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Rosamond Allwood

(b Dundee, 1838; d London, Jan 28, 1881).

Scottish designer. He served an apprenticeship as a wood-carver in Dundee and ran his own carving business for two years before joining the office of Charles Edward, a local architect. Around 1856 he moved to Glasgow, working first in the practice of the architect W. N. Tait and then with Campbell Douglas (1828–1910). In 1862 he moved to Manchester, where he worked for the cabinetmakers Doveston, Bird & Hull, and by the end of the following year he was in Coventry, working for the wood- and metalworkers Skidmore’s Art Manufactures. In the mid-1860s Talbert moved to London, where he designed award-winning furniture for Holland & Sons’ stand at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867. By 1868 he was designing furniture for Gillows of Lancaster, notably the ‘Pet’ sideboard (1873; London, V&A). He returned to Dundee to set up a design practice, and in 1868 (though dated 1867...


Matico Josephson

American architectural firm formed by Frank Lloyd Wright’s apprentices, the Taliesin Fellows, to complete Wright’s work after his death in 1959, and then to continue his legacy. Based primarily in Scottsdale, AZ, the office was first called Taliesin Associated Architects, and changed its name to Taliesin Architects in 1993.

At his death in 1959, Wright family §(1) had over 30 buildings in progress, including the Guggenheim Museum, New York, and the Beth Shalom Synagogue, Elkins Park, PA, which were under construction; many more were in the design phase, such as the Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, CA, and the Gammage Memorial Auditorium, Tempe, AZ. Fellows who remained at Taliesin after the completion of these last projects formed a core around studio leader William Wesley Peters and Wright’s widow, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright, who controlled the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation.

Wright’s apprentices were often criticized for their lack of originality: While architects like Bruce Goff and Paul Rudolph were free to adapt and borrow from Wright, his immediate pupils were constrained by orthodoxy. In the words of Peter Blake, “It is fair to say that through the years the Taliesin Fellowship has produced no great architects… Wright’s Taliesin, being inextricably tied to a great individualist, produced only ‘yes’ men” (...


Paul Kruty

(b Washington, DC, April 24, 1876; d Arcola, IL, Jan 1, 1940).

American architect and author. Remembered at the time of his death as an ecclesiastical architect and author of several popular histories of architecture, Tallmadge began his career as a member of one of the most prolific firms associated with the progressive movement to create a modern American architecture now known as the Prairie school . Although his partner, Vernon Watson, was the firm’s lead designer, Tallmadge used his writing talent to promote the new architecture. In 1908 he penned the first article announcing that the followers of Louis Sullivan, a vibrant and creative group that included Frank Lloyd Wright, had emerged as a cohesive and influential movement, which Tallmadge termed “The Chicago school .”

Tallmadge grew up in Evanston, IL. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1898 and joined the Chicago firm of D. H. Burnham & Co., where he remained until 1904. In that year he traveled to Europe by winning a competition sponsored by the Chicago Architectural Club. Shortly after his return he joined a colleague from the Burnham office, Vernon S. Watson (...


June F. Engelbrecht and Lloyd C. Engelbrecht

(b Toledo, OH, March 5, 1860; d El Paso, TX, Sept 19, 1933).

American architect and designer. As an architect Trost is best known as the principal architect of the firm of Trost & Trost, formed in El Paso in 1903. Others active with the firm included his twin brothers Gustavus Adolphus Trost and Adolphus Gustavus Trost (1876–1957), his nephew George Ernst Trost, and Everett Bradt. A highlight of the firm’s achievements is the largest reinforced concrete building in the world at the time of its completion, the 1911 Mills Building in El Paso, for which Adolphus Gustavus Trost was engineer. Another highlight was the first high-rise hotel in the Hilton chain, opened in El Paso in 1930.

As a designer Trost’s most appealing work was accomplished in Chicago from about 1888 to 1896, when he was an influential designer in ornamental metal for the Chicago Ornamental Iron Company and other firms. An architect who influenced Henry Trost was Louis Sullivan...


Donlyn Lyndon

(b New York City, NY, April 1, 1935; d Sausalito, CA, June 26, 1997).

American architect. Educated at Princeton University, Turnbull pursued graduate work including studies with Jean Labatut, Charles W. Moore and Louis I. Kahn, who guided his Master’s degree thesis in 1959. Subsequently he worked in the San Francisco office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill before joining Moore, Donlyn Lyndon and Richard Whitaker to form MLTW/Moore Lyndon Turnbull Whitaker in Berkeley, CA, in 1962. He founded his own office in San Francisco in 1970. William Turnbull Associates eventually became Turnbull Griffin Haesloop and was continued by partners Mary Griffin and Eric Haesloop after his death.

Turnbull developed a crisp vision that was rooted in the experience of the landscape, and the acts of building. He was a skillful and incisive collaborator, bringing to all his work a firm sense of discipline and restraint, fused with a fluid sense of natural process and human presence. His drawings were impeccably clear.

The works most widely known are Condominium One (...


