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Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....


Nils-Ole Lund


(b Slagelse, Sept 10, 1894; d Copenhagen, Dec 22, 1984).

Danish architect. He trained at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, graduating in 1921. His early buildings of the 1920s were neo-classical in style, but by the beginning of the 1930s he had become a leading exponent of Functionalism. Lauritzen successfully combined the latter with a refined use of materials and detailing, designing Functionalist buildings that were both elegant and intimate in scale. Such qualities were apparent in his airport building on Amager, outside Copenhagen (1937–9). Its wave-shaped concrete roof was very advanced for the time; the plan also was unusually detailed and well developed for this type of building.

Lauritzen’s Radiohuset (1937–45), the broadcasting complex in Copenhagen, was built according to the principles of Functionalism. Offices with continuous bands of windows, studios and the concert hall were housed in separate, tile-covered blocks. The concert hall was covered with a shell-like roof. Its largely windowless volume reflects the interior space of the hall. During the 1950s his designs became more systematic and less experimental. In ...


Despina Stratigakos

(b Aken, May 8, 1875; d Hovedissen, Aug 4, 1951).

German architect. Winkelmann was the first woman to complete an architectural curriculum at a German institute of technology and the first woman to open an architectural firm in Germany. Her interest in architecture was awakened by her grandfather, who owned a building firm in Aken and under whose tutelage she began her training. When she applied to the architecture programme at the Königliche Technische Hochschule in Hannover, she had already designed houses as well as agricultural and industrial buildings in Aken. Despite her qualifications, as a woman she was not permitted to matriculate, but instead studied as an auditor from 1902 until 1907, leaving without a diploma.

In 1907 Winkelmann opened her office in Berlin’s fashionable Westend, establishing the first architectural firm owned by a woman in Germany. Highly successful, her office expanded to 15 employees, including junior female architects. The firm quickly earned a reputation for its residential projects, including homes for writers Rudolf Presber (...