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Article

Kirsta Willis

(b Newark, NJ, Sept 15, 1943).

African-American fashion designer. Burrows’s trademarks included colour blocking, asymmetry, fluid jersey separates and fluted ‘lettuce’ hems. With a youthful nonchalance and anti-establishment sensibility, Burrows clothes defined the movement and the eclecticism of New York City’s nightlife in the 1970s.

Burrows’s love affair with colour stemmed from his mother, who taught him to draw using the entire box of crayons, while from his seamstress grandmother, he learned how to sew. However, Burrows never contemplated a career in fashion until he attended the Philadelphia Museum College of Art. After graduating from Newark’s Arts High School, Burrows set out for Philadelphia, intent on becoming an art teacher. However, spurred on by a fashion exhibition he viewed, Burrows left the arts college in his second year, working briefly in the display department of Bamberger’s department store before enrolling in Manhattan’s Fashion Institute of Technology. He graduated in 1966 and landed his first job with Weber Originals where he spent a particularly boring year designing ladies’ blouses. Burrows took his restless creativity back to New Jersey and began freelancing, mainly making clothing for his friends....

Article

Gordon Campbell

In lapidary use, a precious stone when domed and polished, without being cut into facets. The double cabochon has a curved or domed surface on both top and bottom; stones in which the curve above and below the plane was formed by the edge of the girdle were long used as pendants or charms. A hollow cabochon is one in which the back or underside is concave. Cabochon cutting was largely superseded by brilliant cut, and is still in use for amethyst, garnet (carbuncle), ruby and sapphire.

In cabinetmaking, a cabochon is a carved ornament in the form of a convex polished oval, typically on the knees of chair legs, where it is surrounded by decorative carving.

P. D. Kraus: Introduction to Lapidary: Rock Tumbling, Cabochon Cutting, Faceting, Gem Carving, and Other Special Techniques (Radnor, PA, 1987)W. Peck, D. Duffy and S. Cote: The Art of Making a Cabochon...

Article

Robert Smith

(John)

(b Guernsey, Channel Islands, Feb 28, 1837; d Melbourne, Feb 13, 1918).

Australian photographer of Guernsey birth. After his arrival in South Australia c. 1858, he pursued his interest in photography while working as a hairdresser, becoming a professional photographer in Adelaide in 1867. Economic recession led him to move in 1870 to the neighbouring colony of Victoria, where he worked as hairdresser and photographer in the goldfields settlement of Talbot. By 1871 he was able to open a studio in the larger town of Bendigo, achieving commercial success with carte-de-visite portraits and local views. He had an interest in art, having tried his hand at painting, and became a precursor of Pictorial photography, converting the formally posed group portrait into the conversation piece and producing landscape scenes with human interest genre subjects and picturesque effects to meet a growing nationalistic demand.

To take advantage of his increasing success Caire moved to Melbourne in 1876 to exploit its rapid urban growth as subject-matter, and to use it as a base for forays into the countryside, seeking novel or spectacular subjects. Expansion of the railway system and his adoption of the dry plate process gave him greater mobility, and he was able to photograph increasingly remote localities, culminating in an expedition to Mt Buffalo, in ...

Article

Jan Glier Reeder

French couture house. Established at 24, Rue Thaitbout by three sisters, Marie Callot Gerber, Marthe Callot Bertrand and Regine Callot Tennyson-Chantrelle. The sisters shared an artistic heritage; their mother was a lacemaker and their father an artist and professor who was descended from the master draftsman and etcher Jacques Callot.

Maison Callot Soeurs rapidly became a principal couture house, along with the other great names of the period such as Jacques(-Antoine) Doucet, Jeanne Paquin, Charles Frederick Worth, Rouff and Raudnitz. By 1900 the sisters were already employing 600 workers and had participated in the Parisian couturiers’ famed first joint fashion display at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900. In 1914 they moved address to 9–11, Avenue Matignon and again in 1932, to 41, Avenue Montaigne. In 1917, they opened a London branch at 7 Buckingham Gate. The London branch was closed in 1935 and the business was absorbed into Calvet in ...

