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Article

Gary Michael Tartakov

[Barābar; Nāgārjunī]

Indian monastic site 25 km north of Gaya in north-east India, which flourished in the late 3rd century bc. Seven rock-cut caves were excavated among granite outcroppings of the Barabar and Nagarjuni hills. All are severely geometric interiors modelled on contemporary wood, brick and thatch structures. Three of those on Barabar Hill were inscribed to record their creation by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (reg c. 269–232 bc). The three on nearby Nagarjuni Hill are inscribed by his grandson Dasharatha (reg c. 232 bc). They were created for use by wandering Ajivika mendicants. The halls are all vaulted and, where complete, have the mirror-smooth finish characteristic of Mauryan art. The caves are the oldest surviving intact architectural forms in India.

The Lomas Rishi cave in the Barabar group has no inscription but is famous for an extremely precise and elegant relief simulation of a wood-joinery (torana...

Article

P. R. Giot

Site of Neolithic multiple-chambered tomb in Brittany, France, 13 km north of Morlaix (see also Prehistoric Europe, §IV, 2, (v), (b)). Discovered in 1851 and excavated and restored between 1955 and 1968, this monument is typical of the complex cairns of the region. It is trapezoidal in form, measuring 72 m long and up to 27 m wide and 8 m high, and it is constructed of dry-stone masonry. There were two principal phases of construction. The primary cairn, on the east, contains five passage graves arranged side by side and had two concentric revetment walls. Charcoal from Chamber G, the passage of which was well blocked, has yielded a radiocarbon date in the later 5th millennium bc after calibration, equivalent to the oldest known dates for passage graves of the Atlantic seaboard. Chamber H has an antechamber and five orthostats with pecked decoration. The capstone of the easternmost tomb has a carved figure in an abnormal position indicating that it is a reused stone from an older monument. Few grave goods have been recovered from this primary cairn. The secondary cairn extended the first towards the west and down a slope, so the number of supporting revetment walls had to be increased from four to six in places. It contains six more passage graves, most of which have yielded early Neolithic radiocarbon dates and grave goods, although two also had some later material. The internal passages are of dry-stone masonry supporting capstones; there are some orthostats, but these do not have a structural function. Most of the chambers are of dry-stone corbelling, although two have capstones and supports. Local dolerite was used for the smaller blocks and stones in the cairns, while granite from an island 2 km away was chosen for the megalithic slabs and for the outer blocks of the secondary cairn. The Barnenez monument demonstrates a keen sense of grandiose architectural design among its builders, who maintained continuity over the several generations it took to complete. Naturally, there were some slight changes during the successive accretions; the western extremity of the secondary cairn, in particular, is somewhat prow-shaped and ostentatious, but it is clear that the limiting structures were built to be seen as stepped tiers. The obstruction of certain passages was also important, and a small part of the forecourt between two passage entrances had accumulated offerings of pottery. The main holdings of material from the site are housed in the Musée Préhistorique Finistérien, Penmarch....

Article

Baroli  

Heather Elgood

[Badoli]

Group of Hindu temples of the 10th century ad, 45 km south-west of Kota in Rajasthan, India. Despite some damage, the three Baroli temples are among the finest examples of the Gurjara–Pratihara style in western India. Construction was begun in the mid-9th century. The best preserved is the Ghateshvara Mahadeva Temple, comprising a columned porch, a sanctuary with a spire and a separate hall. Sacred to Shiva, the temple is named after a central liṅga formed of a natural stone resembling an inverted pot (ghaṭa). On the outer walls are sculptures including images of the dancing Shiva (Nataraja) on the west, Chamunda on the north and Shiva spearing Andaka on the south; there is a fine figure of Parvati within the sanctum. On the lintel of the sanctuary doorway is a dancing Shiva flanked by Brahma and Vishnu; on the jambs below are carvings of guardian figures and river goddesses shaded by lotus-leaf parasols. The adjoining porch contains six columns with female figures carved on the shafts and a pyramidal (...

