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(b Zizers, nr Chur, c. 1575; d after 1621).

German sculptor of Swiss birth. In 1589 he was commissioned by the ducal court in Munich to work on the Jesuit church of St Michael and the building known as the Wilhelminische Feste (destr. 1944). At that time he compiled a collection of sketches that he submitted when applying in 1604 for employment at the court of the Elector Palatine at Heidelberg. Johann Schoch, the master builder of the new Friedrichbau, recommended Götz to the Elector Frederick IV, who granted him the responsibility for the sculpture of the façades of the Friedrichbau; this comprised 16 statues of Electors, as well as escutcheons, decorative panels, and heads of lions and humans. The statues were to represent, among others, the ancestors of the House of Wittelsbach, beginning with Charlemagne and including Ludwig IV of Bavaria, Elector Rupert III (founder of Heidelberg University), Elector Otto Henry and Frederick IV himself. The court painter, ...

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Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...

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Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

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Antonia Boström

Italian family of sculptors and bronze-casters from Vicenza, active there and elsewhere in the Veneto c. 1507–c. 1570. Lorenzo Grandi and his son the stone-cutter Gian Matteo Grandi (d 1545) both probably helped to train Lorenzo’s younger son, Vincenzo (di Lorenzo) Grandi (b Vicenza, before 1500; d Padua, before 2 Aug 1578). Vincenzo would later work with Gian Matteo’s son, Gian [Giovanni] Girolamo Grandi (b ?Vicenza, 1508; d Padua, 23 March 1560). By 1507 Vincenzo was in Padua, where he is recorded working on architectural ornament for a house belonging to Francesco dei Candi. In 1521, together with Gian Matteo, he completed the architectural elements of the monument to Bishop Antonio Trombetta (Padua, Il Santo), its bronze bust being executed by Andrea Riccio. The double cornucopia-like console supporting the niches of the monument is strongly reminiscent of the ornament used in the Lombardo family’s architecture. In ...

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Franz Bischoff

(b Schmidmühlen, Upper Palatinate c. 1445–50; d Munich between 8 April and June 1, 1518).

German sculptor, architect and hydraulic engineer. He worked mainly in Munich and was one of the most important south German sculptors in wood and stone around the turn of the 15th century. His sculptural oeuvre ranged from small pieces to large carved altars. Grasser probably spent his years as apprentice and travelling journeyman in the Upper Rhine and Swabia. He arrived in Munich about 1473, and was mentioned in documents in 1475; a letter of complaint from the local guild opposes the admission of the wood-carver as a master—Grasser had confidently applied to the guild while at the same time claiming exemption from taxes and defence levies. By this time he was probably already married to Dorothea Kaltenprunner, who came from a prosperous Munich family. Despite these initial difficulties, Grasser soon achieved considerable social and economic success. He was one of the four directors of the guild several times between ...

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Anja Schneckenburger-Broschek

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Antonia Boström

(fl c. 1564–86).

Danish sculptor of Dutch birth. His earliest activity as a sculptor is represented by a series of some 87 tomb slabs and funerary monuments produced for the North Jutland nobility by a workshop with which he was probably associated. Stylistic characteristics common to these are the use of hard grey or yellow limestone, and the precision of the chiselling and lettering. The tomb slab in the church at Aalsø, near Grenå, for Nils Krabbe til Hessel (d 1564) and his wife Anne Urup (d 1568) is the earliest tomb carving associated with Grøningen; in it the crisp chiselling of the figures, the symbols of the Evangelists and the coats of arms, as well as the female figure’s distinctive pose with arms crossed, are the hallmarks of his work. They are evident also in the tomb of Christen and Peder Skram (1579) in the parish church of Østbirk, near Skandeborg; the sculptor introduced motifs from Northern Renaissance architectural designs into the frame around the figures. Grøningen’s most classical tomb design is the epitaph and alcove tomb (Uth Church, nr Vejle) for ...

Article

M. J. T. M. Stompé

[Johann von] [Snitker, Johan]

(fl 1565; d Husum, Schleswig-Holstein, July 5, 1606).

Sculptor and wood-carver, probably of Netherlandish origin, active in Germany. In 1565 and 1568 he made oak pulpits for the Gasthaus zum Ritter church of St Jürgen in Husum and for the church in Mildstedt. These pulpits are hexagonal in form and richly decorated with Renaissance motifs. The door that forms part of the pulpit in Husum is also lavishly decorated, having a wooden rail of pilasters with heads of children on the capitals and, on the frieze, mythical creatures with cartouches. In 1575 van Groningen made a decorative rail for an organ that Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (1526–82) and his wife had commissioned from the Schleswig organ builder Goos for the Marienkirche in Husum. Of this organ, four pilasters remain (Husum, Nissenhaus–Nordfries. Mus.). The church at Pellworm houses the epitaph that van Groningen made for Thomas Elersen: a panel depicting the Crucifixion is framed by wooden columns; God the Father is represented at the top of the frieze; fragments of polychrome painting are still visible. Van Groningen almost certainly had a hand in the decoration of the new castle that the Duke ...

