Capital and largest city of Argentina. Located on the south-western bank of the River Plate estuary, it has a metropolitan population of 11 million, almost entirely of European (especially Italian) descent; indeed, the cultural development of the city was largely influenced by the wave of Italian immigrants who arrived in the 1870s. Buenos Aires was first founded by Spanish colonizers in 1536, but it was not until 1580 that a lasting settlement was established. During the first two centuries of colonial occupation, the city of Córdoba was of greater importance, but in 1776 Buenos Aires became the centre of the new Viceroyalty of the River Plate, and since then it has grown continually in size and importance. The few remaining buildings from the colonial period display a range of influences, including Spanish Baroque, Portuguese Manueline style and the Rococo style of Lima (see also Argentina, Republic of §II 1....
Ann McKeighan Lee
Carlos Lastarria Hermosilla
(b Santiago, 1875; d Santiago, 1964).
Chilean painter. He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Santiago under Pedro Lira and Miguel Campos (1844–99) and under the influence of Juan Francisco González developed an Impressionistic approach to painting that was rational in its emphasis on technique and precise drawing, but also romantic in the poetry animating his landscapes and in its delicate range of enveloping colour. His approach was one of humility, befitting his personality, and it took shape, mainly from the example of Cézanne, in clear patches of colour: light, evocative and with their own unique poetic spirit. Nevertheless, his tendency to synthesize different elements placed him in the avant-garde as a young man, and he had a profound influence on the Grupo Montparnasse a short time later (see Mori, Camilo). Rightly considered one of the founders of modern Chilean art, he influenced later generations both through his teaching at the Escuela de Bellas Artes (of which he was director from ...
Paulo J. V. Bruna
(b São Paulo, Aug 4, 1909; d nr Rio de Janeiro, June 4, 1994).
Brazilian landscape architect, painter and designer. He studied painting at a private school in Berlin from 1928 to 1929, and during this time he frequently went to the Botanical Gardens at Dahlem to study the collections of plants that were arranged in geographical groupings, providing useful lessons in botany and ecology. He thus learnt to appreciate many examples of Brazilian flora that were rarely used in Brazilian gardens, an experience that had a lasting effect on him. In 1930 he entered the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro to study painting; he also took a course in ecology at the Botanical Gardens in Rio. From 1934 to 1937 he was Director of Parks and Gardens at Recife, leaving when he established his own practice as a landscape architect in Rio de Janeiro. To this period belong the gardens of the Casa do Forte, where aquatic plants predominate, and the gardens he designed for the Praça Euclides da Cunha, where his studies of the ...
Frederick J. Dockstader
(b Pine Springs, AZ, c. 1910; d New Mexico, 1957).
Native American Navajo silversmith. He learnt the art as a young man from his half-brother John and an older Navajo, Left Handed Red, then branched out on his own. He became a successful silversmith, and with his wife Mabel was one of the most active craftsmen in the area, not far from the Hubbell Trading Post, AZ. During the fieldwork of ethnographer John Adair (b 1913) they became well acquainted, and Burnsides was a primary source for most of Adair’s study; Adair’s subsequent publication (1944) gave Burnsides a status that caused collectors to prize his work. Tom and Mabel were frequently called upon to tour and demonstrate their silversmithing and weaving skills, and they made several world trips under the auspices of the US Government Office of Information and of the State Department. Both were killed in a car accident.J. Adair: The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths...
Manuel Rojas Sotelo
(b Bogotá, Sept 8, 1933; d Paris, Jan 8, 1982).
Colombian sculptor. One of the first modern female sculptors in Colombia, Bursztyn introduced industrial materials and an anti-aesthetic language into a conservative art scene. Bursztyn, a descendent of Polish Jewish migrants who settled in the Colombia before the outbreak of World War II, lived in the country during the advent of the so-called violencia política (political violence) that began in 1948 in Colombia and continues to this day. Bursztyn studied at the Art Students League in New York City (1952–4), and later in Paris in the studio of Belorussian sculptor Ossip Zadkine at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière (1956–8). During these years, Bursztyn had a romantic relationship with Jorge Gaitán Durán, a leftist poet and critic living in Paris, and the founder of the journal Mito, who would also influence the magazine Les Temps modernes established by Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Maurice Merlau-Ponty. In the early 1960s Marta Traba, the Argentine Colombian critic, described Bursztyn’s formal and conceptual approach as anarchist, though it might better be characterized as anarcho-feminist, highlighting the struggle against the patriarchy as a key component in anarchist opposition to state oppression. Between ...