Article

Joan K. Lingen

Site in Panama, in the Volcan Baru district of Chiriquí Province near the Costa Rican border. It is one of the best known and most elaborate Pre-Columbian Panamanian sites; it flourished c. ad 400–c. 800. Barriles was first excavated in 1949 by Matthew Stirling under the auspices of the National Geographic Society and the Smithsonian Institution. Alejandro Mendez, Director of the Museo Nacional de Panamá, Panama City, had previously visited the site and removed the large figural sculptures for display at the museum. Other objects from the excavations are also at the Museo Nacional. In 1972 Olga Linares, Payson Sheets, and Jane Rosenthal excavated at Barriles to help clarify its chronological and cultural relationship with the rest of western Panama. Ceramic analysis and radiocarbon dating place the major occupation of Barriles and its artistic output before c. ad 800. Most of the pottery consists of simple, unpainted, and incised vessels, much like the Aguas Buenas pottery of Panama and some from central Costa Rica. Rare examples contain designs painted in red or black. The most common forms are small globular vessels with short tripod supports and bowls with flat bottoms. Somewhat crudely modelled animal forms are attached to the rims or bodies of some examples. Others feature negative-painted designs on the vessel interiors. Stirling also excavated tombs containing large, lidded urns 920 mm high, with human and animal imagery painted in red and bright yellow on the necks of the vessels....

Article

A. F. Harding

Site of Bronze Age settlement with fortified tower ( Nuraghe) in central-southern Sardinia, Italy. The tower of Su Nuraxi near Barumini is one of the most spectacular and fully developed of all the Sardinian nuraghi. Lying at a height of 238 m above sea-level on a terrace overlooking a fertile plain, it controlled an important route from the Campidano plain near Cagliari to the interior of the island. The site occupies about 1350 sq. m, of which the nuraghe takes up about one third. Excavations were carried out by Giovanni Lilliu in 1940 and between 1949 and 1954.

The history of the fortified elements of the site is complex. An initial tower of simple form, originally 18.6 m high and 10 m in diameter, lies eccentrically to the succeeding defensive conglomeration. The external walls, of uniform gradient, are formed of massive polyhedral basalt blocks in the lower courses and squared blocks in the upper. The tower contains three vaulted rooms, one above the other, the lowest having an entrance corridor with niches and a staircase opening. A radiocarbon date of 3410±200 ...

Article

Yvonne Jankova

(Viktor)

(b Prague, July 14, 1823; d Prague, July 20, 1901).

Bohemian architect, draughtsman and archaeologist, brother of Viktor Barvitius. Antonín Barvitius grew up in the Little Quarter of Prague, in the household of Count Jiří František August Buquoy (1781–1851), where his father worked. From 1840 to 1843 he studied various subjects at the Czech Technical University in Prague, and he also painted and became interested in architecture, particularly Gothic buildings. In 1844 he went to Vienna, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Karl Rösner, August Siccard von Siccardburg and Eduard Van der Nüll. In addition to Gothic art, he also studied the Renaissance and was interested in the theories of Gottfried Semper. In 1848 he opened his own studio in Vienna and began designing commercial and residential houses and tombstones for the bourgeoisie. In 1851–2 he designed a department store in Feldgasse and in 1853 a block of apartment houses in the Barichgasse. He also designed the façade of Casa Rigoni in the Schüllerstrasse. In ...

Article

Janet DeLaine

(Rome)

Janet DeLaine

Basilica erected on the site of the earlier Horrea Piperataria (Spice Market), in a prominent position overlooking the eastern end of the Forum Romanum. It was begun by the Emperor Maxentius (reg AD 306–12), possibly following the fire of AD 307, which severely damaged the nearby Temple of Venus and Rome, but was only completed, in slightly altered form, after his death in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (AD 312). The Senate subsequently dedicated it to his victorious rival Constantine. The collapse of the nave and south aisle in the medieval period created the imposing ruin visible today (see fig.). It was a popular subject for Renaissance artists, who identified it mistakenly as the Templum Pacis, and it may have inspired Bramante’s design for St Peter’s in Rome.

Unlike most earlier basilicas, which had internal colonnades and trabeated timber roofs, the Basilica of Maxentius was built with brick-faced concrete walls and concrete vaults, to a design based on the ...

Article

Bassai  

Frederick Cooper

Site on the slopes and peak of Mt Kotilon in Arcadia, southern Greece, overlooking the fertile plains of Messenia. It is renowned for the late 5th-century bc Temple of Apollo with its sculptured Ionic frieze, its peculiar plan and the earliest extant Corinthian capital.