Article

Jerzy Kowalczyk

(b Florence, c. 1530; d Pińczów, nr Kielce, 1599–1600).

Italian sculptor and architect, active in Poland. He was the son of Giovanni Gucci (Giovanni della Camilla; d 1566), who had worked on the restoration of Florence Cathedral, and was the step-brother of Francesco Camilliani (d 1586), a sculptor and Baccio Bandinelli’s disciple. He was trained at his father’s workshop and probably also at that of Bandinelli. After 1550 he went to Poland and settled in Kraków, where he initially represented the all’antica Italian Renaissance style. From 1558 he was the architect to the Polish monarchs Sigismund II Augustus, Anna Jagiellon and Stephen Bathory (reg 1576–86). He also worked for the noble families of the Firlejs and Myszkowskis: for example he designed the layout of the private town of Pińczów for the latter family. He was simultaneously a citizen of Kraków and of Pińczów, where he leased a quarry from the Myszkowskis. The Pińczów sandstone served him as material for numerous tombs, fonts, portals and fountains....

Article

Hermann Maué

(b Strasbourg, 1490–1500; d after 1546).

German wood-carver and medallist. He may have been the son of the sculptor Nikolaus Hagenauer. By his own account, he left Strasbourg soon after 1520 and worked in a number of cities, including Speyer, Mainz, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Nuremberg and Salzburg, but no works from this period have been found. Between 1525 and 1527, while living in Munich and Landshut, he executed some 20 medals portraying Duke William IV of Bavaria, Duke Ludwig X (examples in Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) and Pfalzgraf Philipp, Bishop of Freising (example in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) and members of the Munich court and bourgeoisie. He next moved to Augsburg, where in 1531 the guilds complained to the City Council that he was working as a wood-carver and conterfetter (portrait sculptor) without being one of their members. Hagenauer replied that in other cities his work was recognized as free art and not subject to compulsory guild restrictions.

Hagenauer left Augsburg in ...

Article

[Niclas

(b Hagenau; fl 1493; d before 1538).

In 1493 he became a citizen of Strasbourg, where he is last mentioned in 1526. Although three inscriptions with his name are documented, it is difficult to relate them to existing works, so attributions are based on stylistic analysis. Hagenauer is thought to have made the male half-length figure on the balustrade above the entrance to St Andrew’s Chapel in the south transept of Strasbourg Cathedral. In 1500–01 he was commissioned to carve the Corpus Christi retable (dismantled 1682) for the high altar of the cathedral. Some parts survive, including the predella figures of a Lamentation (Strasbourg, Coll. Episc. St-Etienne) and busts of two prophets (Strasbourg, Mus. Oeuvre Notre-Dame). In 1505 he carved the figures for the altarpiece (Colmar, Mus. Unterlinden; see fig.) in the Anthonite church at Isenheim, Alsace, for which Matthias Grünewald painted the wings some ten years later (e.g. Angel’s Concert and Incarnation, Crucifixion and ...

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Vincent Mayr

German family of artists. In the late 15th century and the 16th three generations of the family were active as cabinetmakers, sculptors, painters and masons in Konstanz. Simon Haider (d c. 1480) was the most important employer of craftsmen in Konstanz, and his workshop executed commissions for the cathedral. Haider himself prepared the central panel of the high altar (1465; destr.), for which Nicolaus Gerhaert prepared the figure sculptures. The workshop also executed the choir-stalls (stylistic evidence suggests that Gerhaert may have been the designer) and the main doorway (1470), which has 20 reliefs with scenes from the Life of Christ derived from various sources. Haider’s two sons, Hans Haider (d 1519) and Andreas Haider (i), worked with him, and the sculptors Hans Heckel and Heinrich Iselin were his sons-in-law.

Hans Haider, who became a citizen in 1474, remained in the workshop until his father’s death: he is mentioned as independent from ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

In 

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Kristin Lohse Belkin

In 

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Adam White

[Have, Theodor de]

(b Duchy of Cleves; fl 1573–6).

