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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

Stylistic term used to define the architecture of western Europe from the 10th to the 12th century ad, subsequently extended to all the arts of the period. ‘Romanesque’ is normally used to describe sculpture, painting and the other arts only after c. 1050, and in certain areas such as Italy, Germany and Spain, Romanesque styles persisted into the 13th century.

The idea of a Romanesque style preceding the Gothic (though of course without these particular labels) was already recognized in the Middle Ages. The 15th-century painting of the Marriage of the Virgin (Madrid, Prado) attributed to the Master of Flémalle, for instance, illustrates the division between the earlier and later ages of the world by contrasting a round-arched building with one with pointed arches. (Although there are numerous Romanesque buildings with pointed arches, this juxtaposition has remained one of the most popular means of distinguishing between the two styles.) English writers of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries used ...

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Style of architecture used chiefly in western Europe and North America from the 1820s until the end of the 19th century. In Europe it was related to the Rundbogenstil and the Byzantine Revival, and in England it was an extension of the Norman Revival. It derived ultimately from Romanesque church architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries. Its principal characteristics were the semicircular arch and the barrel or groin vault. In Bavaria, for example, Leo von Klenze based the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche (1826–37; destr. 1944; rebuilt from 1986) in Munich on the Romanesque Palatine Chapel (begun 1131) in Palermo, Sicily. It was an architecture of stone and brick, sometimes laid in different colours for contrast. Ornament was generally spare, in geometric or foliate patterns and confined to arches, tympana or the ribs of vaulting. The increased use of the style from the 1860s formed part of the general move away from international classicism and the Gothic Revival and towards eclecticism in architecture. The style was, however, most commonly used first for churches and ultimately for prisons....

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Margaret Moore Booker

Term referring to an architectural style popular in mid- to late 19th-century America inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture of Spain, France, and Italy. Admired for its overall picturesque qualities, the signature features of the style were a multitude of round-topped ‘Romanesque’ arches (often springing from clusters of short columns), recessed entrances, cylindrical towers with conical roofs, heavy masonry walls, ornamental corbelling, and asymmetrical massing.

The castle-like Romanesque Revival was initially used for churches and large public buildings, such as courthouses. For a brief period, in the late 1880s and 1890s, a number of houses were built in the style primarily in urban areas of the Northeast and Midwest. Its massive stone or brick walls, arched and arcaded entrances, round-arch windows, and the costliness of materials symbolized the prosperity and worldliness of the newly rich in America during the Industrial Revolution. The first two architects to design buildings in this manner were ...

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Ilene H. Forsyth

French Romanesque collegiate church in Burgundy. Despite unfortunate over-restoration of its once elegant façade, enlargement of its interior by several Gothic chapels and an 18th-century choir, and the fact that no document allows a close dating, the well-preserved nave of this 12th-century collegiate church still presents a Romanesque masterpiece. The nave’s three-part elevation evokes the architectural paradigm of the lost abbey at Cluny while its carved capitals rival those at nearby St Lazare, Autun. Its 14th-century choir-stalls have also survived.

The narratives of its justly famous capitals have been carved with novel, uniquely humanized interpretations of both religious themes, such as the Prophet Balaam, the Flight into Egypt, the First Temptation, the Visit to the Tomb, and the Suicide of Judas; and subjects that mix everyday life and fantasy, such as nude boys betting on cock-fighting, hybrid beasts, lush foliage metamorphosing into leaf-men, and human faces wearing flower bonnets. The use of the drill has allowed striking virtuosity in the carving, creating pools of dark against light for highly expressive purposes. Decorative devices (foliage, whorls, wheels) have been added to enhance narrative and theatrical effects. For example, irregular wheels suggest the donkey’s jerky, docile gait; stiff foliage and baulky legs mimic the obtuse Balaam. The angular thrust inherent in the shape of jutting corners of capitals has been subtly exploited: figures carved at these critical junctures project into the viewer’s space, for example, on the ...

