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Magne Malmanger

(b Mandal, Aug 14, 1814; d Christiania [now Oslo], Aug 25, 1876).

Norwegian painter. During a provincial upbringing he made copies after prints of some of David Wilkie’s compositions. He trained in Copenhagen from 1832 to c. 1835 at the painting school of Johann Ludwig Gebhard Lund (1777–1867), and from 1832 to 1837 he studied with C. W. Eckersberg at the Kunstakademi, trying his hand at a variety of subjects. In 1837 he transferred to Düsseldorf, where he studied with several teachers and was influenced mainly by Theodor Hildebrandt (1804–74). Having by now decided to become a painter of Nordic historical subjects, he finished his first large-scale work, Gustav Vasa Addressing the People in the Church of Mora (1841), based on a theme from Swedish history. Tidemand then spent a year travelling and sketching, particularly in Italy, before returning to Christiania to settle for good in Norway.

In 1843 a sketching excursion through several districts in central and western Norway introduced him to a strongly traditional peasant culture. Although he was to execute an occasional religious or historical work even in later years, his main topic became the life of the Norwegian peasant. His first major attempt at the new manner was ...

Article

Jutta von Simson

(b Berlin, Aug 14, 1776; d Berlin, May 12, 1851).

German sculptor. He was initially apprenticed to Christian Friedrich Heinrich Siegismund Bettkober (1746–1809), while simultaneously attending drawing-classes at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin under Johann Gottfried Schadow, to whose studio he moved in 1794. His brother Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), the Romantic poet, introduced him to the literary circle of the Romantics. From 1798 he spent three years in Paris, where he entered Louis David’s studio. In 1801, on his return journey, he met Goethe in Weimar and sculpted his portrait bust (Weimar, Goethe-Nmus. Frauenplan). Through Goethe’s mediation, he received the commission for decorative relief panels (e.g. the Prince as Protector of the Arts and Sciences, 1801–5; all in situ) for the Schloss in Weimar. In 1805 he won a scholarship to Rome, where he met Christian Daniel Rauch and they began a friendship that would be decisive for the future direction of Tieck’s life. In Carrara between ...

Article

Lauritz Opstad and Gordon Campbell

(b 1806; d 1890).

Norwegian silversmith. He established a mechanized workshop in Christiania in 1838 and began to manufacture decorative elements in various styles in silver die-stamped from sheets. He also combined silver and glass in domestic wares (e.g. pair of salt-cellars, 1847, Oslo, Kstindustmus.) and produced enamelled silver of considerable distinction. The objects made in Tostrup's workshop were usually in the historicist styles popular during the late 19th century. The firm's leading designer was Torolf Prytz (...

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...

Article

M. A. Claringbull

[anc. Kāsī: ‘City of Light’; Kashi; Vārāṇasī; Banāras; Benares]

Sacred city and pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ganga River between the Barna, or Varuna, and Asi rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the most holy of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism (the others being Ayodhya, Mathura, Hardwar, Kanchipuram, Ujjain and Dwarka) and has been the focus of Brahmanical learning and religious pilgrimage from ancient times.

The existence of the city from earliest times is attested by myriad references in the sacred texts. The kingdom of Kashi is mentioned in the Vedas, and the kings of Kashi are referred to in the Mahābhārata, although not until the Puranas is Varanasi mentioned as the capital city of Kashi. Around the time of the Buddha (600 bc) 16 great city states flourished in north India, the three most prominent being Maghada, Koshala and Varanasi. Owing to its strategic position at the confluence of the Ganga and Varuna rivers, Varanasi was a significant trading and commercial centre. In many tales of the previous lives of Buddha (Skt ...

Article

Vedat  

S. J. Vernoit

[Vedat Bey; Vedat Tek]

(b Istanbul, 1873; d Istanbul, 1942).

Turkish architect and teacher. After completing his secondary education at the Ecole Nonge in Paris, he studied painting at the Académie Julian and civil engineering at the Ecole Centrale, and then trained as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, completing his studies in 1897. On returning to Istanbul in 1899, he was employed by the Municipality, becoming chairman of the Supervising Committee for Public Works and later the chief architect. In 1900 he also became the first Turk to teach architectural history at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul. Like his contemporary, Kemalettin, he played an important role in the development of a revivalist Turkish idiom in architecture, known as the First National Architectural Style, and his works and his writings reveal the theoretical approach behind the movement.

Vedat’s first major work, the Central Post Office (1909) in Sirkeci, Istanbul, employed such features of traditional Ottoman architecture as depressed or pointed arches and glazed tiles (...

Article

Milo Cleveland Beach

(b Metz, 1854; d 1942)

French jeweller and collector. Vever directed the family jewellery business, begun in Metz by his grandfather Pierre-Paul Vever (d 1853). After the capture of Metz in the Franco-Prussian War (1871), the family moved to Luxembourg and then Paris, where the Maison Vever became well established on the Rue de la Paix, winning the Grand Prix of the universal expositions in 1889 and 1900 and becoming a leader in the Art Nouveau movement. Vever gave an important group of Art Nouveau works to the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. His early interest in contemporary French painting led him to assemble a large and important group of works by Corot, Sisley, Renoir and Monet, of which he sold the majority (Paris, Gal. Georges Petit, 1897) to concentrate on Japanese and Islamic art. Vever had begun to collect Japanese prints in the 1880s and in 1892 joined the distinguished private group ...

Article

José Alberto Gomes Machado

(b Lisbon, 1724; d Évora, 1814).

