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Linda Whiteley

French family of bronze-founders, bronze-casters, dealers, publishers, paper merchants and artists’ suppliers. Jean Susse (1726–1809) was a cabinetmaker in Paris. His two sons Nicolas Susse and Michel-Victor Susse (b Paris, 1782; d Paris, 1853) went into partnership in 1806, opening a shop for fine writing-paper in the Passage des Panoramas, Paris. By 1816 they had also begun to sell artists’ materials and in 1827 they opened a further branch at 31, Place de la Bourse. Their business brought them into contact with several artists whose work they occasionally bought or took in exchange. Paul Gavarni owed his first success to drawings and paintings he exhibited at the Galerie Susse. The business soon became one of the best known in Paris for the sale and hire of contemporary paintings, to which the brothers added the publishing of artists’ manuals. Michel-Victor Susse’s eldest son, Victor Susse (b...




Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b Dingle, nr Liverpool, Sept 15, 1838; d London, July 8, 1928).

English collector. The son of a partner in a local banking firm, he inherited various books and manuscripts from his maternal grandfather, the antiquary Joseph Brooks Yates (1780–1855). He was educated at Harrow school and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he later became Sandars Reader in Bibliography (1901–4). Although called to the Bar in 1867 he never practised and spent the years 1868–73 travelling in Europe, Asia and the USA as secretary to John, 5th Earl Spencer. He began to form his collection in earnest in 1892, at first with the intention of limiting it to 100 of the finest examples of books and manuscripts. In 1897, however, he purchased almost en bloc those books known as the appendix to the library of Bertram, 4th Earl of Ashburnham, for £30,000, and in 1902 bought substantially from the John Ruskin Collection. Between 1898 and 1912 he printed illustrated catalogues of his collection, with descriptions by, among others, Sir ...


Sulejman Dashi


(b Aka, Turkey, 1865; d Tiranë, Feb 11, 1918).

Albanian sculptor, collector and poet of Turkish birth. His family was in exile in Turkey, and he began his studies in the school of Madame Fyres (1878), finishing them in the Sultanie Lycée of Galatasaray in Istanbul (1894). Toptani’s artistic work is intrinsically linked to his efforts in the struggle for Albanian independence. Works such as the bust of ...


Janet M. Brooke


(b Chelsea, IL, Feb 3, 1843; d Montreal, Sept 11, 1915).

Canadian businessman and collector of American birth. His family was impoverished by the death of his father, and he left school to work as a telegram messenger, progressing through the ranks of several American railway companies before moving to Canada in 1881 to become general manager of the Canadian Pacific Railway. He expanded it to a transcontinental line and became its president in 1888, furthering the company’s reach with steamship lines and a chain of hotels. He avidly collected fossils as a youth, and with his growing fortune set about building art collections with the same astuteness and single-mindedness with which he built his railways. He was alert to prevailing Gilded Age collecting trends in New York but also relied on his own judgment and careful study to assemble a large collection of European Old Master and 19th-century paintings, as well as Asian ceramics. He cultivated ties with fellow Montreal collectors and business colleagues, such as Sir George A. Drummond and James Ross (...


Milo Cleveland Beach

(b Metz, 1854; d 1942)

French jeweller and collector. Vever directed the family jewellery business, begun in Metz by his grandfather Pierre-Paul Vever (d 1853). After the capture of Metz in the Franco-Prussian War (1871), the family moved to Luxembourg and then Paris, where the Maison Vever became well established on the Rue de la Paix, winning the Grand Prix of the universal expositions in 1889 and 1900 and becoming a leader in the Art Nouveau movement. Vever gave an important group of Art Nouveau works to the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. His early interest in contemporary French painting led him to assemble a large and important group of works by Corot, Sisley, Renoir and Monet, of which he sold the majority (Paris, Gal. Georges Petit, 1897) to concentrate on Japanese and Islamic art. Vever had begun to collect Japanese prints in the 1880s and in 1892 joined the distinguished private group ...



Katharine A. Lochnan

(b nr Caledonia, Ont., Oct 14, 1848; d Toronto, March 27, 1924).

Canadian banker, collector and museum founder. He joined the Canadian Bank of Commerce in 1868 and became its president in 1907. He pursued a variety of interests, including palaeontology, botany, music, literature and art. He travelled extensively in North and South America, Europe, China and Japan, looking at art and architecture and visiting museums, private collections and artists’ studios. He built a modest collection, which included two views by Francesco Guardi of St Mark’s, Venice (Ottawa, N.G.), and a number of Hague and Barbizon school paintings. While in New York he began to collect intaglio prints, including impressions by Rembrandt, Dürer and Whistler (Toronto, A.G. Ont.). He also assembled a superb collection of 5000 Japanese ukiyoe prints, which were given to the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

The unrivalled leader of the museum movement in Canada, Walker founded the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1900 and the Royal Ontario Museum (both in Toronto) in ...