Peter L. Laurence

Although the theory and practice of renovating cities is ancient, and although the term is still used to refer to similar practices today, “urban renewal” typically refers to the large-scale, federally funded redevelopment projects that took place in US cities in the 1950s and 1960s. Such projects wrought dramatic physical transformations and caused controversial social upheaval. Urban renewal in this sense came into being with the US Housing Act of 1954, although it evolved out of a history of government-funded slum clearance and housing project construction dating back to the 1930s. Following two decades of slum clearance and model housing projects including First Houses (1935), Williamsburg Houses (1937) and Stuyvesant Town (1947), all in New York, the US Housing Act of 1949 was signed into law with broad political support due to a national postwar housing shortage. As the immediate legislative predecessor of urban renewal legislation, the Housing Act of ...


Deborah A. Middleton

(b California, Feb 24, 1919; d April 17, 2010).

American architect. An important San Francisco-based architect, Warnecke emerged as the forerunner of contextual modernism in the early 1950s. Contextualism aimed to create a sense of place through a humanistic design approach informed by the pre-existing context of the building’s specific site and the more general locale. This approach was in contrast to pure Modernism, which emphasized non-contextual abstraction without explicit references to architectural history. Spatial volumes, rather than mass and solidity, were highlighted, and buildings evidenced a structural regularity and absence of ornament.

Warnecke was apprenticed in Oakland, CA, to his father who introduced him to the classical Beaux-Arts tradition of architectural design. His formal education in art and engineering at Stanford University was followed by a Masters in Architecture in 1942 from Harvard University, studying under Walter Gropius . Bernard Maybeck and Arthur Brown . worked with Warnecke’s father and became early influences, discouraging Warnecke’s adoption of the Modernist approach to design which dominated mainstream American architecture during the post-World War II era. ...


John Schnorrenberg

American architectural firm founded in Birmingham, AL, in 1917 by William Tilman Warren (b Montgomery, AL, 3 Oct 1877; d 14 April 1962) and Eugene Herbert Knight (b Jacksonville, FL, 30 Nov 1884; d 6 Nov 1971). Knight sought the partnership with Warren and persuaded John Eayres Davis (b Mobile, AL, 4 Aug 1891; d 2 Jan 1961) to join them in 1921. Knight was principal designer, Warren the designer for details and Davis supervisor of execution of work. Warren was elected Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1934 and Knight in 1952. The sons of Knight and Davis, Albion Knight (1915–90) and John Eayres Davis Jr. (1916–89), joined the firm in 1946. The firm closed when the younger Davis died in 1989.

Warren obtained a BSc in engineering at Alabama Polytechnic Institute (later Auburn University) in 1897...


Jan Jennings

(b Decatur, GA, Nov 18, 1885; d Decatur, GA, Nov 13, 1967).

American architect. Georgia’s first registered female architecture, Wilburn designed single-family houses, two-family houses and apartments in the plan book tradition. Wilburn and Emily Elizabeth Holman were the only early 20th century female architects whose published plan books have been documented. A plan book was a catalog of building designs; each design, or stock plan, was represented on a single page with an exterior perspective line drawing or exterior photograph, a descriptive paragraph and a floor plan. Home builders who chose a plan and paid a fee received construction drawings in the mail. Wilburn produced at least ten plan books. As Atlanta grew, Wilburn’s houses defined whole suburbs, a sphere of influence that can be measured on the landscape with thousands of buildings from Atlanta’s center in 1910 outward to districts built in 1965, and encompassing small towns in the region.

A drafting apprenticeship from 1906 to 1907 with the Atlanta architectural firm, B. R. Padgett and Son who designed “fine residences” influenced Wilburn’s choice of domestic architecture as a specialty. In ...


Mark Alan Hewitt

(b Los Angeles, CA, Feb 18, 1894; d Los Angeles, CA, Jan 23, 1980).

American architect. Educated in Los Angeles public schools, Williams was asked by a high school counselor why he wanted to be an architect rather than a doctor, lawyer, or fine artist. His answer was “that I had heard of only one Negro architect in America, and I was sure this country could use one or two more.” Williams went on to become the first African American licensed to practice architecture in California (1921), the first African American Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) (1957), and the designer of more than 3000 projects for clients as diverse as the US Navy, Frank Sinatra, and Lucille Ball.

Williams’s parents, Chester Stanley and Lila Wright Williams, migrated to California from Memphis, TN, in 1893 to establish a fruit business, taking their older son, Chester Stanley, with them. Paul was born in Los Angeles while they lived in a house on Santee Street. Neither parent was able to find lucrative work; his father was employed as a waiter and his mother as a dressmaker. Chester Williams died in 1896 and his wife two years later, leaving two orphan boys to be cared for by neighbors....


Kristin E. Larsen

(b Lawrence, KS, July 2, 1878; d Newton, NJ, July 9, 1936).

American landscape architect and housing reformer. Educated at the University of Pennsylvania, Wright received his early training in planned picturesque park and streetscape design in the offices of the landscape architect George Kessler (1862–1923). Wright’s first widely recognized project in Clayton, an upscale neighborhood in St Louis, MO, featured palatial homes on large lots along curvilinear roads and oriented toward interior parks. He moved to Washington, DC, in 1918 to design new communities for war workers in the ship building industries. This short-lived experiment in federally funded housing transformed Wright, connecting him with such architects as Clarence Stein (1882–1975), who shared his social reform sensibilities. In the 1920s and 1930s, in partnership with Stein, Wright designed “new towns” inspired by the English garden city writings of Ebenezer Howard but reflective of the new “motor age.” Begun in 1924, Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, New York, featured single family, duplex and cooperative apartments arranged in a perimeter design around central courtyards. In ...