Portuguese archbishop, politician, collector and scholar. Of humble origin, he became a Franciscan friar and rose to be Provincial of the Order in 1768. He was a prestigious figure in Portuguese intellectual and cultural circles and was particularly associated with the education reforms of Sebastian Carvalho e Mello, 1st Marquês de Pombal, on whose recommendation he was made tutor to the Infante Dom José and was successively appointed President of the Real Mesa Censória (the state board of censorship) in 1770 and of the Junta da Providência Literária (committee for the reform of higher education) in 1772; in the latter capacity he collaborated in the reform of the University of Coimbra.

Cenáculo was the first Bishop of Beja (1770–1802), where he founded the Museu Pacense (1791), one of the first in the country, based on his own collection of antiquities, medals and coins. He was Archbishop of Évora from ...

Article

Lori van Biervliet

(b London, March 8, 1832; d London, April 26, 1917).

English art historian. He was educated at King’s College, London, from 1842 to 1848. From an early age he was interested in medieval Christianity, and in February 1849 he converted to Roman Catholicism. He had a lifelong interest in Christian symbolism and iconography and, above all, liturgy. Another early interest was in Belgian churches (he had visited every parish church by the age of 19) and memorial tablets. In 1855 he moved to Bruges, where his antiquarian interests led him to undertake work in the restoration and preservation of ancient monuments. In 1863 he launched Le Beffroi, a periodical concerned with the conservation of monuments and historic buildings, the study of medieval art and the promotion of the Neo-Gothic style. In this, and in La Flandre (a magazine published on Weale’s initiative in 1867), he published much of the information he discovered while researching the city’s archives. He also established the ...

Article

Leif Østby

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 7, 1859; d Lillehammer, Feb 10, 1927).

Norwegian painter . He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway c. 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–81) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a pupil of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a pupil of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–9 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882; Oslo, N.G.), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local colour, as in the ...

Article

Leif Østby

( Theodor )

(b Vinger, Feb 11, 1855; d Oslo, Nov 23, 1938).

Norwegian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied in Christiania (later Kristiania, now Oslo) in 1873–5 under Julius Middelthun, who discovered his unusual gift for drawing, and then at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1876–9). Among his early paintings, Female Half-nude (1877; Bergen, Billedgal.) is typical in revealing an interest in individual personality and psychology even in a traditional academic subject. In 1878, while on a visit to Kristiania, Werenskiold met the collector and editor Peter Christien Asbjørnsen (1812–85) and was engaged as an illustrator for his new edition of Norwegian fairy tales (Kristiania, 1879). Together with Theodor Kittelsen, he continued to contribute illustrations to Absjørnsen’s publications. In his drawings for tales such as De Kongsdøtre i berget det blå (‘The three princesses in the mountain-in-the-blue’; Kristiania, 1887), he achieved a striking combination of realistic observation, fantasy and humour, his imaginary creatures being especially successful. During the 1880s Werenskiold was also active as a painter. He left Munich early in ...

Article

Gregor M. Lechner

(b Eiglau, Silesia, Aug 21, 1857; d Rome, Feb 13, 1944).

German archaeologist and priest. He studied philosophy and theology at the Jesuit academy in Innsbruck, where he was ordained in 1883. Through the mediation of Cardinal Friedrich Egon von Fürstenberg (1853–92) of Olmütz he made a study trip to Rome in 1884 and became curate at the seminary at the Campo Santo. There he began the independent research into Early Christian art that was to be his life’s work. In 1892 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the theological faculty of Münster University, Westphalia; he was appointed Protonotary Apostolic in 1903 and Dean of Münster University in 1924. From 1926 he taught at the Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana and published frequently in the Römische Quartalschrift edited by A. de Waal. His many other writings include several standard works on Early Christian wall paintings and mosaics in Rome and on Early Christian sarcophagi. Of a more autobiographical nature was his ...

Article

(b Neustrelitz, Nov 14, 1814; d Berlin, June 20, 1892).

German sculptor . The son of the Neustrelitz sculptor and master builder Christian Philipp Wolff (b 1772), he went to Berlin in 1831 to study at the Akademie and subsequently gained acceptance in the studio of the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch, a friend of his father’s. He worked in Rauch’s studio for 15 years, helping with the execution of the bronze figure group of Polish Princes (1828–41; Poznań, Cathedral), the statues of Victories for Leo von Klenze’s Valhalla in Munich (e.g. Victory Throwing a Garland, marble, 1841; Berlin, Staatl. Museen, N.G.), and the marble sarcophagus for Queen Frederica of Hannover (1841–7; in situ) in the Herrenhausen, Hannover. Among Wolff’s first independent works was a bronze figure of a girl with a lamb, known as Innocence (1836; Berlin, Berlin Mus.). On commission from Count Edward Raczyński, Wolff produced the over life-size seated figure of Countess Constantia Potocka Raczyński as ...

Article

M. Puls

( Julius )

(b Brandenburg an der Havel, June 5, 1804; d Berlin, Jan 21, 1891).

German sculptor . He studied under the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch from November 1823 and at the Akademie in Berlin under Johann Gottfried Schadow. Among his early sculptures are Anatomy (ex-Berlin, Akad. Kst.; destr.) and the Wounded Philoctetes. In 1827 he moved to Rome where he was in close contact with the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen and achieved recognition with his statue of Ganymede as a Shepherd Boy (marble, 1828–30; Potsdam, Schloss Charlottenhof). This nude figure combines classical austerity with the more sentimental and naturalistic approach derived from the Berlin tradition of sculpture; with its soft flesh tints and supple structure, it effectively humanized the accepted sculptural style. Wredow’s approach was similar in Paris Arming Himself for Battle (marble, c. 1833–4) and in Praying Boy (1831–2; both Potsdam, Orangerie) and other classical figures. During the preparation of these works he spent most of his time in Italy (Carrara and Rome) and stayed there until he settled permanently in Berlin in ...

Article

Zaydi  

Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...