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Michèle Lavallée

(b Champsecret, Orne, July 23, 1862; d Paris, May 24, 1934).

French painter, illustrator, and sculptor. He went to Paris in 1878 to study under the painter Emile Bin until 1885, when he entered the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. From 1883 onwards, he exhibited landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits (those of women and children being particularly popular) in oil and pastel at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français.

Léandre also taught drawing until 1897. His fame was due chiefly to the vast number of Symbolist drawings he produced for newspapers and magazines. His first post was as a caricaturist for Le Chat noir, and he later worked for Le Journal, Le Figaro, Le Gaulois, and Le Journal amusant; his most important work was for Le Rire, for which he often illustrated the front page. In 1907 he helped to found the Société des Artistes Humoristes, publishing a magazine, Les Humoristes, in 1910.

Léandre produced posters for the nightclubs of Montmartre, artists’ balls, and chansonniers’ tours, and for the first two exhibitions of the Société des Peintres Lithographes. He illustrated many literary works, of which the most famous was Gustave Flaubert’s ...


Briony Llewellyn

(b Holloway, London, May 12, 1812; d San Remo, Italy, Jan 29, 1888).

English painter, draughtsman, illustrator and writer. In the 1860s Lear described himself as ‘Greek Topographical Painter par excellence’, aspiring to the title of ‘Painter-Laureate and Boshproducing-Luminary forthwith’ (quoted in 1983 exh. cat., p. 14). This whimsical summary of his versatile activities as topographical draughtsman, oil painter, traveller, writer and illustrator of nonsense rhymes and stories is typical of Lear’s idiosyncratic literary style. It reflected his eccentric personality. He was epileptic and prone to fits of deep depression. In addition, owing to family misfortunes, he was brought up by his eldest sister Ann. The neglect of his mother, ill-health, weak sight and poverty all contributed to a lifelong sense of insecurity.

As an artist Lear was at first almost entirely self-taught. His earliest employment was as an ornithological draughtsman, notably for his Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots (1832. Between 1831 and 1837 he worked for Lord Stanley, later 14th Earl of Derby (...


(b Rouen, Nov 11, 1738; d Paris, May 7, 1826).

French painter, illustrator and writer. He began his studies in Rouen and, at 17, won first prize for drawing at the city’s Académie. Shortly afterwards he travelled to Paris, entering the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture as a student of Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre. In 1767–8 he was in Rome, a fact confirmed by a number of dated and inscribed drawings and paintings, including the pen, ink and wash drawing Landscape Inspired by the Gardens of the Villa d’Este at Tivoli (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). He was in Switzerland in 1776, where he spent several years drawing illustrations for Beát Zurlauben’s Tableau de la Suisse ou voyage pittoresque fait dans les treize cantons du Corps Helvétique (Paris, 1780–86). In 1780, having returned to France, he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale and received (reçu) in 1785 with Jupiter Asleep on Mount Ida (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Thereafter he regularly exhibited moralistic pictures at the Salon until ...


Simon Houfe

(b Southwark, London, Aug 29, 1817; d London, Oct 30, 1864).

English illustrator and caricaturist. He showed promise in drawing from an early age. He was educated at Charterhouse School, Surrey, and entered St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, to study medicine, where he showed aptitude in anatomical drawing. His family’s bankruptcy in 1830 ended this career, and he was compelled to find work as an artist to support himself. Friendships with William Makepeace Thackeray at Charterhouse and with the comic writers Albert Smith and Percival Leigh at St Bartholomew’s gave him useful connections in illustration and journalism.

In 1836 Leech briefly studied at Versailles with an unidentified French caricaturist, being one of the few British artists to do so. Returning to Britain, he brought a new approach to social satire in the tradition of the French comédie humaine. His first productions in this style were a series of lithographs, published by W. Soffe as Droll Doings and Funny Characters (1836–8; e.g. see Houfe, p. 37), spirited exercises in a technique he shortly abandoned. With the revival of wood-engraving and the burgeoning of comic magazines in this medium, Leech learnt the art from the engraver Orrin Smith and joined the staff of ...


Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Aug 29, 1826; d Passy, Aug 4, 1890).

French painter, illustrator and pastellist. He was a pupil of Alexandre Abel de Pujol and François-Edouard Picot at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and made his début at the Salon of 1848. In 1854 he won the Prix de Rome with Abraham Washing the Feet of the Angels (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1855 he sent Noah Cursing Canaan (Aurillac, Mus. Parieu) from Rome for exhibition at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, and the work was bought by the French government. He specialized in classical and biblical subjects executed with the soft colouring, linear precision, prettiness and graceful poses of the Neo-classical style. He became particularly famous for his antique pastoral love scenes, such as The Bowl: Idyll (Pau, Mus. B.-A.), which were much appreciated by such contemporary critics as Jules Claretie (1840–1913). However, he also depicted moments of violence and drama such as the Death of Orpheus...