(b Paraná, Entre Ríos, Dec 28, 1942).
Argentine painter, draughtsman and collagist. She studied at the Escuela Provincial de Artes Visuales in Paraná and at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes ‘Ernesto de la Cárcova’ in Buenos Aires. Taking the cue for her well-crafted works from Surrealism but concentrating her attention on fortuitous encounters in everyday life, she fluctuated between a meticulously detailed photographic realism and an artificial imagery of old porcelain dolls and turn-of-the-century postcards, posters and advertising handbills. Generally working in series, she combined the sinister and the humorous, sometimes in a single work, as in Sublime Portrait of my Mother (1978; see Glusberg, p. 455), a frontal view of a masked woman with a vacant and enigmatic smile. An early triptych, the Family of the Condemned (1974), is in the national collection in Buenos Aires (Mus. N. B.A.).J. Glusberg: Del Pop-art a la Nueva Imagen (Buenos Aires, 1985), pp. 455–8...
Ludovico C. Koppmann
(b Buenos Aires, Mar 18, 1889; d ?Buenos Aires, 1982).
Argentine architect. He won a national award for painting (1912) while still a student of architecture at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, where he graduated in 1913. He visited Europe in 1920. A classicist, he favored the Greek Revival (he went to Greece as a guest of honor in 1970), but he worked in many styles in his vast oeuvre of more than 200 buildings. Bustillo’s declared aim of producing original designs within traditional styles brought him a wide range of commissions. In Buenos Aires, as well as many apartment buildings constructed both before and after World War II, he designed offices, hotels, and banks, including the Banco de la Nación (1944), which boasts a central glass-covered banking hall with a span of 50 m. Elsewhere he designed the Casino and Hotel Provincial (1936), Mar del Plata; Bariloche Cathedral (begun 1932) and the Llao Llao Hotel (...
Elisa García Barragán
(b Purísima del Rincón, Guanajuato, April 13, 1832; d Purísima del Rincón, June 28, 1907).
Mexican painter. He was mainly self-taught, painting small-format portraits, still-lifes, ex-votos and retables. His portraits were realistic and closely observed; he generally portrayed villagers, but his Self-portrait (1891; Mexico City, Inst. N. B.A.) makes skilful use of light and shade to construct and highlight shapes. His still-lifes are distinguished by their presentation of Mexican fruit and objects, laid out as if for a botanical illustration (e.g. Still-life with Fruit and Frog, 1874; Guanajuato, Mus. Granaditas). The small ex-votos show wit, spontaneity and fantasy, and constitute valuable historical records of the faith and customs of the period. Bustos was one of the most popular artists of his time, and his work is notable for its precision of line, sensitivity, skill and sobriety of colour.P. Aceves Barajas: Hermenegildo Bustos (Guanjuato, 1956, rev. 1996)R. Tibol: Hermenegildo Bustos: Pintor del pueblo (Guanajuato, 1981/R Mexico City, 1992)Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820–1980...
(b Buenos Aires, Aug 28, 1897; d Buenos Aires, March 17, 1983).
Argentine painter, tapestry designer and stage designer. From 1922 to 1933 he lived in Europe, where he studied first in Germany at the artistic colony in Worpswede and then in Paris under André Lhote and Othon Friesz. He was untouched by the violence of German Expressionism, but he assimilated various influences in France, structuring forms in the manner of Cézanne, and combining these with the audacious colouring of Fauvism and the strict sense of order in Cubism, as in The Siesta (1926; Buenos Aires, Mus. N. B.A.)
On his return to Argentina, Butler applied these European influences to lyrical landscapes of the islands in the Parana Delta of the Tigre region near Buenos Aires, selecting unusual scenes into which he incorporated childhood reminiscences in the figures. Using arabesques to link nature and people in his essentially flat pictures, he projected himself on to the scenery of which he was so fond in pictures such as the ...
