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Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

[ Matthäus ; Matthes ]

(b Kiel, c. 1554; d Augsburg, Jan 10, 1632).

German goldsmith. With his extensive surviving oeuvre of around 80 authenticated works, he is one of the most renowned goldsmiths of Augsburg. Embossed and cast-silver and silver-gilt reliefs, plaquettes and ornamental mountings, applied to small pieces of ebony furniture, were a speciality of his workshop ( see fig. ). He mostly produced devotional and ecclesiastical objects, especially small altarpieces and reliquaries, for predominantly Catholic patrons (he himself was a Protestant). Less numerous are such secular luxury items as ornamental cabinets and jewellery caskets and, still fewer, examples of silver sculpture (e.g. automaton table decorations).

In 1569 Walbaum began a six-year apprenticeship under the goldsmith Hans von Tegelen I (master in 1546) in Lübeck, and from before 1579 he worked as a journeyman for at least five Augsburg goldsmiths, including Isaak Sal (master c. 1580–1612). He sometimes worked illegally, as was the case when he executed work for the Bavarian ducal court, commissioned by the court artist ...


Silvia Glaser and Klaus Pechstein




Marianne Grivel

(b Neufchâteau, Vosges, 1532; d Damblain, Haute-Marne, 1599).

French goldsmith, painter, sculptor, medallist and engraver . He followed his father and grandfather in working as a goldsmith until c. 1555, after which he was primarily active as an engraver. In that year he received two privileges for the Pinax iconicus (Adhémar, 6), published in 1556, and the Livre d’anneaux d’orfèvrerie (Adhémar, 19), published in 1561 with a dedication to the poet Barthélemy Aneau. Around 1556 he executed three engravings with historical or mythological subject-matter, the Bull of Phalaris, Hasdrubal’s Wife Throwing Herself on the Pyre and Phocas Led Captive before Heraclius (Adhémar, 21–3). It was previously thought that Woeiriot went to Italy after 1550 and settled in Lyon on his return in 1554, but it now seems that he did not leave for Rome until c. 1559–60. At the end of 1561 he was in Nancy; he continued to make frequent visits to Lyon until 1571. On 1 December 1561...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b Nuremberg, Sept 25, 1548; d Nuremberg, Oct 2, 1620).

German metal-founder . He was among the last of Nuremberg’s famous metal-founders, following the Vischer and the Labenwolf families. His mother Barbara was the daughter of Pankraz Labenwolf, and he trained with and later worked for his uncle Georg Labenwolf. Two misconceptions exist in most literature on Wurzelbauer and the Labenwolfs. Firstly, although numerous statuettes and reliefs have been attributed to them by Bange and other scholars, these artists were metal-founders not sculptors. In virtually every case, their role was to cast the image in metal; the design and the carving of the model were tasks executed by sculptors, such as Hans Peisser and Johann Gregor van der Schardt. As their portion of the project was the last and most expensive, Wurzelbauer and the Labenwolfs were frequently mentioned in the documents. Proud of their achievements, they occasionally signed the completed work. Secondly, Wurzelbauer and the other Nuremberg metal-casters used brass, rather than bronze as has been thought by previous scholars. Recent research has demonstrated that the Nuremberg artists included a much higher percentage of zinc in their copper alloy, thus making brass, than most other German founders who blended more tin with their copper to form bronze....


Stephen K. Scher

(b Bologna or Volterra, 1512–15; d ?Rome, c. 1565).

Italian medallist and sculptor . Son of the sculptor Zaccaria Zacchi (1473–1544) of Volterra, he spent almost his entire career in Bologna, working primarily for the Farnese family. One of his earliest and best-known medals (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1292) was modelled in 1536 and shows the 82-year-old Venetian Doge Andrea Gritti. It is signed IO. zacchus. f. on the reverse, which has a figure of Fortune holding a cornucopia and a tiller and standing on a globe encircled by a three-headed serpent. On only one other medal, that of Fantino Cornaro of Episcopia (Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant.), does Zacchi give this full signature.

Other medals, signed either IO. f. or simply IO, are attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds, but such attributions make sense both chronologically and geographically. One of these, signed IO. f. (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1293), is of ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

( fl Nuremberg, 1580s).

German goldsmith and engraver . He was recorded as a goldsmith’s apprentice in Nuremberg in 1580 but became known through his two collections of engravings, published in 1580 and 1581 (2nd edn 1584), which are essentially pattern books for goldsmiths. These engravings illustrate goblets, cups, ewers and basins decorated with sculptural animal and human heads, foliage and flowers, bunches of fruit, scrollwork and arabesques. He was probably the first to apply the goldsmith’s technique of punching to printmaking. Zan was influenced by the Netherlandish ornamental style and especially by the etchings of Georg Wechter I, which had been published shortly before. Zan was also a propagator of the type of scrollwork that gradually replaced the arabesque. His engravings acted as an important stimulus to the art of goldsmithing in the late 16th century and continued to be valued as craftsmen’s patterns until the end of the 19th century. Zan’s signature is ...


Ilse O’Dell-Franke

(b ?1498; d Nuremberg, Feb 25, 1572).

German goldsmith, etcher and draughtsman . He was documented in Nuremberg in 1554, when he applied for citizenship, but was probably there earlier, as his main ornamental work, Novum opus craterographicum (a series of 31 etchings of vessels, attributed to him on stylistic grounds), was printed there in 1551. The ornamental details (such as castings from nature) in these prints suggest a goldsmith’s training. A smaller series of 22 etchings also contains models for brooches, daggers etc. The separate scrollwork title page bears the date 1553 and his full name.

In 1559 Zündt was recorded as an assistant of Wenzel Jamnitzer, who sent him to Prague to work on a table fountain, noting in a letter to Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol (1529–95) that Zündt was industrious but used foul language. Nothing is known of Zündt’s work for Ferdinand, nor of any other goldsmith’s work by him, though in ...