Jenny Elkan

(b London, Feb 21, 1830; d Croydon, Surrey, Dec 20, 1916).

English painter, writer and collector. He first studied at F. S. Cary’s academy and in 1848 entered the Royal Academy Schools, London. He is also thought to have trained in Paris at some time in the late 1840s or early 1850s, first in Charles Gleyre’s atelier and subsequently at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He specialized in portraits of literary figures and scenes from the lives of past writers, as in Dr Johnson at Cave’s, the Publisher (1854; untraced). His first great success was the Death of Chatterton (London, Tate), which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1856. The impoverished late 18th-century poet Thomas Chatterton, who while still in his teens had poisoned himself in despair, was a romantic hero for many young and struggling artists in Wallis’s day. He depicted the poet dead in his London garret, the floor strewn with torn fragments of manuscript and, tellingly, an empty phial near his hand. The painting was universally praised, not least by John Ruskin who described it as ‘faultless and wonderful’, advising visitors to ‘examine it well, inch by inch’. Although Wallis was only loosely connected with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, his method and style in ...


William Schupbach

(b Almond, WI, Aug 21, 1853; d London, July 25, 1936).

British pharmaceutical manufacturer and collector (naturalized 1910), of American birth. Around 1897 he began to form the collection that became in 1913 the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum in Wigmore Street, London. Its purpose was to illustrate the history of medicine, which Wellcome interpreted anthropologically as the evolution of manifestations of the instinct for self-preservation. Wellcome collected avidly, both in person and through agents in many countries. By 1936 the collection contained c. 900,000 items, including paintings, prints and photographs; sculpture; medical and pharmaceutical antiques; prehistoric flints; trephined skulls; amulets; ethnographic objects; and manuscripts and printed books. Interest in the development of such documentary techniques as photography and typography influenced many of Wellcome’s acquisitions (e.g. incunabula from William Morris’s library, 1898). After Wellcome’s death the collection passed by bequest to the trustees of the Wellcome Trust. Much of it was sold at auction, and much was also dispersed by gift or loan to 144 museums, mainly in Britain. Yet vast amounts still remain together in two London institutions active in research and education: books and prints etc in the ...


Janet Southorn

(b Darmstadt, April 9, 1850; d London, May 21, 1912).

British industrialist, collector and philanthropist of German birth. He was educated in Frankfurt and in 1871 he went to South Africa, where he worked in the diamond mining industry. With Alfred Beit, elder brother of Sir Otto Beit, he founded what became the Central Mining and Investment Corporation, and he became a British citizen in 1898. Wernher was a generous benefactor of hospitals and educational institutions. He was created baronet in 1905.

In addition to his London home, Bath House (destr. c. 1960) in Piccadilly, Wernher acquired in 1903 Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire, rebuilt in the 1760s by Robert Adam for John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. He commissioned alterations to both houses in the then fashionable French 18th-century style of interior decoration, creating an ornate background for the display of his collection of European art. Of his acquisitions, the pictures alone numbered 250; they included Joshua Reynolds’s portrait of ...




Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...


Catherine King and Dianne Sachko Macleod

Women have been influential in shaping the development of the visual arts as patrons and collectors throughout Western and non-Western cultural history. The early modern time span has been more extensively studied with reference to Western European traditions, so it has been possible to make some generalizations concerning patterns of gendered behaviour. By the beginning of the 16th century, the importance of female convent patronage waned, as did the influence of women considered to be candidates for canonization. In the years that followed, the scope of ruling women also shifted as sovereign government was curbed by constitutional power. In the 18th and 19th centuries, aristocratic female patrons were outnumbered by women whose fortunes stemmed from industry and commerce. Expected to adhere to their socially constructed roles as submissive helpmates of men, women were charged with beautifying the home and bolstering the family’s social status. Initially women focused on acquiring decorative arts—furniture, tapestries, porcelain, glassware and delicate objets d’art–which they displayed throughout the home, rather than in separate purpose-built cabinets or galleries favoured by male collectors who were consciously creating an art collection. As women gained confidence in their role as cultural consumers, they ventured further afield, visiting exhibitions, galleries, dealers and showrooms, and participating in arts organizations. Changes in the law granted women more control over their inheritance and income, as well as the right to divorce, resulting in their increased independence. Greater access to education eventually led to women becoming professional earners, commissioning works of art and founding museums, female colleges and universities. Empowered by their engagement with art, women patrons enriched the cultural and social life of their communities....



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...