Article

Cameo  

Design engraved, carved or moulded in relief on gemstones, glass, ceramics etc; it uses layers of different colours, which can be transparent or opaque, so that the background and raised ground contrast. There are often just two colours: one dark colour, the other lighter, often white. The most common form is a medallion with a ...

Article

Marco Collareta

[Foppa, Cristoforo]

(b Mondonico, nr Pavia, c. 1452; d between Dec 6, 1526 and April 1, 1527).

Italian goldsmith, coin- and gem-engraver, jeweller, medallist and dealer. Son of the goldsmith Gian Maffeo Foppa, from 1480 he served at the Milanese court with his father, eventually becoming personal goldsmith and jeweller to Ludovico Sforza (il Moro), Duke of Milan. In 1487 Caradosso was in Florence, where his appraisal of an antique cornelian was highly esteemed. He worked in Hungary in the service of King Matthias Corvinus, probably in August 1489; a later visit to the court was cut short by the King’s death (1490). Between 1492 and 1497 Caradosso travelled to various Italian towns to buy jewels and other precious objects for Ludovico il Moro. He visited Rome, Viterbo and Florence early in 1496, when the Medici family’s possessions were sold off after the expulsion of Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) from Florence.

After the fall of Ludovico il Moro in 1500, Caradosso remained for some years in Lombardy. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Name variously applied to precious stones of a red or fiery colour; the carbuncles of the ancients were probably sapphires, spinels or rubies, and garnets; in medieval and early modern usage, it denotes the ruby and a mythical gem said to emit a light in the dark; in modern lapidary usage it denotes the garnet when cut ...

Article

Cassandra Gero

(b Venice, July 1, 1922).

French couturier, ready-to-wear designer and entrepreneur. Cardin is known for space-age style fashions in the 1960s, pioneering the ready-to-wear market and extensive licensing of his name (see fig.).

Cardin was born in Italy, but his family moved to France when he was two years old. He worked as a menswear tailor in Vichy, then as an accountant for the Red Cross during World War II. He later moved to Paris, where he was employed as an assistant at the couture houses of Jeanne Paquin, Elsa Schiaparelli and Christian Dior. Cardin helped execute Dior’s design of the famous ‘Bar’ suit for his inaugural ‘New Look’ collection in 1947. In 1950 he started his own business and designed costumes for theatre productions, including Jean Cocteau’s Beauty and the Beast. In 1953, he began designing small couture collections for women. At the time his fashions were similar to those of other Paris ...

Article

Elizabeth Q. Bryan

[Hattie Kanengeiser, Henrietta Köningeiser]

(b Vienna, Austria, Mar 15, 1886; d New York City, Feb 22, 1956)

American fashion designer. Hattie Carnegie was an international tastemaker and fashion entrepreneur. For more than thirty years she presided over a leading New York couture house that offered clients licensed copies of Paris originals as well as ‘Hattie Carnegie Originals’ created by her staff of designers. She also created an empire of retail and wholesale clothing, jewelry, perfume and cosmetics worth over $8 million upon her death in 1956.

Carnegie was born in Vienna, Austria, to parents who immigrated to the United States. Early in her life she adopted the surname of the industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie because of its association with wealth. At the age of 13, upon the death of her father, a tailor in New York’s garment district, she became a messenger for Macy’s department store. The ambitious Carnegie then went to work as a milliner and sales clerk in Greenwich Village for the neighborhood dressmaker Rose Roth. Some details of Carnegie’s career remain ambiguous, even those she provided herself to journalists, but it is generally accepted that by ...

Article

Cesare Poppi

Term used to describe public revelling that includes music, dance or performance. It is characterized mainly by the elaborate costumes that are created specifically for it. In countries where the Roman Catholic tradition is dominant, carnival denotes a period of variable duration that ends at midnight before Ash Wednesday, although in some localities the latter day can also be included. In these contexts, therefore, it is a specific calendrical event generally associated with forthcoming Lent. It is often referred to with the French Mardi Gras, which properly applies to only Shrove Tuesday. The term has, however, become used more generally; it may entail demonstrating, occasionally with explicit, if satirical, political overtones. It also denotes indoor partying and feasting of the kind arranged by community organizations or private individuals. The English equivalent of carnival as an annual event, Shrovetide, seems to be disappearing with the decline of the activities customarily connected with the period in the popular culture of the British Isles....

