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Constance W. Glenn

(b Saint Louis, MO, Nov 3, 1903; d New Haven, CT, April 10, 1975).

American photographer and writer. He grew up in Kenilworth, a suburb of Chicago, but moved to New York with his mother after his parents separated. Primarily interested in literature, he sat in on lectures at the Sorbonne in Paris (1926–7), visited museums and bookshops, and thought of becoming a writer. In 1928 he acquired a camera and, out of frustration over his inability to find work and develop a literary means of expression, he decided to become a photographer (see fig.). Intermittent assignments instigated by friends such as Lincoln Kirstein made it possible for him to live a bohemian life in Greenwich Village, where he met the writers Hart Crane (1899–1932) and James Agee (1909–55) and the artist Ben Shahn, with whom he worked and shared a house for a short time. Within this circle he found his early influences (see fig....


Philip Cooper

(b Paris, May 16, 1898; d Châtenay-Malabry, Seine-et-Oise, July 21, 1964).

French painter, printmaker, illustrator and sculptor. An illegitimate child, he was given his mother’s surname but was brought up by his grandmother. On the death of both his father and grandmother in 1908 he joined his mother in London, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1912. Finding the teaching too traditional, he left to enrol at the Slade School of Fine Art, which had a reputation for being more avant-garde, though he was again disappointed. He then decided to work alone and devoted himself to painting, concentrating on nudes and still-lifes. He also regularly visited the Tate Gallery, where he was particularly impressed by the works of Turner. In 1917 he was called up for the French Army, but because of his poor health he was soon transferred to the auxiliary corps. Suffering from a pulmonary complaint, he lived in the Tyrol from 1920 to 1921 and was finally discharged from the army in ...


Lee M. Edwards

(b Liverpool, Oct 18, 1844; d London, Feb 27, 1927).

English painter and illustrator. He first studied art at the Mechanics Institute in Liverpool and at the nearby Warrington School of Art. In 1863 he won a scholarship that enabled him to study at the South Kensington Art School in London and subsequently at the Royal Academy Schools. By the late 1860s he was earning money as an illustrator for such popular periodicals as the Cornhill Magazine and Once a Week.

Fildes’s illustration Houseless and Hungry, which appeared as a wood-engraving in the first issue of the Graphic (4 Dec 1869), a socially conscious weekly, was the turning-point of his career. The engraving depicts homeless paupers queuing outside the casual ward of a workhouse. When it was shown to Charles Dickens by John Everett Millais, the author commissioned Fildes to illustrate his novel The Mystery of Edwin Drood. The unfinished book was published posthumously in 1870 with a set of 12 illustrations by Fildes....


M. Sue Kendall

(b Philadelphia, PA, March 13, 1870; d Westport, CT, May 22, 1938).

American painter and illustrator. He graduated in 1889 from Central High School, Philadelphia, where he had known Albert C. Barnes, who later became a noted collector of modern art. He became a reporter–illustrator for the Philadelphia Record in 1891 and later for the Philadelphia Press. In 1892 he began to attend evening classes in drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, studying under Thomas Anshutz. In the same year he became a friend and follower of Robert Henri, who persuaded him to take up oil painting in 1894. Henri’s other students, some of whom were referred to as the Ashcan school, included George Luks, Everett Shinn and John Sloan, also artist–reporters; together with Henri they formed the nucleus of Eight, the.

Glackens and Henri shared a studio in Philadelphia in 1894 and travelled together in Europe in 1895. On returning to the USA in 1896, Glackens followed Henri’s lead in moving to New York and supported himself by producing illustrations for the ...


Ursula Zeller


(b Berlin, July 26, 1893; d W. Berlin, July 6, 1959).

German painter, draughtsman, and illustrator. He is particularly valued for his caustic caricatures, in which he used the reed pen with notable success. Although his paintings are not quite as significant as his graphic art, a number of them are, nonetheless, major works. He grew up in the provincial town of Stolp, Pomerania (now Słupsk, Poland), where he attended the Oberrealschule, until he was expelled for disobedience. From 1909 to 1911 he attended the Akademie der Künste in Dresden, where he met Kurt Günther, Bernhard Kretschmar (1889–1972) and Franz Lenk (1898–1968). Under his teacher Richard Müller (1874–1954), Grosz painted and drew from plaster casts. At this time he was unaware of such avant-garde movements as Die Brücke, also active in Dresden. In 1912 he studied with Emil Orlik at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin. A year later he moved to the Académie Colarossi in Paris, where he learnt a free drawing style that swiftly reached the essence of a motif....


Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Nancy, March 15, 1912; d Paris, Dec 1, 1948).