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[Mariae Geburt]

Parish church 4 km north of Hollabrunn, Lower Austria, noted for its Romanesque sculpture. Dated on stylistic grounds to the second quarter of the 13th century, it originally had a rib-vaulted nave of two bays, a square chancel with a tower, and a semicircular apse. The tower was demolished in the 1780s, when the nave was extended and a west tower built, and the vaults were replaced with wood and stucco. From 1975 to 1977 the original altar was revealed and the presbytery vaulting constructed.

The reliefs on the apse exterior, the most extensive programme of high medieval Austrian sculpture, consist of architectural ornament and 12 reliefs. The apse is partitioned into three by half shafts, and the themes were carefully organized: the Fall and Redemption of Man on the south, Christ in Majesty and Pride on the east, and Lust and Purity on the north. The subject-matter and position of the reliefs are connected. The themes above the windows have definitive character: the ...

Article

Nigel J. Morgan

Spanish Augustinian religious house in Huesca, Aragon, founded in 1183 by Sancha (d 1208), wife of Alfonso II of Aragon (reg 1162–96). The church (1188) has a nave and two aisles and is a Latin cross in plan. It has a fine Romanesque portal. Sancha is buried in the church, and the mausoleum chapel of S Pedro off the north transept contains the tombs of her son Peter II of Aragon (d 1213), his sister, and some of his comrades-in-arms. The tombs of the prioresses are elsewhere in the church. There are also a Romanesque cloister and a rectangular chapter house with wall paintings (see §1 below). Features dating from the 13th century include the Mudéjar ceiling and paintings in the Prioress’s Room, and a cycle of paintings in the church. The chapel of S Juan was added to the church in ...

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James D’Emilio

Benedictine abbey near Burgos, Spain, noted for its Romanesque cloister. The abbey, documented in ad 919 with a gift from Count Fernán Gonzalez, was restored and reformed during the abbacy of St Dominic of Silos (1041–73). A contemporary manuscript from Silos (Paris, Bib. N., MS. n.a.lat. 2169, fol. 37bis v) records a consecration by Abbot Fortunio in 1088. After difficult years, the abbey enjoyed renewed prosperity under Abbot Juan (reg 1118–42), obtaining papal protection and generous gifts from King Alfonso VII (reg 1126–57). Revenues were allocated for work on the cloister in a budget of 1158. The Romanesque church was razed in the 18th century, but descriptions by abbots Gerónimo de Nebrada (reg 1572–8) and Baltazar Diaz (reg 1729–33, 1749–53, 1765–9), who supervised its demolition, two plans in the abbey archives, and findings from Iñiguez’s excavations of 1931 and 1934 provide a basis for a reconstruction, although the evidence is contradictory. The church was built in several campaigns and stood on two levels on sloping terrain. The lower church terminated in three eastern apses, and the main arcade was supported by large cylindrical piers in the two easternmost bays and compound piers in the two bays lying to the west of the line of an earlier façade. A porch adjoined the north wall. The pavement was raised and steps built over the central and south apses when the upper church was added; this had three apses preceded by deep choir bays, a shallow apse off each transept arm, and compound crossing piers. Comparisons with Jaca Cathedral and S Isidoro, León, show that the consecration of ...

Article

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

[Simrishamn]

Twelfth-century church, restored in 1905, located in the south-eastern region of Skåne in Sweden, which during the medieval period was a province of Denmark. Simris Church was built as part of a massive construction of Romanesque churches that occurred across the North after Asser was declared the first Archbishop of Lund (1103/1104) and the reigns of Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Canute VI (reg 1182–1202) brought political stability to the new alliance between Church and State. The richly ornamented church preserves one of three baptismal fonts in Skåne carved by the Majestatis Tryde workshop (the other two are Östra Nobbelöv and Stenkyrka), and it has retained the fragmentary remains of late medieval wall paintings on the western wall and in the chancel, attributed to the Konga group dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, which depict events from the Life of Christ.

The chalice-shaped font, made of sandstone, was carved with a two-tiered, hierarchical, pictorial programme around the upper basin; the basin is supported by a stone base with four animal heads and motifs between each head. Scenes from the ...

