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Melanie Hillebrand

(b London, June 5, 1856; d Durban, June 23, 1928).

South African architect of English birth. He studied at the University of London and was articled to W. W. Gwyther in London, then to J. McVicar Anderson and to Robert Hesketh. In 1881 he established his own practice in London. He moved to the colony of Natal c. 1886 and set up practice in Durban and Pietermaritzburg in partnership first with Percy Barr (d 1894), then with Arthur Fyfe until c. 1899, and finally with J. Wallace Paton (1874–1948) from c. 1899 until his death. Street-Wilson was a prolific architect and designed many houses, shops and office buildings, but his reputation was based on public commissions. The Pietermaritzburg Town Hall (1893; destr. 1898) was his first major work: a modest, two-storey ‘Free Renaissance design’ using the characteristic salmon-pink brick of the area. Invited to design a new structure after its destruction by fire, he created a florid three-storey version using imported plaster mouldings and cast iron. Other successful designs in this style include Scott’s Theatre (...


Rosamond Allwood

(b Dundee, 1838; d London, Jan 28, 1881).

Scottish designer. He served an apprenticeship as a wood-carver in Dundee and ran his own carving business for two years before joining the office of Charles Edward, a local architect. Around 1856 he moved to Glasgow, working first in the practice of the architect W. N. Tait and then with Campbell Douglas (1828–1910). In 1862 he moved to Manchester, where he worked for the cabinetmakers Doveston, Bird & Hull, and by the end of the following year he was in Coventry, working for the wood- and metalworkers Skidmore’s Art Manufactures. In the mid-1860s Talbert moved to London, where he designed award-winning furniture for Holland & Sons’ stand at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867. By 1868 he was designing furniture for Gillows of Lancaster, notably the ‘Pet’ sideboard (1873; London, V&A). He returned to Dundee to set up a design practice, and in 1868 (though dated 1867...


Helen Searing

(b Amsterdam, 1840; d Düsseldorf, 1920).

Dutch architect. He studied at the Bauakademie in Berlin (1861–4), then followed courses in mathematics at the University of Münster. Tepe rejected the classical training of the academy in favour of a close investigation of medieval architecture. From 1865 to 1867 he was apprenticed to Vincenz Statz at the Dombauhütte of Cologne Cathedral. In 1872 Tepe settled for the next 12 years in Utrecht, then moved to nearby Rijsenburg until c. 1900. Thereafter he spent the remainder of his life in Germany. During a period of expansion in the Church, Tepe, a Roman Catholic, designed c. 70 churches between 1872 and 1905, all in Gothic Revival style, employing local brick to create buildings that fitted sensitively into the existing urban or rural context. At the outset of his career he established several types based on medieval examples in Rhineland and Westphalia with either the basilica or hall-church format. He designed the churches of St Maarten, Düsseldorf, and St Jozef, Elberfeld. In Utrecht he joined the St Barnulphus Guild, founded in ...


Miles Lewis

(b Scarborough, Yorks [now N. Yorks], 1825; d Melbourne, June 23, 1884).

Australian architect of English birth. He emigrated to Melbourne in 1853 and worked with the architect Charles Laing (d 1857). By 1856 he had his own practice, but on Laing’s death he took over his role and clientele, notably some of the major banks and the Church of England, of which he became Diocesan Architect (1860). His first commercial buildings were Sands & Kenny’s printing house (1856; remodelled by Terry, 1868), the Victoria Sugar Company Works at Sandridge, Port Melbourne (1857–9), and various handsome bluestone warehouses (c. 1857–8). For the warehouses especially he favoured a Renaissance Palazzo style, but by setting off the dark local stone against light cement dressings he created a distinctive effect. In his Melbourne Club (1858) he used the Palazzo style austerely but on a grand scale, with equally pretentious interior spaces; the later addition of a bay-windowed extension distorts the simple façade, and the scagliola columns and other interior decoration are painted over....


