culture. The Ejagham are thus not a single ‘tribe’ or ethno-linguistic group but, rather, a loose confederation or congeries of peoples sharing major cultural features but with distinct socio-political systems. Many museum collections of African art include examples of Ejagham art (for illustrations see works listed in the bibliography).

The Ejagham are most famous as the makers and users of the unique genre of skin-covered wooden masks, which they are thought to have originated. Animal hide, usually antelope skin, is dehaired and softened with vegetable preparations and then applied to the surface of the wood while still wet and pliant. The skin is secured to the mask with wooden pegs, special care being taken to ensure a close fit between skin and wood, especially around the facial features. Insets of cane, metal or bone, for the teeth, and round-headed wooden pegs, for the coiffure, are often added after the skin-covering process. Vegetable dyes are used as decoration as well as to represent ethnic scarification marks, and, finally, the mask’s eyes and teeth are whitened with a suspension of roasted and ground forest snail shells or white clay....


David Aradeon

(Ifeanyi Chukwu)

(b Oko Aguata, Oct 21, 1932).

Nigerian architect. He studied architecture at the University of Washington, Seattle, between 1952 and 1957. After graduating, and before returning to Nigeria in 1958, he served apprenticeships with Leo A. Daily & Associates, Seattle, and Nickson & Borys, London. He served briefly at Esso (West Africa) Inc., Lagos, as Co-ordinator of Construction Maintenance, before opening his own offices, Ekweme Associates, in 1958. From 1960 to 1978 Ekweme was active in architectural practice. A founder-member of the Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA) and a fellow from 1970, he served as Assistant Secretary (1958–62), Vice-President (1963–4) and President (1965–6). In 1969 he was registered by the Architects’ Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON), a body he also served as president from 1976 to 1979. He enrolled for a postgraduate programme in housing at the University of Strathclyde, Scotland, in 1976 and was awarded a PhD of that university in ...



(b Cathcart, Aug 27, 1928).

South African architect. He studied at the University of Cape Town (1948–53) and spent a year in London working for Frederick Gibberd and Partners (1953–4). He then formed a partnership with Philippe Charbonnier at Elisabethville, Congo (now Lubumbashi, Zaire), which became Charbonnier and Elliott (1955–8). He was responsible, with Charbonnier, for several buildings in Elisabethville, including the Bocskay Flats (1956) and a group of variegated, interconnected one-family houses of concrete and brick (1956–7), which adapted a traditional African vernacular to modern forms. An innovative private house (early 1960s) built at Itawa, near Ndola, Zambia, displayed Elliott’s sensitivity to climate and terrain with its curving, independent rain-roof poised like a bird’s wing over the structure to provide deep shade. He established a private practice in Ndola (1959–68), where his designs included the Kasama Cathedral. He was best known for his buildings (...