French painter. His father, Jacques Gruber, was a stained-glass artist of Alsatian origin. Francis moved with his family to Paris in 1916. Although ill-health during childhood led to the neglect of his formal education, he read widely and precociously and from the age of eight showed an eagerness to paint; even as a child he admired the work of Hieronymus Bosch, Matthias Grünewald and Albrecht Dürer, who were to prove important influences on his work of the 1930s and 1940s, and sought advice from Georges Braque and Roger Bissière, who were close neighbours. Between 1929 and 1932 he was taught at the Académie Scandinave by Charles Dufresne, Othon Friesz and Henry de Waroquier (1881–1970). He worked essentially from the imagination during these years, although he also produced a few still-lifes. From 1930 he exhibited regularly at the Salon d’Automne and the Salon des Tuileries.

In 1933 Gruber met Alberto and Diego Giacometti, who were to become close friends (...


Michelle Greet

(b Quito, 1919; d Mar 10, 1999).

Ecuadorean painter, sculptor, jewelry maker, and activist. Guayasamín was born to an indigenous father and a mestizo mother. He was the eldest of ten children raised in extreme poverty. As did most artists of his generation, Guayasamín studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Quito. His early works, such as Los niños muertos (The Dead Children), portray indigenous themes and contemporary political events in a Social Realist style.

In 1942 Nelson A. Rockefeller invited Guayasamín to the United States on a State Department grant, altering the course of his career. There he had the opportunity to view numerous original paintings by modern artists from the USA and Europe. He took particular interest in the works of Pablo Picasso and the Mexican artist Rufino Tamayo, absorbing aspects of their styles into his own compositions. After several months of exhibiting in the United States, Guayasamín traveled to Mexico where he saw firsthand the work of the Mexican muralists....


Demelza Spargo

(b Bagheria, nr Palermo, Jan 2, 1912; d Rome, Jan 18, 1987).

Italian painter. He gained his first practical experience of art in the form of Sicilian cart-painting in the bottega of a family friend Emilio Murdolo. The images of the exploits of the Normans in Sicily that adorned these carts instilled in Guttuso a strong and lasting preference for epic stories and vivacity of colour; similarly, the knowledge that he gained of the Sicilian countryside and peasantry through his father, a land-surveyor and committed socialist, had a marked effect on his work as a mature artist. While still at school in Palermo, he began to study painting in 1928 under Pippo Rizzo (b 1898), a minor Futurist who had extensive contacts with mainland Italy. He began studying law in 1930 at the University of Palermo but left the course soon after exhibiting at the Quadriennale in Rome in 1931.

Guttuso worked at first in a style influenced by the Novecento Italiano, but from ...


M. Sue Kendall

[Cozad, Robert Henry]

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 24, 1865; d July 12, 1929).

American painter and teacher (see fig.). He changed his name in 1883 after his father killed someone; in honour of his French ancestry, Henri adopted his own middle name as a surname, taking the French spelling but insisting all his life that it be pronounced in the American vernacular. After living with his family in Denver, CO, and New York, in 1886 he entered the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he studied with Thomas Anshutz and Thomas Hovenden. In 1888 he attended the Académie Julian in Paris, where he received criticism from the French painters William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury. He returned to Philadelphia in 1891 and painted in an Impressionist manner, for example Girl Seated by the Sea (1893; Mr and Mrs Raymond J. Horowitz priv. col., see Homer, pl. 1).

In 1895 Henri returned to Europe and adopted a dark-toned, broadly brushed style influenced by Velázquez, Frans Hals and the early paintings of Manet. His portrait studies in this style were accepted in the Paris Salons of ...


Gail Levin

(b Nyack, NY, July 22, 1882; d New York, May 15, 1967).

American painter, printmaker, and illustrator. He was brought up in a town on the Hudson River, where he developed an enduring love of nautical life (see fig.). When he graduated from Nyack Union High School in 1899, his parents, although supportive of his artistic aspirations, implored him to study commercial illustration rather than pursue an economically uncertain career in fine art. He studied with the Correspondence School of Illustrating in New York City (1899–1900). He continued to study illustration at the New York School of Art (1900–1906), under Arthur Keller (1866–1925) and Frank Vincent Du Mond (1865–1951), but began to study painting and drawing after a year. Hopper began in the portrait and still-life classes of William Merritt Chase, to whose teaching he later referred only infrequently and disparagingly. He preferred the classes he took with Kenneth Hayes Miller and especially those of ...