Apollo Bassitas was the principal god but his sanctuary also embraced cults to other gods, notably Artemis. Twin temples to Apollo and Artemis were built by c. 625–600 bc, the former (Apollo I) found immediately south of the present structure. The second temple (Apollo II, c. 575 bc) was replaced by Apollo III c. 500 bc, and blocks from Apollo III were reused in the last temple, Apollo IV, the remains of which stand today. The construction of Apollo IV began shortly after 429 bc, according to Pausanias, although some scholars date it to one or more generations earlier. Other evidence, however, including inscriptions and literary references, support Pausanias’ date. The architect was ...

Article

Stephan Kroll

[Pers. Basṭām; anc. Rusai.uru.tur]

Site in the north-west of Iran of a major Urartian castle of the first half of the 7th century bc (see Urartian). Bastam lies c. 50 km north of the modern city of Khoy and c. 1300 m above sea-level. The site is on a steep mountain cliff on the left bank of the River Aq Chay, overlooking a wide, fertile plain. In antiquity several channels were diverted from the river to water the adjacent plains. A major east-west route ran past Bastam, connecting the Urartian capital in Van (eastern Turkey) with territories in what are now Azerbaijan and Armenia. The site was discovered in 1967 by Wolfram Kleiss of the German Archaeological Institute in Tehran, who conducted excavations from 1968 to 1978. The finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

In reorganizing his kingdom, the Urartian king Rusa II (reg c. 680–640 bc) erected in Bastam one of his three royal residences (...

Article

Izumi Shimada

Region in La Leche Valley on the north coast of Peru, which contains numerous archaeological sites. The central part of the valley, over 55 sq. km in area, has been designated the Poma National Archaeological and Ecological Reserve because of the concentration of some 30 major Pre-Columbian cemeteries and mounds nested within dense semi-tropical thorny native forest. The most notable period of local cultural development was the Middle Sicán (see Sicán), c. ad 900–1100, when the Sicán funerary–religious precinct (see fig.), the dominant feature of Batán Grande, was built. Delineated by some dozen monumental adobe pyramids, it covers an area extending c. 1.6 km east–west and 1 km north–south.

The long-term funerary and religious importance of the Poma Reserve is underlined by the limited evidence for widespread or intensive agricultural activity there, despite its abundant fertile alluvium. As the beginning and end of various major canals, Batán Grande controlled the vital local water supplies and thus held political control over the adjacent valleys. Although a Late Sicán shift of settlement away from Batán Grande removed much of this political significance, the site clearly retained its eminence as a key burial and metallurgical centre up to the Spanish conquest. The Spanish name for the area in fact derives from the hundreds of large ...

Article

Janet DeLaine

(Rome)

Janet DeLaine

Vast baths south of the Porta Capena. Known in Latin as the Thermae Antoninianae, they are the best preserved of the Imperial thermae (see also Rome, ancient §II 1., (i), (d)) and the only ones in which the combination of monumental architecture and garden setting can still be appreciated. Begun c. AD 211, the baths were dedicated by Caracalla (reg AD 211–17) in AD 216, although the outer precinct was not completed until the reign of Alexander Severus (reg AD 222–35). There were several later restorations, and an apse was added to the caldarium in the 4th century AD. Fifth-century AD sources record the baths as one of the wonders of Rome, while brick-stamps of the Ostrogothic king Theodoric (reg AD 493–526) suggest that they continued in use into the 6th century AD.

The site chosen for the baths was terraced to create a platform (328×323 m) from which rose the bathing block proper, surrounded by gardens. Incorporated in the platform were extensive subterranean service areas, including a water-mill and a large Mithraeum. Two tiers of barrel-vaulted chambers formed an impressive façade overlooking the Via Nova, while a monumental staircase led down from the Aventine Hill at the rear. The hillside was buttressed by a series of cisterns fed from an aqueduct built especially to serve the baths. Tiered rows of seats masked the cisterns and provided an area for performances; flanking this were libraries. Either side of the garden between the bathing block and the theatre area were broad exedrae housing other halls for cultural and social activities....

Article

Bavian  

John M. Russell

Site in northern Iraq, c. 60 km north-east of Mosul. Near the modern village of Bavian, at Khinnis on the River Gomel, is the head of a canal built by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (reg 704–681 bc) to supply water for Nineveh. The site is best known for its Neo-Assyrian rock reliefs (see also Mesopotamia, §III, 6, (i)), which were described and illustrated by Austen Henry Layard and Walter Bachmann. In 1934 Thorkild Jacobsen and Seton Lloyd traced the water transfer system. A large stone block (6×4×8 m; now broken) was placed at the point where water was diverted into the canal. Two of its faces are sculpted with human-headed bull colossi flanking a human figure holding a lion (a group used also on the façades of Sennacherib’s palace at Nineveh) and with images of the king worshipping gods who stand on sacred animals. A large relief (9.3×9.2 m) on the rock face just south of the canal head depicts two gods flanked by two images of the king. The ...