Matthew Saunders

(b Greenwich, March 2, 1812; d London, May 2, 1873).

English architect. The quintessential rogue of High Victorian design, he is celebrated chiefly for his Gothic country houses and churches in an eclectic style inspired as much by Continental as by domestic models, and even occasionally Muslim. His family was of French Huguenot descent; his father, Samuel sr, was a cabinet-maker and surveyor. His brother, W. Milford Teulon (1823/4–1900), was also an architect. Teulon was trained in the Drawing School of the Royal Academy, after which he worked for, successively, George Legg and George Porter (c. 1796–1856), two London builders. In 1841–2 he accompanied the architects Ewan Christian (1814–95), Horace Jones, T. Hayter Lewis (c. 1818–98) and Arthur John Green (1820/21–55), nephew of William Tite, on an extended tour of France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and Germany. From 1846 until his death he lived at 3 The Green, Hampstead, London. He was a convinced Christian of evangelical persuasion....


J. N. Mané-Wheoki

(b Hastings, E. Sussex, Sept 5, 1814; d Bakewell, Derbys, Oct 19, 1890).

New Zealand architect and Clergyman of English birth. He was elected to membership of the Institute of British Architects in 1836 and practised in London before emigrating to New Zealand in 1843. Under the direction of George Augustus Selwyn (1809–78), the colony’s first bishop, he designed St Mary’s church, New Plymouth, in severe Early English Gothic, and Te Henui parsonage, also in New Plymouth—both stone structures dating from 1845.

Meanwhile, in 1845 Thatcher had been appointed Superintendent of Public Works for New Zealand, as well as being supervising architect at Selwyn’s College of St John the Evangelist, Auckland. Assisted by Reader Wood (1821–95) he developed and refined the ‘Selwyn Gothic’ style in structurally expressive timber buildings reminiscent of medieval half-timbering. Their exposed framework consists of chamfered horizontal and vertical members and arched bracing, with cladding of upright planking on the interior. Roofs are steeply pitched with deep eaves. In the College Chapel (...


John W. F. Cattell

(b Glasgow, Aug 23, 1824; d Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 23, 1907).

Scottish architect, active in New Zealand. He was employed as Clerk of Works to David Bryce in Edinburgh before travelling to Victoria, Australia, in 1851 where he practised as an architect in the gold-digging townships. He moved to San Francisco in 1861 and over a ten-year period designed many buildings there, none of which is known to have survived. Overwork following the earthquake of 1868 led to a breakdown in his health and his emigration to New Zealand in the early 1870s. He settled in Wellington, establishing an extensive practice there. At the time of his arrival the use of brick for building construction was eschewed by that city’s inhabitants who favoured earthquake-resistant wooden structures. Turnbull introduced methods of strengthening brick buildings learnt in San Francisco and was instrumental in transforming Wellington into a brick city of ornate public and commercial buildings in a variety of classical styles.

Turnbull was a pragmatic colonial architect whose work shows a greater concern for practical considerations than for stylistic fidelity. His architecture is representative of the Scottish classical tradition in contrast to the Gothic bias evident in the work of most of his English-trained contemporaries. However, two of his finest surviving Wellington buildings are in the Gothic Revival style. These are the wooden St John’s Presbyterian Church (...


Michael J. Lewis

(b Wandbek, Sept 9, 1820; d Kassel, June 11, 1864).

German architect and writer. He was among the foremost architects of the German Gothic Revival and played a major role in applying the ideas of the Rhenish Gothic Revival to Protestant church architecture. Ungewitter was one of the first doctrinaire Gothic Revivalists to teach in a German architectural school, and his students figured prominently in the movement in the late 19th century. His buildings, books and published projects helped to establish high standards of workmanship and archaeological exactitude in church design.