James P. W. Thompson

(b Mont Saint-Père, Aisne, July 31, 1844; d Paris, July 27, 1925).

French draughtsman, printmaker, painter and illustrator. He was the only son of a village schoolmaster and his precocious drawing skill won him an annual grant from the state. In 1863 he went to Paris and became a student at the Petite Ecole, where one of his teachers was Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, famed for his method of training the visual memory. Jean-Charles Cazin, a fellow pupil, became a lifelong friend and Lhermitte later got to know Alphonse Legros, Henri Fantin-Latour, Jules Dalou and Rodin, who had all studied at the school. In 1864 his charcoal drawing the Banks of the Marne near Alfort (untraced) was exhibited at the Salon. By inclination and by training a meticulous draughtsman, he continued to exhibit his drawings at the Salon until 1889.

In 1866 his first oil painting, Violets in a Glass, Shells, Screen (untraced), was exhibited at the Salon, and he produced his first etching, for his friend ...


Mária Szobor-Bernáth

(b Győr, Jan 24, 1839; d Munich, Feb 19, 1898).

Hungarian painter and illustrator, active in Germany. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste first in Vienna in 1855 and then in Munich in 1856; in 1862 he became a pupil of Karl Theodor von Piloty. He spent most of his life in Germany, only visiting Hungary occasionally. In 1865 he won the Munich Akademie prize for St Elizabeth Blessing Hungary, only sketches of which survive (Budapest, N.G.). For the rest of his career he was preoccupied with two themes: St Elizabeth of Hungary and Margarete from Goethe’s Faust. He liked drawing beautiful, harmonious, benign female figures and in general sought subjects that did not demand too many figures and objects in order to concentrate on these ideal women (e.g. St Elizabeth of Hungary, 1882; Faust and Margarete, 1875; both Budapest, N.G.). He was also attracted to remote historical events, as in the dramatic Queen Elizabeth I Signing Mary Stuart’s Death Sentence...


José Manuel Fernandes

(b Lisbon, Nov 21, 1879; d Lisbon, July 13, 1974).

Portuguese architect, graphic artist and writer. He was educated in England and then studied architecture (1893–7) at the Technische Hochschule, Hannover, under Albrecht Haupt. His grounding in Anglo-Saxon and German culture was unusual among Portuguese artists of the time, who tended to be orientated towards French influences, and it directed him to a search for the deeper and more spiritual roots of Portuguese architecture. From 1898 to 1901 he spent time travelling and drawing in southern Portugal and Morocco, observing the persistence of local traditions in Mozarabic and Islamic architectural forms and spatial planning. Some of these he later adopted in his designs for domestic buildings, particularly the use of the patio as a nucleus for rooms and the use of decorative elements (such as bricks, tiles and whitewash). He thus participated in the nationalist Casa Portuguesa style, but he also sought to modernize this tradition, integrating it with the innovative European currents of Art Nouveau; such houses as the Casa Roque Gameiro (...


Blanca García Vega

(b Valencia, 1760 or 1773; d Madrid, 1812 or 1814).

Spanish printmaker and illustrator. He studied at the Academia de S Carlos, Valencia, and the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, obtaining prizes in 1781 and 1784. In 1804 he was given the title of ‘grabador de Cámara honorario’, and in the same year he was appointed académico de S Carlos. López Enguidanos engraved portraits of Manuel Godoy, Prince de la Paz and Ferdinand VII, and he contributed to the illustrations of many important works published in Madrid: Las vistas de los puertos de España (1785); Icones et descriptiones plantarum (1791–1801) by Antonio Cavanilles; Los quatro libros de arquitectura (Sp. edn of 1797) by Andrea Palladio; Don Quixote (edn of 1797); Vistas de El Escorial (1800–07). His other prints include Roman Charity (1809) after the painting (1670s; destr. 1845) by Murillo. His brothers José López Enguidanos (1760–1812) and ...


(b Strasbourg, Oct 31, 1740; d London, March 11, 1812).