Sculptor and architect of German origin, active in England. He left northern Europe, perhaps as a Protestant refugee, and settled in Cambridge. He did carving on the monument to Dr Caius (1573–5) in the chapel of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and was probably responsible for at least some of its singularly bold ornamental detail. In 1576 he presented to the College a remarkable sundial of his own devising composed of a stone with 60 dials raised on a column (destr.). He also carved and painted the arms of Queens’ College over the entrance to its screens passage (1575).

In the annals of Gonville and Caius College, which has a portrait of him, he is described as an ‘excellent artificer and distinguished architect’ (‘artifex egregius et insignis architecturae professor’), and he may well have been the person to whom Dr Caius gave the task of realizing his ideas for the Gate of Honour, erected in ...

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Carl Van de Velde

South Netherlandish family of artists. Jan de Heere the elder (b 1502/5; d 1576/8) worked in Ghent from 1526 or earlier, probably following his apprenticeship in Mechelen, where he was born. He worked in the studio of the sculptor Jan de Smijtere (d 1528) and married his daughter Anna, a painter of miniatures. Little survives of his work, although he was the leading architect and sculptor in Ghent for several decades. He collaborated with Jan Gossart in 1529 on the mausoleum of Isabella of Austria (1501–26) and with Frans Floris in 1562 on the altar to St Luke in St Bavo’s Cathedral, Ghent. His work spans the transition from Gothic to Renaissance styles in the southern Netherlands. In 1559 he designed the rood screen for St Bavo’s, commissioned to celebrate the 23rd Chapter of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Two sons from his marriage, ...

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Corine Schleif

(d Lübeck, 1521).

German sculptor. His career as an independent master in Lübeck probably began in 1485, the year of his marriage, or two years later, when he purchased a house. His early works are stylistically very similar to those of Bernt Notke, indicating that he was trained in Notke’s Lübeck workshop; scholars disagree on the delineation between the oeuvres of the two masters. The debated works include the St Jerome in Vadstena Abbey; the altarpiece of the Mass of St Gregory in Rytterne church; the Crucifix from the St Nicolai Chapel in Stockholm (now in Stockholm Cathedral); and the Pietà from the Heilig-Geist-Spital, Lübeck (Lübeck, St Annen-Mus.). Although there is no consensus on the body of works for which von der Heide was responsible, it is generally agreed that he tempered the abrupt anatomical exaggerations and facial severity of Notke’s striking figures, imbuing his own images with subtle modulations that lent a new individuality to the human figure....

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Elisabeth Gurock

(b before 1541; d before 1597).

German cabinetmaker and wood-carver. Although in the high quality of his craftsmanship he was an important representative of South German cabinetmaking and is thought to have produced an extensive oeuvre in Upper Swabia and Switzerland, little evidence of it has survived. Probably in collaboration with the Augsburg cabinetmaker Hans Kels (fl 1537–65/6) and commissioned by the monastery of Ottobeuren, he produced an organ case and choir-stalls with rich inlaid ornamentation; their remains were later incorporated into a sacristy cupboard. Again collaborating with Kels, in 1583–5 he produced five portals (four in situ; one, Stuttgart, Württemberg. Landesmus.), the architectural structure of which was accentuated by lavish figural and ornamental carving and supplemented by inlays and reliefs, together with a coffered ceiling, for the Benedictine abbey at Ochsenhausen. Through his extensive use of contemporary pattern books while designing, Heidelberger combined delicate decorative elements from the early Renaissance with the more robust forms of the later 16th century....

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Jane Campbell Hutchison

[Heinrich, Gerhard]

(b ?Amsterdam, fl c. 1587; d before Feb 1616).

Netherlandish sculptor, active in Silesia and Bohemia. He was the son of Gerrit Hendricksz. (d 1585), a Netherlandish sculptor. Before 1587 he travelled in France, Italy and Germany, becoming a citizen of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) in 1587. He is said to have been in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) in November 1589. His chief works were the chancel (1605; destr.) of the Schlosskirche in Oels (now Oleśnica, Poland) and the elaborate marble funerary monument to the Austrian Feldmarschall Melchior von Redern on an altar in the Dekanatskirche in Friedland (modern Frýdlant, Czech Republic). The monument, commissioned by von Redern’s widow, the Gräfin Schlick, was completed in 1610 but was severely damaged in the Thirty Years War. Its original appearance can be reconstructed from the sculptor’s description in a book that he published in the same year—Kurtze Beschreibung des herrlichen Monumenti und Begräbnuess (Breslau, 1610). The monument was made of green, white and red marble and originally had gilt-bronze ornamentation. The three colonnaded levels bore life-size statues of von Redern, the Gräfin Schlick and their son Christoph von Redern in the dress of their time, as well as reliefs depicting three of the Feldmarschall’s most famous military engagements....