Article

Bawit  

C. Walters

Site on the west bank of the River Nile, c. 16 km west of Daryūt in the province of Asyūt, Egypt. A large monastery with rich sculptural and painted decoration originally lay in the desert 1 km to the west. According to tradition it was founded by the monk Apollo in the late 4th century ad and was inhabited until the late 12th century. The site was excavated intermittently between 1901 and 1913 by the French Archaeological Institute in Cairo; most of the structural finds were removed to the Coptic Museum in Cairo and the Louvre in Paris. The monastery consisted of an enclosed nucleus with other buildings outside the walls, although it is not known how much of the site was occupied at any given time. Within the enclosed area were two churches. A number of two-storey structures were excavated, of which the ground floors were probably chapels and the upper floors served as living quarters, as in the monastery of Apa Jeremiah at Saqqara (...

Article

(b Liège, May 25, 1849; d Toulon, Sept 17, 1918).

Belgian administrator, historian and art historian. During his early career Bayet spent some years at the French schools of archaeology at Athens and Rome (1871–74), where he developed a special interest in Byzantine studies. In 1874 he was sent with Father Duchesne on an archaeological expedition to Mt Athos. Their study of the mosaics, inscriptions and manuscripts found there and elsewhere in Greece was published in 1876. Bayet became Professor of the Faculty of Literature at Lyon in 1876, but he was compelled to widen his field and cover medieval art and history, since Byzantine art and archaeology were still considered very narrow and negligible subjects. From 1896 he took a succession of administrative posts and was forced to give up his research altogether. Despite the brevity of his career as a Byzantinist, Bayet contributed works of meticulous scholarship that rejected the hypothesizing of previous scholars, laid solid groundwork for further study and established him as master in his field. The culmination of his research, and the first complete survey of the subject, was his ...

Article

(b Glasgow, Sept 13, 1885; d Oxford, May 6, 1970).

British scholar and archaeologist. He is best known for his life-long study of Athenian figure-decorated vases. His career at Oxford began in 1903, when he went up to Balliol College as a student. From 1907 to 1920 he was a lecturer at Christ Church College, from 1920 to 1925 University Lecturer in Classical Archaeology, and in 1925–56 Lincoln Professor of Classical Archaeology. He was created a Knight Bachelor in 1949 and a Companion of Honour in 1959.

Beazley contributed significantly to many aspects of Classical scholarship. His extensive work on Athenian vase painting of the 6th, 5th and 4th centuries bc includes such publications as Attic Black-figure Vase-painters (1956) and, in 1963, the expanded edition of his Attic Red-figure Vase-painters (1942). These volumes together list over 50,000 vases, which he assigned to more than 1000 artists, classes and groups. Further attributions followed in Paralipomena (1970...

Article

Bedsa  

Gary Michael Tartakov

[Bedsā]

Buddhist monastic and pilgrimage site in Maharashtra, western India, that flourished c. 50 bcad 50. Situated in the hills a few kilometres east of the rock-cut shrines of Bhaja and Karle, Bedsa overlooks the trade route linking the ancient seaport of Kalyan with the interior (see Indian subcontinent, §I, 6, (i)). The site contains two important rock-cut excavations, a vihāra (monastic dwelling) and a chaitya (hall of worship). The vihāra is of the early type, the façades of which (destr.) were made of perishable materials. Its rock-cut interior, with a vaulted ceiling and an apsidal plan, is unique among vihāras which are generally flat-roofed and quadrangular.

In the nearby chaitya, the vertical cliff-face was carved to form an elaborate façade simulating wooden railings, lattices and arches in four storeys on either side of a large, arched opening. It is an outstanding example of the pan-Indian style of the 2nd–1st centuries ...