Alsatian painter, illustrator and stage designer, active in France and England. Loutherbourg’s father, Philipp Jakob (1698–1768), was an engraver and miniature painter to the court of Darmstadt. In 1755 he took his family to Paris, where Loutherbourg became a pupil of Carle Vanloo; he also attended Jean-Georges Wille’s engraving academy in the Quai des Augustins and Francesco Casanova’s studio. Wille directed Loutherbourg’s attention to 17th-century Dutch landscape artists, such as Philips Wouwerman and Nicolaes Berchem, and in 1763 Denis Diderot noticed the inspiration of the latter in Loutherbourg’s first Salon exhibit, a landscape with figures (Liverpool, Walker A.G.). In this and other works, focus is on the foreground figures, which are framed by natural formations that occasionally fall away to reveal distant horizons. This informal style found favour with the French public; Loutherbourg’s vivid, fresh colour and ability to catch specific light and weather conditions made the pastoral subjects of François Boucher and his school seem contrived and fey. Rather more romanticized were Loutherbourg’s shipwreck scenes (e.g. ...


Lilian M. C. Randall

(b Baltimore, MD, May 29, 1824; d Paris, Dec 16, 1909).

American agent and collector. The son of a publisher and book illustrator, Fielding Lucas jr (d 1854), he worked as an engineer for the New York–New Haven Railroad, the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the Croton Aqueduct Board. In 1856 he inherited a sum sufficient to free him to pursue his interest in the arts. The following year he moved to Paris, never to return to America. In Paris, Lucas gained widespread respect in art circles through his work as agent to several American collectors and art dealers. By the mid-1880s he had expended about half a million francs at the behest of William T. Walters, a prosperous businessman also from Baltimore. Lucas was actively involved in the formation of Walters’s collection of 19th-century art, noted for its outstanding works by French Realist, Academic and Barbizon school artists, with works commissioned from such artists as Honoré Daumier, ...


(b Hagerstown, MD, Nov 13, 1857; d Santa Barbara, CA, Nov 9, 1932).

American painter and illustrator. Of Swedish descent, the family moved to Toledo, OH, when Lungren was four years old. He showed an early talent for drawing but was intended by his father for a professional career and in 1874 entered the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to study mining engineering. He left in 1876, however, determined to become an artist. After a protracted dispute with his father, he was allowed briefly to attend the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadelphia, where he studied under Thomas Eakins and had Robert Frederick Blum, Alfred Laurens Brennan (1853–1921), and Joseph Pennell as fellow students. In the winter of 1877 he moved to New York, where he worked as an illustrator for Scribner’s Monthly (renamed Century in 1881) during the period known as ‘the Golden Age of American illustration’. His first illustration appeared in 1879 and he continued to contribute to the magazine until ...


Christopher Newall

(b Glasgow, Sept 30, 1848; d London, Nov 1, 1910).

Scottish painter, illustrator and printmaker. The son of the Scottish portrait painter Norman Macbeth (1821–88), he studied at the Royal Scottish Academy Painting Schools, Edinburgh. He first exhibited in London, at the Dudley Gallery, in 1869; he moved in 1870 to London, where he attended the Royal Academy Schools (1871–2). During the 1870s he worked as an illustrator for the Graphic magazine. Among his many semi-journalistic illustrations, his scenes of life in Paris during the Franco–Prussian War were vividly realistic.

Macbeth revered and emulated the ‘Idyllist’ group of illustrators and painters, which had formed in the 1860s around the artist Fred Walker. Macbeth adapted from the works of Walker, George John Pinwell, George Heming Mason and John William North his own approach to rustic figurative subjects, and, like them, he combined a poignant romanticism with accuracy of naturalistic detail. In the mid-1870s Macbeth repeatedly visited Lincolnshire, and a series of large paintings of Fenland life resulted, including ...


Véronique Alemany-Dessaint

(b Beaumont-sur-Sarthe, Oct 14, 1845; d Saint-Prix, Sept 29, 1908).

French painter, illustrator and designer. In 1864 he left the Sarthe for Paris to study law. His studies did not prevent him from developing his gift for drawing and painting: he sketched views of Paris, copied works in the Louvre and entered the studio of Jules Noël in 1865. Having gained his law degree in 1866, Maignan was finally able to devote himself to painting. The following year his work was accepted by the Salon des Artistes Français, where he exhibited fairly regularly all his life. In 1869 he entered the studio of Evariste Luminais, keeping company with the group of artists brought together by Eugène Isabey.

Maignan developed ceaselessly, changing the sources of his inspiration and his technique and varying the range of his palette. His early landscapes were in the Barbizon style. Like Isabey he was interested in recording historic buildings and in perspective studies of streets. He was also fascinated by archaeological excavations and was an avid collector of classical and medieval antiquities. His early history paintings were influenced by Luminais; he constructed the events of the past with precision and an eye for the picturesque in such works as ...


Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...