Sepp Kern

(b Karlsruhe, Nov 21, 1891; d Karlsruhe, Dec 26, 1979).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and teacher. He studied at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Karlsruhe (1908–12), where he became friendly with Rudolf Schlichter and Georg Scholz (1890–1945). From 1912 to 1914 he studied portraiture and attended life classes under Emil Orlik at the teaching institute of the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin. After World War I he was a postgraduate student of Ernst Würtenberger at the Kunstschule in Karlsruhe, studying etching, woodcutting and illustration. Hubbuch’s concise drawings and etchings are the most significant part of his output: like those of Otto Dix and George Grosz they are full of social criticism, but they are more briskly executed. In innumerable studies he recorded situations typical of the period, particularly scenes showing human weaknesses and life in the city (e.g. The Dream of the Tietz Girls, etching, 1921; see 1981–2 exh. cat., p. 123). Naive narrative pictures from the immediate post-war period were followed after ...


Ingrid Swenson

English group of painters active in the 1950s. Its name was derived from an article of 1954 by the critic David Sylvester and is used to identify a brand of English realist painting whose main exponents were John Bratby (b 1928), Derrick Greaves (b 1927), Edward Middleditch (1923–87) and Jack Smith. These artists knew each other and exhibited together but did not share a common programme or ideology. Like the contemporary ‘angry young men’ of realist drama and literature, they rejected their label. Their work represents a distinctive but brief reaction against the élitism of abstraction and Neo-Romanticism in favour of figurative social realism, a reaction that found its most ardent voice in the writings of the Marxist critic John Berger (b 1926).

Greaves, Middleditch and Smith were closest in style and subject-matter. Smith’s After the Meal (1952) is typical of the school’s unheroic depictions of the domestic life and labour of the contemporary working-class. Such commitment was commended by Berger as responding to the austerity of post-war Britain during the Cold War. ...


John Steen

[Pieter Frans Christian]

(b Beek, nr Nijmegen, July 15, 1901; d Wassenaar, Oct 27, 1991).

Dutch painter and draughtsman. He abandoned his law studies in 1927 to concentrate on a career as a painter. Although self-taught, he received advice from Erich Wichman and Kor Postma (1903–77). In 1928 he had his first group exhibition at De Onafhankelijken (The Independents) in Amsterdam, for which he submitted two paintings, which contained elements of both Neue Sachlichkeit and Surrealism. The influence of photography and film is particularly noticeable in his work, for example the portrait of Asta Nielsen (1929). His exhibition with Postma and Albert Carel Willink, held at the art dealer P. de Boer in Amsterdam (1930), marked the beginning of a period when realism in art was popular. His later work is often classified as Magic Realist; he himself believed that Magic Realism availed itself of representations that were possible, but not plausible, while Surrealism availed itself of impossible, non-existent or imaginary situations. He was interested in the fringes of society, and his work has an erotic character, which is often expressed through symbols. Between ...


Josephine Gabler

(b Königsberg, Germany [now Kaliningrad, Russia], July 8, 1867; d Moritzburg, nr Dresden, April 22, 1945).

German printmaker and sculptor. She received her first art tuition from Rudolph Mauer (1845–1905) in Königsberg in 1881. She continued her training in 1885 in Berlin under Karl Stauffer-Bern and in 1888 under Ludwig Herterich (1856–1932) in Munich. Influenced by the prints of Max Klinger, which had been brought to her attention by Stauffer-Bern, she devoted herself to this form and gave up painting after 1890. She first produced etchings (see Woman with Dead Child, 1903) and lithographs but later also woodcuts. From 1891 she lived in Berlin where she had her first success: the portfolio of three lithographs and three etchings, A Weavers’ Revolt (1895–8; Washington, DC, N.G.A.), inspired by Gerhard Hauptmann’s play Die Weber, was shown at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung. Kollwitz joined the Secession in Berlin and was appointed to a special teaching post at the Künstlerinnenschule.

Kollwitz was indebted stylistically to naturalism, but her preferred subject-matter was linked to the emerging workers’ movement. Her prints on themes of social comment were carried out predominantly in black and white. However, her training as a painter had initially exerted considerable influence on her style. This changed around the turn of the century. Abandoning natural surroundings, she concentrated on different ways of representing the human body. It was then that a sculptural sensibility became decisive for her graphic forms. The first expression of this changing style was the etching ...


Eric Hild-Ziem

(b Le Mans, July 11, 1885; d Grasse, Nov 27, 1925).

French painter and draughtsman. Although he was born at Le Mans, where his father, an officer in the French army, was temporarily stationed, he came from an aristocratic family whose ancestral home, the Château de la Fresnaye, was near Falaise. His education, which was thorough and classically based, was followed by studies in Paris at the Académie Julian (1903–4) and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1904–5 and 1906–8); from 1908 he studied at the Académie Ranson under Maurice Denis and Paul Sérusier, whose joint influence is evident in early works such as Woman with Chrysanthemums (1909; Paris, Pompidou), which has the dreamlike Symbolist atmosphere and stylization characteristic of work by the Nabis.

