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(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...


(b Long Eaton, Derbys, Aug 4, 1877; d London, July 7, 1970).

English painter and designer. She studied at Nottingham College of Art from 1889. In 1894 the deaths of her mother and grandmother left her dependent on her own earnings, and she taught art from a studio in the Castle Rooms, Nottingham. From 1903 she exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy, London, and in the same year married the painter Harold Knight (1874–1961); they lived in an artists’ community in Staithes, north Yorkshire, until 1907, also spending time in another community in Laren, Netherlands. They then moved to Newlyn, Cornwall, attracted by the presence of a number of prominent artists. The couple exhibited together at the Leicester Galleries, London, in 1912. Although Knight painted various subjects, her reputation was founded on paintings of the ballet and the circus, which became predominant after she moved to London. Technically of a high standard, her narrative realist works were painted in bright colours and have limited depth of expression (e.g. ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Ropczyce, nr Rzeszów, March 19, 1869; d Wadowice, nr Kraków, July 8, 1946).

Polish painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From 1887 he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański, as the two most talented pupils of the School, were engaged to assist Matejko in his decorative wall paintings for the Gothic Church of St Mary in Kraków. This work aroused Mehoffer’s interest in both fresco and stained glass. In 1889–90 he studied at the Kunstakademie, Vienna, and in 1891 he travelled through Salzburg, Innsbruck and Basle (where the work of Arnold Böcklin caught his imagination), eventually going to Paris. There he studied at the Académie Colarossi, at the Ecole Nationale des Arts Décoratifs and, from 1892, in the atelier of Léon Bonnat at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. During his stay in Paris (1891–6) he devoted much time to studying works by the Old Masters in the Louvre; he also studied architecture, making a tour of medieval cathedrals in France in ...


Aude Pessey-Lux

(b Paris, March 14, 1856; d Corneilla-de-Conflent, Pyrénées-Orientales, Nov 26, 1929).

French painter, wood-engraver and stained-glass designer. He enrolled in Paris at the Académie Julian in 1874 and the Académie Colarossi in 1882, attending the latter until World War I in order to work from live models. In 1880 he unsuccessfully submitted a landscape to the Salon in Paris; consequently he did no serious painting for several years. Having built his own boat, he went sailing in the western Mediterranean (1882–5). During the voyage he wrote seafaring tales that appeared in Le Yacht (1883–5) accompanied by his own illustrations. After returning to Paris, in 1887 he met Gauguin, with whom he became close friends. That year he painted his first finished canvases, views of Catalonia and the Languedoc, inspired by Neo-Impressionism (e.g. Church at Angoustrine, 1887; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). At this time he also painted portraits of his first wife and of his friends. In 1894 he completed some interior designs with his friend ...


Petr Wittlich

(b Kroměříž, Sept 17, 1873; d Prague, Feb 10, 1962).

Czech painter, draughtsman, engraver, stained-glass designer, mosaicist and teacher. From 1891 to 1896 he studied under Maximilián Pirner at the Academy of Fine Art (Akademie Výtvarných Umění) in Prague, where he distinguished himself so brilliantly that he was given a studio for a further two years. From 1891 he was a member of the Mánes Union of Artists. His work was inspired by fin-de-siècle Symbolism and French Intimisme, as well as the art of the Pre-Raphaelites (e.g. Fusion of Souls, 1896; Prague, N.G., Valdštejn Riding Sch.). In 1896, inspired by the work of Puvis de Chavannes, he painted his first fresco (in situ) in the entrance hall of the Provincial Bank (Zemská banka) on Na příkopě, Prague. He studied in Paris in 1898–9 and won a diplôme d’honneur at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 for his Round Portrait (1897; Prague, N.G., Valdštejn Riding Sch.). Švabinský was a distinguished portrait painter and had as his sitters a large number of his fellow countrymen who were famous figures from the worlds of art, literature and music (e.g. ...


John Steen

(b The Hague, June 6, 1868; d Cologne, March 5, 1932).

Dutch painter, printmaker, mosaicist and stained-glass artist. He attended the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1881–8). During this period he painted mainly landscapes in the style of The Hague school. Until c. 1896 he produced Symbolist works, in which the emphatic line flow and the subtle colour shading are especially noticeable, for example The Bride (1893; Otterlo, Kröller-Müller). From 1892 until 1897 he corresponded with Henri Borel, partly about his Symbolist work, often drawing in the letters. During this time he came into close contact with Belgian artists, in particular with Henry Van de Velde through whom he was able to exhibit with Les XX in Brussels. In summer he regularly stayed in Visé, where he produced pastel drawings in a rhythmic pointillism, a style with which he could achieve a form of abstraction.

From 1896 Thorn Prikker concentrated on the applied arts, designing batiks, stained glass, murals, mosaics, furniture and bindings. In ...


Richard J. Boyle

(b Cincinnati, OH, Aug 4, 1853; d Gloucester, MA, Aug 8, 1902).

American painter and printmaker. He began as a painter of window-shades but developed one of the most personal and poetic visions in American landscape painting, portraying nature on canvases that were, in the words of Childe Hassam, ‘strong, and at the same time delicate even to evasiveness’. His first artistic training was under Frank Duveneck, with whom he studied first in Cincinnati and then in Munich (1875–7). His absorption of the Munich style, characterized by bravura brushwork and dextrous manipulation of pigment, with the lights painted as directly as possible into warm, dark grounds derived from Frans Hals and Courbet, is reflected in such paintings as Venice Landscape (1878; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) and Landscape (c. 1882; Utica, NY, Munson–Williams–Proctor Inst.)

Twachtman became increasingly dissatisfied with the Munich style’s lack of draughtsmanship, so he went to Paris in 1883 to study at the Académie Julian. In the winter he concentrated on drawing, and in the summer he painted in the Normandy countryside and at Arques-la-Bataille, near Dieppe. ...