Jocelyn Fraillon Gray
(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).
Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...
(b Bogotá, 1943).
Colombian painter. His earliest paintings, executed in oil on paper in the late 1960s, represent large and energetic nudes—influenced by the work of Francis Bacon—among gestural splashes of intense colour. He subsequently toned down his use of colour and began to work from life, showing the human body in varied postures indicative of emotion and energy. He used sexuality and his own erotic pleasure as a means of heightening the impact of his nude figures, which he described as painted ‘with semen, not turpentine’. His exclusive subjects in later paintings were athletic young men in recumbent positions, their expressions suggestive of a state of sexual trance or death. Violence, blood and suffering dominate images of figures piled together in dramatic orgies and states of sadness and desire, projecting an intensity of emotion rooted in Romanticism.Me tocó ser así (Bogotá, 1986)with others: Luis Caballero (Bogatá, 1995) Cien años de arte colombiano...
Yasminy Pérez Silva
(b Barcelona, Jan 25, 1890; d Caracas, Feb 5, 1984).
Venezuelan painter of Spanish birth. From 1896 he lived in Venezuela and studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes, Caracas (1904–9) under Emilio Mauri (1855–1908) and Antonio Herrera Toro. In 1912 he was a founder-member with Antonio Edmundo Monsanto and others of the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Caracas, a group that made landscape painting the leading genre in Venezuelan art in the first half of the 20th century. Between 1916 and 1919 the influence of Samys Mützner, Nicolas Ferdinandov and Emilio Boggio had a marked effect on his palette and composition. He travelled to France in 1920 to consolidate his artistic training, attending the Académie Colarossi and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and executing several works. In 1931 he returned to Venezuela and held an exhibition of his French paintings. From then on he dedicated himself fully to studying the Venezuelan landscape, in particular the mountain El Avila. In ...
(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).
Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.
Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...
(b Mexico City, Aug 2, 1929).
Mexican sculptor. She studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos, Mexico City, from 1944 to 1946, and in 1947 at the Academia de San Alejandro in Havana, Cuba, where she received a number of awards. She held her first one-woman exhibition in 1950. Her sensitive sculpture addressed human emotions and situations, including motherhood, love and solitude. Taking inspiration for her sculptures from prehistoric art, she worked first in terracotta and then in bronze and with direct carving in stone, using clean contours to stress the curves and sensuality of the human form. Later she used newspapers as a sculptural material. From 1975, in association with other Mexican sculptors such as Angela Gurría, Mathias Goeritz, Juan Luis Díaz (b 1939) and Sebastián, she began also to conceive sculptures for urban settings.Geles Cabrera (Mexico City, 1977)L. Kassner: Diccionario de escultura mexicana (Mexico City, 1983; rev. 1997), p. 55...
(b Las Piedras, nr. Montevideo, May 2, 1903; d Montevideo, May 30, 1990).
Uruguayan sculptor. He studied under the Argentinian sculptor Luis Falcini (1899–1973) from 1918 to 1926 at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Montevideo, and in Paris from 1926 to 1928 under Charles Despiau at the Académie Colarossi and under Emile-Antoine Bourdelle at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. He lived again in Uruguay (1928–1936), and in Paris (1936–1938) before moving to Caracas (1938–1944). After traveling extensively in Europe, Mexico, and the USA, he settled in Madrid from 1975 to the end of the decade.
Cabrera’s sculptures, such as Untitled (1963; Montevideo, Estación Goes), depend on a dramatic tension between spatial, geometrical, and mechanical elements and biomorphic and organic forms suggestive of the human body. He used a great variety of materials, including scrap iron, concrete, marble, and combinations of wood and metal, sometimes left in their natural state and sometimes modified, painted, or assembled. In Montevideo many of his works are displayed in architectural settings. He took part in a number of exhibitions, including the São Paulo Biennale in ...
Maria Concepción García Sáiz
(b Antequera [now Oaxaca], Feb 27, 1695; d Mexico City, May 16, 1768).