Article

Ronald Alley

(b Rodez, Aveyron, Dec 24, 1919).

French painter, printmaker and sculptor. He was greatly impressed as a boy by the Celtic carvings (incised menhirs and graffiti) in the museum at Rodez and by the architecture and sculpture of the Romanesque abbey of Ste-Foy at Conques. In 1938 he went to Paris for the first time, where he visited the Louvre and saw exhibitions of Cézanne and Picasso. With the intention of training to be a drawing teacher, he enrolled in a studio in Paris but was encouraged instead to enter the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts; he was, however, bitterly disappointed by what was being taught there, which seemed to fall far short of what he had just seen, and returned to Rodez. The paintings he was making at this time were of trees in winter, without their leaves, with the black branches forming a tracery against the sky. He was called up in 1941 but demobilized almost at once. He moved to Montpellier to continue his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts there but spent most of the war working clandestinely on a farm in the Montpellier area to avoid forced labour in Germany. He was able to do very little painting during the Occupation, but he became aware of abstract art through his friendship with Sonia Delaunay, whom he met ...

Article

Zoe Mindell

Richly illustrated Romanesque manuscript on vellum (276×184 mm; Hildesheim, Dombibliothek, MS. St Godehard 1), commissioned about 1123 at the Benedictine St Albans Abbey, England, by Abbot Geoffrey de Gorham (reg 1119–46) for Christina of Markyate (d c. 1155), prioress at the St Albans convent from 1145. Christina came to St Albans after living among hermits, having fled a forced marriage years earlier, and her story informs the manuscript. Obits added later for Christina and her family also help to date the Psalter. Forty full-page miniatures constitute one of the finest and first such Romanesque series painted in England and the text includes the earliest extant literature in Anglo-Norman French. Composed of four parts, the manuscript comprises the calendar, the miniature cycle, and the Alexis quire (including the Life of St Alexis, with many parallels to Christina’s life), followed by the traditional liturgical elements beginning with the Psalms. In addition to the miniatures, 211 historiated initials decorate the Psalter, and medallions in the calendar illustrate the Labours of the Months and zodiac signs (...

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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

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John Cameron

Former Benedictine abbey church in Burgundy, France. This is the only large-scale church that exhibits to a significant degree characteristics of both northern and southern Romanesque architecture. Disagreement in the 19th century and the early 20th about the building chronology, with controversy over the date of both the choir plan, with ambulatory and radiating chapels, and the narthex, has led to debate over the building’s significance in architectural history. More recently, scepticism has been expressed over the documentary evidence provided in the mid-11th-century Ardain text (see below).

St Philibert is a complex structure, c. 80 m long. At the west end is a two-storey narthex of three bays, with a two-tower façade over the western bay (the north tower has an added belfry; see fig.). The narthex exhibits a wide variety of Romanesque vaulting: the central vessel of the lower storey is groin-vaulted, with transverse barrel vaulting in the aisles; in the upper storey the main vessel has a longitudinal barrel vault, supported by quadrant vaults in the aisles. The vast five-bay nave (...

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

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Vác  

Barbra Ruckriegel Egerváry

[formerly Ger. Weitzen]

Town in Hungary 35 km north of Budapest on the left bank of the Danube. In the 11th century an episcopal see was established there by Stephen I (reg 997–1038), who built a fortified Romanesque castle and cathedral. After the town was invaded by the Mongols in 1241, Béla IV (reg 1235–70) rebuilt the castle and had the fortifications strengthened. In the 14th century the cathedral was rebuilt in Gothic style, and at the end of the 15th century Bishop Miklós Báthori had the town redesigned in Renaissance style and a new cathedral built. From 1544 to 1686 Vác was ruled by the Turks. After they were driven out, the ruined town was again rebuilt in the 18th century by the bishops of Vác.

Plans for the 18th-century cathedral, the most important building in Vác, were drawn up by Franz Anton Pilgram under the direction of Bishop Károly Esterházy. Although construction did not begin until ...

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan, and Leonie von Wilckens

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