Ungewitter studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1838–42) and afterwards worked in the office of Friedrich Bürklein. He moved to Hamburg after the great fire of 1842, working first for the architect J. H. Klees-Wülbern and later forming a partnership with Gustav Martens. He gradually progressed beyond the Rundbogenstil training of his Munich years (which favoured an eclectic mix of Romanesque and Renaissance elements) to work in an indigenous north German brick idiom. He developed a personal style, more dependent on forms of brick construction (corbelling, diapering, jambs and friezes of moulded brick, pilaster strips and recessed blind arches) than on Gothic ecclesiastical architecture and inspired by the local work of Alexis de Chateauneuf and Theodor Bülau. Influenced by August Reichensperger, Ungewitter renounced the ...


Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, July 26, 1826; d Ghent, Feb 24, 1907).

Belgian architect, writer and restorer. He was the son of a carpenter-builder, and his studies at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt, J. Van Hoecke (1803–1862) and Adolphe Pauli were crowned by a first prize in 1855–6. His first works included several designs for houses and a published project for a museum (‘Ontwerp van een Museum van beeldende kunsten’, in Album uitgegeven door hat kunstlievend geselschap der Gentsche Academie (Ghent, 1856)) in the classical taste, as well as work in the Rundbogenstil advocated by his teachers. When Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune settled in Ghent in 1858, Van Assche became his pupil and collaborator, teaching at the St Luke Schools and becoming a member of the archaeological society, the Gilde de St Thomas et de St Luc. Under Bethune’s influence, from c. 1865 he increasingly developed his own practice as a protagonist of the Gothic Revival movement. His personal interpretation of Bethune’s architectural principles, distinguished by a preference for a strong visual impact sometimes resulting in a striking constructional polychromy, are evident in St Joseph’s (...


[Joseph François]

(b Bruges, Oct 12, 1760; d Bruges, May 7, 1844).

Belgian architect. The son of a master carpenter called Joseph Van Gierdegom (c. 1729–c. 1795), he is often confused with his father and with his half-brother Jean-Népomucène Van Gierdegom (1785–1865). The latter was town architect in Bruges and, like Josephus, a teacher at the Vrije Academie voor Schone Kunsten; however in 1825 he became a municipal architect in Mons. Josephus was trained in architecture at the Bruges Academie and won a prize there in 1778; in 1779 he obtained a second prize in Brussels. Apart from his practice as an architect and master carpenter, he was primarily a teacher at the Vrije Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Bruges, where he was a professor from 1802 to 1838 and headmaster from 1832 to 1835. His best-known work, which establishes him as one of the more interesting Belgian Neo-classical architects, is the Château de Peellaert (1813–17...


Alfred Willis

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1836; d Uccle, Brussels, March 17, 1901).

Belgian architect. He was the son of the painter Antoine Van Ysendyck (1801–75), and he was educated at the Académie du Dessin, Mons, the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and finally at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he studied with Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Louis-Hippolyte Lebas and Jean-Baptiste-Cicéron Lesueur. Returning to Belgium, from 1861 he worked for a number of years in the office of Jean-Pierre Cluysenaar in Brussels before establishing his own architectural practice there. During the 1870s Van Ysendyck supervised the restoration of some important monuments in Brussels dating from the Gothic period to the Baroque. His first important new architectural commission was the town hall (1875–9) of Anderlecht, a suburb of Brussels. The interiors of this building were carried out by Charle-Albert, a noted decorative designer with whom Van Ysendyck collaborated on several projects. He went on to produce numerous other public buildings, town houses and country seats, typically in Flemish Renaissance Revival or Gothic Revival styles, in Brussels and the Flemish provinces. Examples include the town hall in Schaerbeek (...


(b Brussels, Aug 31, 1847; d Brussels, Sept 11, 1917).