Article

Begram  

Kurt Behrendt

[Begrām; anc. Kāpiśī, Kapisa]

Site of an ancient city located at the junction of the Panjshir and Ghorbend rivers near the modern village of Begram, 40 km north of Kabul, Afghanistan. Based on coins and structural finds of Indo-Greek origin, it is believed that Kāpiśī was an important city in the region, possibly a capital under the Kushana rulers. In the course of excavations in 1937–9, Joseph Hackin and Ria Hackin discovered in two contiguous chambers a wealth of important objects. These included Chinese lacquer ware, Greco-Roman style bronze and metal sculptures, glass vessels of Roman or Alexandrian origin, a group of Roman plaster casts of older Greek metalwork, and, finally, a large group of Indian ivories (Kabul Mus.; Paris, Mus. Guimet). All of the objects appear to be luxury items of a secular nature, though several non-Indian deities appear. The dating of these objects is unclear. Various ivories, for example, may date from as early as the ...

Article

Robert S. Bianchi

[Arab. Bahbayt al-Hagar; anc. Egyp. Pr-ḥbyt; Lat. Iseum]

Site in northern Egypt, c. 100 km north of Cairo, an important cult centre for the worship of the goddess Isis, which flourished during the 4th century bc. The modern name is a combination of the ancient Egyptian name and the Arabic epithet ‘al-hagar’ (‘the stone’), referring to the jumbled mass of granite blocks from the collapsed Temple of Isis that now litters the site. The site is mentioned in inscriptions of the New Kingdom, but it rose to prominence during the 30th Dynasty (380–343 bc) when Nectanebo II (reg 360–343 bc) sponsored the construction of the Temple of Isis. The geographic proximity of Behbeit el-Hagar to Sebennytos, the capital during the 30th Dynasty, less than 10 km away, implies that Isis was the Dynasty’s titular deity. Behbeit el-Hagar (Iseum) eventually became the capital of an independent nome (administrative province) during the Ptolemaic period (after ...

Article

Beidha  

Peter Dorrell

Site of an early Neolithic settlement on the east side of the Wadi al-Arabah, not far from Petra in the southern part of the Dead Sea rift valley, Jordan. The site is on a shelf of the escarpment, some 400 m below the Arabian desert plateau. Although the site had been occupied in the Natufian period (c. 10,000 bc), it is chiefly important for the light it throws on the development of sedentary village life and agriculture from the last quarter of the 7th millennium bc to the middle of the 6th. Its unbroken sequence from round to rectangular buildings is also of great interest in the development of domestic architecture during this period. Beidha was excavated by Diana Kirkbride during the 1960s and in 1982 to 1983. Finds are in the Jordanian Archaeological Museum in Amman.

Throughout the Neolithic period, building was in stone, and nearly all rooms were semi-subterranean, cut down by at least 0.5 m or more. In the earliest phases rooms were roughly circular, 3 to 4 m in diameter, and clustered in groups with common walls built by infilling between series of wooden uprights. The rooms had central post-holes, and there is evidence of rafters and of the interiors having been plastered overall. At this time a retaining wall was built round the village. In the following phase the circular rooms were often free-standing and built without the uprights. Subsequently rooms became semi-rectangular, with walls gently curved in plan, and finally completely rectangular. During these later phases walls were carefully laid out and well built, and floors and walls were smoothly plastered, with the plaster curved up between the two; many had red-painted dados. A new type of building appeared at this time, consisting of corridors 6 to 7 m long with shorter passages or chambers opening on either side. The thick walls may have supported upper storeys. As well as domestic structures there are workshops, in which a range of artefacts were manufactured, and what appear to be ceremonial buildings....

Article

Belevi  

William E. Mierse

Site of a monumental mausoleum 11 km north-east of Ephesos on the west coast of Turkey. The remaining structure, a core of natural rock shaped into a cube (15.00×24.00×11.37 m) and faced with cut stone blocks, originally formed a podium capped by a Doric frieze. On the podium stood a marble chamber surrounded by a Corinthian colonnade with eight columns on each side. The colonnade supported sculpted lion-griffins in confronted pairs on either side of marble urns, and the roof took the form of a pyramid, probably surmounted by a chariot group (for a suggested reconstruction of mausoleum. Relief sculptures (Izmir, Archaeol. Mus.) depicting Funerary Games and a Battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs (Izmir, Archaeol. Mus.) decorated the ceiling coffers of the colonnade. In the main funerary chamber, which was cut into the rock core, stood a large stone sarcophagus with a reclining crowned figure on its lid (Selçuk, Ephesos Archaeol. Mus.) and a statue of a servant placed near by (untraced). The tomb’s occupant has been identified as Memnon, a general in the service of the Persian king Artaxerxes Ochos (...