In 1909 La Fresnaye travelled to Munich, where he came briefly under the influence of Expressionism in paintings such as Entry to the Village (1910; Troyes, Mus. A. Mod.). From 1910 to 1911...


(b Hoboken, NJ, May 26, 1895; d Marin County, CA, Oct 11, 1965).

American photographer. From 1914 to 1917 she attended the New York Training School for Teachers and there decided to become a photographer, partly influenced by visits to the photographer Arnold Genthe. From 1917 to 1918 she attended a photography course run by Clarence H. White at Columbia University, New York. Lange moved to San Francisco in 1918, and in 1919 she set up a successful portrait studio where she took works such as Clayburgh Children, San Francisco (1924; Oakland, CA, Mus.). In the late 1920s she became dissatisfied with studio work and experimented with landscape and plant photography, although she found the results unsatisfactory. With the Stock Market crash of 1929 Lange decided to look for subjects outside her studio. Turning to the effects of the economic decline she took photographs such as General Strike, San Francisco (1934; Oakland, CA, Mus.). She had her first solo show at the Brockhurst Studio of Willard Van Dyke in Oakland, CA (...


Morgan Falconer

(b Atlantic City, NJ, Sept 7, 1917; d Seattle, June 9, 2000).

American painter. He took Works Progress Administration art classes in New York (1934–7), and also studied at the Harlem Art Workshop, New York (1935) and the American Artists’ School (1937). Lawrence’s vigorous social realism quickly brought him recognition and by 1941 he was the first African American artist to be represented in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. His early work comprised genre depictions of everyday life in Harlem, as well as major series devoted to black history (1940–41; see And the Migrants Kept Coming and In the North the Negro had Better Educational Facilities). The 41 pictures of the Touissant L’Ouverture series (1937–8; see 1986–7 exh. cat., pp. 52–3) are addressed to Haiti’s struggle for independence in the 19th century. Small pictures, executed in tempera on paper, they are characteristic of his use of water-based media throughout his career; the schematic designs, flat space, and vigorous, angular figures are typical of his style both at the beginning and the end of his life. ...


Janet Marstine

(b Halifax, NS, March 22, 1873; d Miami, FL, Dec 18, 1939).

American painter of Canadian birth. He first studied art in 1888 at the Art League School of Kansas City, MO. The following year he attended the Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Mexico City, while working as an engineering draughtsman. In 1891 he moved to New York and took classes from John H. Twachtman and J. Alden Weir. Under their tutelage at the Art Students League and at Cos Cob, CT, Lawson painted landscapes in a loosely brushed Impressionist style, exploring the transitory effects of light. In 1893 Lawson went to Paris, where he lived with the writer Somerset Maugham; Maugham based the character Frederick Lawson in his novel Of Human Bondage (1915) on the artist. Lawson briefly attended the Académie Julian and then studied independently, particularly the works of Cézanne and Sisley.

Lawson returned to New York in 1898. He used thick impasto, strong contour lines, and large areas of bold yet harmonious colour to create highly structured compositions, as in ...


Janet Marstine


(b Williamsport, PA, Aug 13, 1867; d New York, Oct 29, 1933).

American painter and draughtsman. He lived as a child in the mining town of Shenandoah, PA, but moved to Philadelphia in 1883. The facts of his early career were later confused by the wild stories fabricated by him. After a short stint in vaudeville, he spent a year at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. From 1885 he was in Europe, living most of the next decade in Düsseldorf, Munich, Paris, and London, intermittently attending German and French art academies. In 1894 Luks became an artist–reporter for the Philadelphia Press, where he befriended Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and Everett Shinn. In late 1895 he went to Cuba as a war correspondent; the following year he moved to New York and joined the staff of the New York World as a cartoonist.

In 1897 Luks began to paint. Working with dark, slashing strokes, akin to the style of Henri, he sympathetically portrayed New York’s social outcasts, as in the ...


L. I. Iovleva


(b Lopino, nr Novaya Ladoga, St Petersburg region, Jan 29, 1844; d St Petersburg, Dec 1, 1911).

Russian painter. The son of a peasant, he studied in the school for monastery novices and apprentice icon painters and entered the St Petersburg Academy of Arts in 1863. He had a passion for drawing and a strong sympathy with the growing tendency in Russian art towards realism and social criticism. He retained a deep relationship with the Russian countryside, and the life of the peasantry formed an important and constant theme in his work. In 1866, having completed the course of academic instruction, and following Ivan Kramskoy and the ‘secession of the 14’ in 1863, Maksimov refused to compete for the Grand Gold Medal and the right to a bursary for foreign travel, and he moved to a residence in the country, first in Tver’ province, then from 1868 in the village of Chernavino in Novaya Ladoga district. Here Maksimov began enthusiastically producing pictures of the Russian peasantry, in whom he felt he found the living source of truth. In the painting ...