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Jon Whiteley

(b Paris, March 25, 1813; d Montigny-lès-Corneilles, nr Paris, Jan 16, 1880).

French painter, writer and lithographer. He was given his first art lesson by his uncle, Nicolas-Auguste Hesse, in Paris, then moved to the studio of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. According to Auvray in the Dictionnaire général, he also studied with the sculptor Denys Foyatier. Like a number of Ingres’s pupils, Galimard was involved in decorating the newly built or newly restored churches of the July Monarchy and the Second Empire. At his first Salon in 1835 he exhibited Three Marys at the Tomb, a Châtelaine of the 15th Century and a portrait of his cousin, Mme Lefèvre (all untraced). The following year he exhibited one of his first attempts at glass painting, The Queen of the Angels (broken by a gust of wind during the exhibition), and a painting, Liberty Leaning on Christ Flanked by the Apostles James and John (untraced), a subject indicating sympathy with the social ideology of Charles Fourier or Saint-Simon. In ...


(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...


Christiaan Schuckman

(b ?in or nr The Hague, c. 1580–85; d ?Amsterdam, after in or 1627).

Dutch painter, etcher, woodcutter, draughtsman and writer. On 6 November 1605 he married Jannetje Cornelis, the daughter of Cornelis Sybertsz. Monicx van Montvoort, a stained-glass painter from The Hague. He received his first artistic training from his father-in-law and probably not during the journey he is supposed to have made to Italy. Between 1600 and 1605 he was registered at the Guild of St Luke in The Hague, in 1612 as a master. During this period he probably made all but two of his etchings, a woodcut of the Inspiration of St Jerome (1613) and a painting of Venus as Temptress (Haarlem, priv. col., see van Thiel, 1983, no. 6). Despite his skilled etching technique, evident in his refined use of hatching, cross-hatching and dots, and his experiments with plate tone, van den Valckert applied himself almost exclusively to painting after 1613. His history paintings are similar in their academic formalism to those of Adriaen van Nieulandt and Pieter Isaacsz., two of the artist’s rivals in Amsterdam, while his idealized, historicizing portraits resemble those of Cornelis van der Voort (...