Belgian architect, designer, engineer, writer and politician. After graduating as an engineer at the University of Ghent in 1870, he established himself in Charleroi before settling in Ghent on his marriage in 1872. Under the influence of Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune, he worked in the Belgian Gothic Revival style on architecture, furniture and wall paintings and in stained glass, gold, iron and embroidery. From 1875 to 1895 he directed the workshop for stained glass founded by Bethune. Verhaegen’s most important building is the new Beguinage (1873) of Sint Amandsberg near Ghent, which conforms to the severe Gothic Revival ideals of Bethune and anticipates some of the features of garden-city designs. His churches and conventual buildings at Ghent (Poortakker, 1874; St Macharius, 1880–82), Hekelgem (abbey, 1880; church destr.), Paris (Oeuvre des Flamands Church, c. 1875) and Rome (Everlasting Adoration, 1885–6) and châteaux at Watermaal-Bosvoorde (1880–81) and Merelbeke (...


Françoise Bercé

(b Paris, Jan 27, 1814; d Lausanne, Sept 17, 1879).

French architect, restorer, designer and writer. He is one of the few architects whose name is known to the general public in France, although his fame as a restorer of medieval buildings is often accompanied by a somewhat unflattering critical judgement: a restoration ‘à la Viollet-le-Duc’ is usually understood to be abusive in terms of the original work and is often confused with the type of eclectic architecture that he himself particularly disliked. Through his published writings, particularly his Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle (1854–68), he made a substantial contribution to contemporary knowledge of medieval buildings. In addition, his writings and theories had an enormous impact on attitudes to restoration ( see Architectural conservation and restoration ) and on contemporary design, not only for the Gothic Revival movement but also in the development of rationalism, providing an important stimulus to new movements in architecture both in France and abroad (...


Michael Bollé

(b Magdeburg, May 31, 1829; d Cologne, Sept 28, 1902).

German architect. He attended the Domgymnasium at Magdeburg (1838–47) and in 1848 passed the qualifying examination as a surveyor, after which he worked in that capacity in Saxony. From 1849 to 1851 he studied at the Bauakademie in Berlin and went to Paris on a scholarship (1851). During the next year he was active under Friedrich Hitzig in Berlin and made designs for the surroundings of Magdeburg Cathedral and the bridge over the Vistula at Dirschau (now Tczew, Poland). In 1852 and 1853 he directed several road-building projects near Posen (now Poznań) and Bromberg (now Bydgoszcz, both in Poland), and designed two church buildings for Murzyno (now Murzynno) and Kruswice (now Kruszwica, both in Poland). Later he was active in the Rhineland, initially with road-building near Cologne, and was engaged by J. Schopen to direct the restoration of the Appellhof (1854–5) in Cologne.

The ...


Ursula M. de Jong

(b London, Sept 27, 1823; d Sydney, Nov 19, 1899).

English architect and engineer, active in Australia. He trained as an engineer for the Commissioners of the London Sewers (1839–1843) and as an architect with W. F. East. He greatly admired A. W. N. Pugin, whose work influenced him. In 1843 he became a convert to Roman Catholicism. Between 1846 and 1858 he designed 36 Catholic Gothic Revival churches in Britain, four in an Italianate style, and numerous parsonages, convent buildings and schools. His works are characterized by elegant proportions and architectonic massiveness. St Birinus (1847), Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxon, and Our Immaculate Lady of Victories (1849–51), Clapham, London, are excellent examples of his early Decorated work. His later work in Britain is characterized by a simpler and bolder architectural exposition, in which geometric, rather than curvilinear, patterns dominate the tracery design.

In 1858 owing to ill-health Wardell sold his professional practice and emigrated to Melbourne, Australia. In December of that year he was commissioned to design ...


Gordon Campbell

In the 19th century Wardour Street (in Soho off Leicester Square) was London’s principal centre for ecclesiastical furnishers and second-rank furniture shops. The heavy Gothic Revival furniture sold in these establishments led to the term being used as a term of abuse both for this furniture and for historical writing in a Gothic idiom....


Colin Cunningham

(b Aigburth, Liverpool, July 19, 1830; d Yattendon, Berks, Aug 22, 1905).