Article

Kristen Shirts

(b Fresno, CA, Sept 28, 1908; d New York, Feb 3, 2000.

American fashion designer. Active from the late 1930s through to the mid-1980s, Cashin designed clothing for women with busy, modern lifestyles. She took design inspiration from a wide variety of sources, including nature, travel and sports. Her signature style included layered clothing, inventive pockets and the liberal use of leathers (see fig.). Her ideal client was a woman like herself, active and interested in the world around her and unwilling to sacrifice comfort or function for fashion.

Cashin was raised in California by a dressmaker mother and a photographer-inventor father. She spent her childhood drawing fashion illustrations and playing with scraps of fabric from her mother’s shop. After graduating from high school in 1931, she was hired to design costumes for a local dance troupe. In 1934, the troupe’s manager moved to the Roxy Theater in New York, and Cashin spent the next several years designing costumes for the Roxyettes. Cashin credited her stage career with teaching her how to design clothes that would accommodate a moving body, a skill she later used for designing sportswear....

Article

Claire Brisby

Italian family of jewellers, collectors and writers. The firm founded in Rome by (1) Fortunato Pio Castellani shortly after 1820 and expanded by his sons (2) Alessandro Castellani and (3) Augusto Castellani was foremost in reviving period style in jewellery design. Their reputation was established in Rome by the mid-19th century, and they were renowned as antiquarians as much as jewellers and were consulted by museums in London, Paris and Vienna. After 1860 the Castellani opened shops in Paris and Naples; from 1862 until 1884 they exhibited regularly at international exhibitions, including the International Exhibition of 1862 in London, and their work remained virtually unaffected by subsequent stylistic developments. Designs were closely inspired by, and in some cases reproduced, antique and medieval pieces, often from their own considerable study collection. They were widely imitated throughout England, France, Italy and the USA. Their jewellery is notable for its use of gold; the family perfected processes for simulating the techniques of filigree and granulation used in antique jewellery. A variety of chainwork and hinged pieces with repoussé decoration are characteristic of the firm. Among their most popular designs were pieces ornamented with fine glass mosaic inspired by Byzantine jewellery (e.g. bracelet with white and gold mosaic, ...

Article

Celadon  

Gordon Campbell

European term for a type of Chinese stoneware also known as greenware; the name derives from the colour of the dress worn by the shepherd Céladon in the stage version of Honoré d'Urfe's 17th-century pastoral romance, L'Astrée. The natural presence of small percentages of iron and titanium oxide in the glaze raw materials gave a wide range of celadon greens when fired in a reducing atmosphere. The glaze was later imitated in the stoneware of Japan and Korea, and still later in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. China began to export celedons to Japan in the Song period (960–1279); the Japanese gave the name kinuta (‘mallet’) to the finest Longquan celadons, which have a cloudy, blue-green colour.

G. St G. M. Gompertz: Chinese Celadon Wares (London, 1958, rev. 1980)Ice and Green Clouds: Traditions of Chinese Celadon (exh. cat. by Y. Mino and K. R. Tsiang; Indianapolis, IN, Mus. A., 1986)...

Article

Style rooted in 19th-century antiquarian studies of ancient Celtic art in Britain and Ireland. It was a mainly decorative style and first appeared in the 1840s, remaining fashionable from the 1890s to c. 1914 and lingering on through the 1920s. Derived from the complex, intertwining, linear motifs of ancient Celtic ornament, it was employed in metalwork, jewellery, embroidery, wall decoration, wood inlay, stone-carving and textiles. The Celtic Revival was closely related to the English Arts and Crafts Movement’s aim of social and artistic reform and was part of the general upsurge of Romantic interest in the Middle Ages. Its chief characteristics were raised bosses, tightly enmeshed roundels and bands of sinuous, criss-crossing lines, similar to but more abstract than Art Nouveau designs. Sources of inspiration were such Celtic antiquities as the Tara Brooch and the Ardagh Chalice (both 8th century ad; Dublin, N. Mus.), the Battersea Shield (c. 2nd century ...