(b Voiron, Isère, Aug 4, 1885; d 1958).

French painter and illustrator. From 1887 to 1898 Mainssieux was confined to bed due to illness and it was then that his first interest in drawing developed. He was taught by Jules Flandrin, whose dogmatic, analytical approach to painting suppressed Mainssieux’s spontaneity and enjoyment. From 1902 to 1910 he produced little work, concerning himself mainly with technical problems. In 1905 he moved to Paris, studying under Jean-Paul Laurens and meeting André Dunoyer de Segonzac, Jean-Louis Boussingault and Luc-Albert Moreau, whose artistic tastes he shared. Two years later he first exhibited some landscapes and portraits at the Salon des Indépendants, the former influenced by Andō Hiroshige as well as by Flandrin.

A trip to Italy in 1910 greatly affected Mainssieux’s style; he was particularly impressed by the Classical architecture and sculpture. In 1913 a large decorative panel of Mount Palatino, near Rome, which he exhibited at the Salon d’Automne, attracted much critical acclaim. Thereafter he painted many Italian subjects, such as ...


Elizabeth Clegg

(b Prague, Aug 7, 1865; d Prague, Dec 1, 1898).

Czech painter and illustrator. He studied (1881–2) at the Academy in Prague and then (1882–7) at the Akademie in Munich under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and the Greek painter Nikolaos Gysis. In Munich he was a member of the Verein Tschechischer Künstler, and he also embarked on a career as an illustrator, contributing drawings and sketches in various media to the German periodical Fliegende Blätter and the Czech magazine Zlatá Praha among others (original drawings in Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). On his return to Prague he studied (1887–9) at the Academy under Maximilián Pirner and simultaneously at the School of Decorative Art. He first exhibited his work publicly in 1888, showing to great acclaim a carefully observed but attractively stylized treatment of an urban genre subject, the Egg Market in Prague (1888; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes).

In ...



(b Copenhagen, Dec 24, 1810; d Copenhagen, March 25, 1873).

Danish painter and illustrator. He was a student of C. W. Eckersberg at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1825–33). His art reflects his constant observation of the world around him, in particular middle-class society, and the narrative element dominated his pictures of crowds in the city streets. Throughout his life he sought inspiration from literature and the theatre. In his early genre painting Moving Day Scene (1831; Nivå, Nivaagaards Malsaml.) it was the popular novelty of vaudeville that interested him. The October Festival (1839; Copenhagen, Thorvaldsens Mus.) reveals how Marstrand’s five-year stay (1836–41) in Italy opened his eyes to the classical ideal of beauty. It was, however, an ideal that found little response in contemporary Denmark, and he turned towards a more anecdotal and humorous approach. In Scene of Country Life (1843; Copenhagen, Kon. Dan. Kstakad.), painted as a set subject for the Kunstakademi, Marstrand took as his theme a scene from ...


Marie de Thézy

(b Paris, July 18, 1816; d between Jan 1878 and Sept 20, 1879).

French photographer and illustrator. He first worked as an illustrator in the medium of wood-engraving and was associated with Tony Johannot. With the writer Charles Nodier (1780–1844) and publishers such as Curmer and Bourdin he took part in the creation of great Romantic illustrated editions of such works as Paul et Virginie by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. He was, however, primarily a landscape artist known as an illustrator of travel books. By 1851 he had become a photographer, concentrating on religious sites and religious architecture, particularly for Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, who published c. 100 of his calotypes. He worked for the Louvre and reproduced drawings by major French and Italian artists. Collaborating with architects such as Paul Abadie, he photographed the different stages of construction or of restoration of civil and religious monuments. He also photographed the new Bois de Boulogne.

Marville’s most accomplished work was the album of c...


Sally Mills

(b Markesan, WI, Oct 1, 1860; d San Francisco, CA, Feb 19, 1945).

American painter, designer, and teacher. First trained by his architect father, he worked as a freelance illustrator before deciding in 1885 to study painting in Paris. He spent about 15 months at the Académie Julian and exhibited at three Salons before returning to California in 1889. He soon began teaching at the California School of Design (now the San Francisco Art Institute) and in 1896 was promoted to Director. During his 16-year tenure, Mathews reformed the curriculum in line with academic practice in Paris and New York and exerted a powerful influence over hundreds of students. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, Mathews left the school, aligning himself with artists, architects, and businessmen eager to rebuild San Francisco. With his wife (and former student), Lucia Kleinhans Mathews (1870–1955), and a partner, John Zeile, he embarked on several ventures: the magazine Philopolis (1906–16) emphasized art and city planning; the Philopolis Press (...