English architect, furniture designer and painter. In financial terms he was probably the most successful architect of the 19th century, and his office, of a dozen or so full-time staff, was able to produce large quantities of high-quality drawings with speed and efficiency. His skill in planning was recognized at an early stage, but appreciation of his stylistic achievement has been slower. He was influenced by Ruskin and A. W. N. Pugin, as well as by the more practical approach of George Gilbert Scott, but he developed his own approach to the composition of forms and a preference for bold simple ornament to match the increasing scale of his buildings. He did not confine himself to a single style but was adept in Gothic and, later, free Renaissance styles, and he developed a preference for the neo-Romanesque. He distinguished between carved or moulded ornament on plain stone and decorative materials such as veined marble, which he generally left unornamented. His concern for hard-wearing surface materials led him to adopt terracotta as a facing material, in which he was both a pioneer and protagonist. His sensitive handling of materials approached the aims of the Arts and Crafts Movement, but he always accepted that building was an industrial process. His buildings are characterized by sound planning and bold and picturesque outline, with particular attention given to the skyline in urban buildings....


Chris Brooks

(b Blakesley, Northants, 1825; d London, Jan 22, 1900).

English architect, designer and writer . After training in the provinces and in the London office of George Gilbert Scott I, where friendship with G. E. Street reinforced his enthusiasm for medieval Gothic, he started in independent practice in Truro, Cornwall, in 1847. The schools and vicarages White designed at this period, especially the ambitious rectory of St Columb Major (1849–50), show a stylistically advanced liking for asymmetry and simplified forms and a feeling for vernacular materials. From 1851, when White returned to London, he wrote extensively, his contributions to The Ecclesiologist helping to create the theoretical basis for High Victorian Gothic. Advocating Gothic principles rather than medieval precedents, he argued for an architectural aesthetic derived from the geometry of plane and mass, asymmetrically composed, functionally expressive and employing colour to denote the structure. His own buildings developed these features into a markedly personal idiom. Particularly important are vicarages at Halstead (...


Willy Weyres

(b Kassel, Aug 9, 1833; d Cologne, Dec 9, 1893).

German architect . He attended school in Kassel and then learnt the craft of bricklaying before studying at the Gewerbeschule (until 1851) with Georg Gottlob Ungewitter. Ungewitter then sent him to Cologne to learn the mason’s trade under Vincenz Statz. Wiethase subsequently joined (1855) the offices of Julius Raschdorff to work on the reconstruction (1855–7; destr. 1944; rebuilt) of the Gürzenich, the medieval Cologne festival hall, and then joined those of Friedrich von Schmidt. When Schmidt later went to Milan to teach, he handed his office in Cologne and all unfinished projects over to Wiethase, who went to Berlin (1860–62) to qualify as a private architect. In 1862 he won the Schinkelpreis with a Gothic Revival design. After his return to Cologne he was actively employed as an architect and restorer until his death. He was involved in the debate regarding the preservation of Cologne’s historic buildings, and restored the city walls and gates (after ...


R. Windsor Liscombe

(b Norwich, Aug 31, 1778; d Cambridge, Aug 31, 1839).

English architect, writer and collector . A ‘profound knowledge of the principles both of Grecian and Gothic architecture’ generated the career of Wilkins, who was also remembered as ‘a most amiable and honourable man’. He promoted the archaeological Greek Revival in Britain and a Tudor Gothic style. More intellectual than imaginative, his architecture was distinguished by a deft and disciplined manipulation of select historical motifs, a refined sense of scale and intelligent planning, outmoded by the time of his death. Besides his architecture and extensive antiquarian writings, Wilkins assembled an eclectic art collection and owned, or had a financial interest in, several theatres in East Anglia.

The theatres and Wilkins’s architectural bent were inherited from his father, a Norwich architect also called William Wilkins (1751–1815), who assisted Humphry Repton from 1785 to 1796 and established a successful domestic practice, mainly in the Gothick style. His eldest son was educated at Norwich School, then at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, from which he graduated Sixth Wrangler in ...