Article

Sarah Scaturro

[Çaglayan, Hüseyin]

(bNicosia, Aug 12, 1970).

British fashion designer born in Turkish Cyprus. Chalayan won the British Fashion Award for Designer of the Year in 1999 and 2000. He is best known for his cerebral designs that reference architecture, geopolitics and technology, as well as exploring the theme of transformation.

Chalayan was educated in Cyprus before moving to London to attend Central St Martins College of Art and Design, where he graduated with honours in 1993 with a BA in fashion. His innovative final year collection titled ‘The Tangent Flows’ consisted of silk and cotton garments that had been covered in iron shavings and buried for six weeks in a garden. These garments, exhumed right before his show, had developed a rusty, earthy patina that commented on the beauty of decay by echoing the process of burial and rebirth. Soon afterwards, his collection was featured in the windows of the London store Browns.

Chalayan founded his eponymous line the next year with his first commercial collection ‘Cartesia’ for Autumn/Winter ...

Article

Lourdes Font

[Gabrielle Bonheur]

(b Saumur, Aug 19, 1883; d Paris, Jan 10, 1971).

French fashion designer (see fig.). Chanel was one of the most influential fashion designers of the 20th century. Of the modernists who dominated the inter-war period, only Chanel was still active through the 1960s. She began her career as a milliner c. 1909; as a couturière she had two careers, from 1915 to September 1939, when she closed her house at the outbreak of war, and from February 1954 through 1970. Her longevity allowed her to claim or accept responsibility for such milestones as the elimination of the corset and the emergence of the ‘little black dress’, which actually resulted from many factors including the contributions of other designers. Her real achievement was the creation of a personal style that she shared with other women.

Chanel was the daughter of itinerant market peddlers from southern France. Her parents were based in the Loire valley town of Saumur when she was born. When she was 11 years old, her mother died and her father abandoned her and her two sisters at the nearest orphanage. At 18, Chanel became a charity student at a boarding school in the garrison town of Moulins. At 20, she worked ten hours a day as a seamstress at a shop that sold lingerie and linens. Like other Frenchwomen of her age and class, she dreamed of fame and fortune as a music hall star, but when she made her début at the café La Rotonde in Moulins in ...

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Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Paris, March 6, 1829; d Paris, Nov 12, 1896).

French sculptor and writer. Born in humble circumstances, he was apprenticed to a jeweller at the age of 11. He subsequently trained with the painter Abel de Pujol (1785–1861) but seems to have taught himself the techniques of sculpture, and at the 1848 Salon he exhibited a plaster sketch of Khair-ed-Din, called Barbarossa (untraced). In 1851, on the advice of his patron, the Comte de Nieuwekerke, he became François Rude’s last pupil. In 1853 he exhibited a plaster group of Queen Hortense and her Son Louis Napoleon (untraced; ex-Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Mus. A.), which brought him a commission from Louis Napoleon, by then Napoleon III, for a marble of the same group (Compiègne, Château); this was exhibited in 1855 at the Exposition Universelle, Paris. During the remaining years of the Second Empire, Chatrousse executed a number of sculptures to decorate public buildings in Paris, such as the Louvre, the Tuileries, the Hôtel de Ville and numerous churches. He exhibited works with religious and historical subjects: some of these, such as ...

Article

J. V. G. Mallet

English ceramic factory. The date of the foundation of the factory, situated in the London village of that name, is uncertain. It is likely that a French jeweller, Charles Gouyn (d 1785), founded the factory jointly with Nicholas Sprimont and that they obtained technical help from a German chemist, whose name is given, perhaps unreliably, as ‘d’Ostermann’. Around 1749, following initial losses, Gouyn left the partnership but continued to make, at Bennet Street, St James’s, or near Hyde Park Corner, ‘very beautiful small porcelain figures’ thought to include the scent bottles and seals of the so-called ‘Girl-in-a-swing’ class, which used formerly to be confused with Chelsea products. Sprimont’s first known connection with the Chelsea factory site was on 12 September 1744, and the earliest datable products are the ‘goat-and-bee’ jugs inscribed 1745; this seems a probable date when commercial production began. The factory expanded in size and productivity until ...