Mexican painter. He studied under Juan Correa and made indiscriminate use in his paintings of old engravings from different European schools. He is known to have painted a number of pictures during the 1740s, but it was after 1750 that he received his most important commissions, including the series dedicated to the life of St Ignatius Loyola for the Colegio de San Ignacio y San Francisco Javier in Querétaro, for the Templo de La Profesa in Mexico City and for the Jesuit college at Tepotzotlán near Mexico City. In the 1760s Cabrera painted a Virgin of the Apocalypse (Mexico City, Pin. Virreinal), basing the image on an engraving after a work by Rubens that was very popular in Mexico during the colonial period. He also designed funerary pyres commemorating the deaths of Maria Amalia of Saxony (1761), the Archbishop Rubio y Salinas (1765) and Isabel Farnese (...
(b Guatemala City, Dec 11, 1937).
Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Guatemala City from 1953 to 1958 and displayed great originality from an early age, mixing styles as diverse as Expressionism and Surrealism and ranging from a traditional figuration to avant-garde modes in a variety of media, including drawing, printmaking, painting, and collage. His interest in archaic styles led him to use Pre-Columbian sources as well as their modern popular and indigenous counterparts. He also addressed himself, both personally and artistically, to political and social problems on both a national and an international level. Together with Marco Augusto Quiroa and Elmar René Rojas he founded the Vértebra group, which held a number of exhibitions from 1965 to 1968. In the early 1980s he settled in Costa Rica, where he devoted himself primarily to teaching and aesthetic theory; in the early 1990s he returned to Guatemala and later took up the position of director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes, Guatemala City....
Pre-Columbian site in Tlaxcala, central Mexico. It flourished c. 250
The ruins of Cacaxtla lie in the hilly uplands between Tlaxcala and Puebla, c. 100 km east of Mexico City, on ancient routes of communication between the Central Highlands and both the Gulf Coast region and the Southern Highlands of the Mixteca. Only portions of the site have been excavated, and its history is not yet fully understood. Archaeological evidence indicates human occupation since the Late Pre-Classic period (c. 300
(b Machachi, Pichincha, Jan 12, 1830; d Quito, 1889).
Ecuadorean painter and teacher. He studied under Antonio Salas (1780–1860) and lived in Santiago de Chile from 1852 to 1856, painting lavish, sentimental portraits under the tutelage of the French painter Raymond Monvoisin (1809–1870). In 1857 he went to Rome on a government grant to attend the Accademia Nazionale di S. Luca; he worked with the painter Alejandro Marini and made a series of academic studies of nudes and typical Italian characters. His interest in establishing greater academic training in Ecuador, which was still the center of a prolonged colonial Baroque style in the arts, led him in 1861 to become Director of the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura in Quito. Between 1872 and 1875 he directed the Escuela de Bellas Artes, also in Quito. Cadena dedicated much of his prolific career to executing portraits of leading figures of the period, such as Nicolás Martínez (late 19th century; Quito, Mus. Aurelio Espinosa Pólit). His academic style and accuracy of draftsmanship and composition are evident in the numerous works executed for the Roman Catholic Church. Outstanding are the series on the ...
(b Buenos Aires, Feb 28, 1861; d Buenos Aires, Nov 28, 1890).
Argentine sculptor. He studied in Buenos Aires under Julio Laguens before traveling in 1877 to Florence, where he studied sculpture under the Italian sculptors Urbano Lucchesi (1844–1906) and Augusto Passaglia (1838–1918). His bronze Slave, now in the Jardines del Parque 3 de Febrero in Buenos Aires, was awarded a gold medal at the Exposición Continental, Buenos Aires, in 1882. In 1885 he returned to Argentina with his monument to Admiral Guillermo Brown (bronze; Adrogué, Plaza Almirante Brown), unveiled in 1886; as the first monument by a native artist to be erected in Argentina it received an enthusiastic reception.
Cafferata also produced busts of his father, of the revolutionary Spanish ideologist Mariano Moreno, and of the poet José de Espronceda, and he was one of the few 19th-century artists in Argentina to recognize the role of Afro-Argentines, for example in a monument to the popular hero Falucho...